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Creating a Secure PHP Login Script
<?php
header('HTTP/1.1 403 Forbidden');
?>
<html>
<head>
<title>Congratulations! You have been DENIED access</title>
</head>
<body>
<font size="4">You have been denied access because of the following reasons:<br /><br />
1.) Too many failed login attempts, so you are likely brute forcing through logins.<br />
2.) You have been accessing an authorized user account login through a stolen or hijacked session.<br /></font>
</body>
</html>
<?php
require('authenticate.php');
?>
This is a private website that utilizes some form of secure login for selected visitors.
<br />
<br />
===============<br />
Navigation Menu<br />
===============<br />
<a href="index.php">Homepage</a><br />
<a href="about.php">About this page</a><br />
<?php if (isset($_SESSION['logged_in'])) { ?><a href="logout.php?signature=<?php echo $_SESSION['signature']; ?>">Logout</a><br /><?php } ?>
<?php
/*
* This is a PHP Secure login system.
* - Documentation and latest version
* Refer to readme.txt
* - To download the latest copy:
* http://www.php-developer.org/php-secure-authentication-of-user-logins/
* - Discussion, Questions and Inquiries
* email codex_m@php-developer.org
*
* Copyright (c) 2011 PHP Secure login system -- http://www.php-developer.org
* AUTHORS:
* Codex-m
* Refer to license.txt to how code snippets from other authors or sources are attributed.
*
* Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
* of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
* in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
* to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
* copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
* furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
*
* The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
* all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
*
* THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
* IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
* FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
* AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
* LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
* OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
* THE SOFTWARE.
*/
//require user configuration and database connection parameters
//Start PHP session
session_start();
//require user configuration and database connection parameters
require('config.php');
if (($_SESSION['logged_in']) == TRUE) {
//valid user has logged-in to the website
//Check for unauthorized use of user sessions
$iprecreate = $_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR'];
$useragentrecreate = $_SERVER["HTTP_USER_AGENT"];
$signaturerecreate = $_SESSION['signature'];
//Extract original salt from authorized signature
$saltrecreate = substr($signaturerecreate, 0, $length_salt);
//Extract original hash from authorized signature
$originalhash = substr($signaturerecreate, $length_salt, 40);
//Re-create the hash based on the user IP and user agent
//then check if it is authorized or not
$hashrecreate = sha1($saltrecreate . $iprecreate . $useragentrecreate);
if (!($hashrecreate == $originalhash)) {
//Signature submitted by the user does not matched with the
//authorized signature
//This is unauthorized access
//Block it
header(sprintf("Location: %s", $forbidden_url));
exit;
}
//Session Lifetime control for inactivity
//Credits: http://stackoverflow.com/questions/520237/how-do-i-expire-a-php-session-after-30-minutes
if ((isset($_SESSION['LAST_ACTIVITY']) && (time() - $_SESSION['LAST_ACTIVITY'] > $sessiontimeout))) {
session_destroy();
session_unset();
//redirect the user back to login page for re-authentication
$redirectback = $domain . 'securelogin/';
header(sprintf("Location: %s", $redirectback));
}
$_SESSION['LAST_ACTIVITY'] = time();
}
//Pre-define validation
$validationresults = TRUE;
$registered = TRUE;
$recaptchavalidation = TRUE;
//Trapped brute force attackers and give them more hard work by providing a captcha-protected page
$iptocheck = $_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR'];
$iptocheck = mysql_real_escape_string($iptocheck);
if ($fetch = mysql_fetch_array(mysql_query("SELECT `loggedip` FROM `ipcheck` WHERE `loggedip`='$iptocheck'"))) {
//Already has some IP address records in the database
//Get the total failed login attempts associated with this IP address
$resultx = mysql_query("SELECT `failedattempts` FROM `ipcheck` WHERE `loggedip`='$iptocheck'");
$rowx = mysql_fetch_array($resultx);
$loginattempts_total = $rowx['failedattempts'];
If ($loginattempts_total > $maxfailedattempt) {
//too many failed attempts allowed, redirect and give 403 forbidden.
header(sprintf("Location: %s", $forbidden_url));
exit;
}
}
//Check if a user has logged-in
if (!isset($_SESSION['logged_in'])) {
$_SESSION['logged_in'] = FALSE;
}
//Check if the form is submitted
if ((isset($_POST["pass"])) && (isset($_POST["user"])) && ($_SESSION['LAST_ACTIVITY'] == FALSE)) {
//Username and password has been submitted by the user
//Receive and sanitize the submitted information
function sanitize($data) {
$data = trim($data);
$data = htmlspecialchars($data);
$data = mysql_real_escape_string($data);
return $data;
}
$user = sanitize($_POST["user"]);
$pass = sanitize($_POST["pass"]);
//validate username
if (!($fetch = mysql_fetch_array(mysql_query("SELECT `username` FROM `authentication` WHERE `username`='$user'")))) {
//no records of username in database
//user is not yet registered
$registered = FALSE;
}
if ($registered == TRUE) {
//Grab login attempts from MySQL database for a corresponding username
$result1 = mysql_query("SELECT `loginattempt` FROM `authentication` WHERE `username`='$user'");
$row = mysql_fetch_array($result1);
$loginattempts_username = $row['loginattempt'];
}
if (($loginattempts_username > 2) || ($registered == FALSE) || ($loginattempts_total > 2)) {
//Require those user with login attempts failed records to
//submit captcha and validate recaptcha
require_once('recaptchalib.php');
$resp = recaptcha_check_answer($privatekey, $_SERVER["REMOTE_ADDR"],
$_POST["recaptcha_challenge_field"], $_POST["recaptcha_response_field"]);
if (!$resp->is_valid) {
//captcha validation fails
$recaptchavalidation = FALSE;
} else {
$recaptchavalidation = TRUE;
}
}
//Get correct hashed password based on given username stored in MySQL database
if ($registered == TRUE) {
//username is registered in database, now get the hashed password
$result = mysql_query("SELECT `password` FROM `authentication` WHERE `username`='$user'");
$row = mysql_fetch_array($result);
$correctpassword = $row['password'];
$salt = substr($correctpassword, 0, 64);
$correcthash = substr($correctpassword, 64, 64);
$userhash = hash("sha256", $salt . $pass);
}
if ((!($userhash == $correcthash)) || ($registered == FALSE) || ($recaptchavalidation == FALSE)) {
//user login validation fails
$validationresults = FALSE;
//log login failed attempts to database
if ($registered == TRUE) {
$loginattempts_username = $loginattempts_username + 1;
$loginattempts_username = intval($loginattempts_username);
//update login attempt records
mysql_query("UPDATE `authentication` SET `loginattempt` = '$loginattempts_username' WHERE `username` = '$user'");
//Possible brute force attacker is targeting registered usernames
//check if has some IP address records
if (!($fetch = mysql_fetch_array(mysql_query("SELECT `loggedip` FROM `ipcheck` WHERE `loggedip`='$iptocheck'")))) {
//no records
//insert failed attempts
$loginattempts_total = 1;
$loginattempts_total = intval($loginattempts_total);
mysql_query("INSERT INTO `ipcheck` (`loggedip`, `failedattempts`) VALUES ('$iptocheck', '$loginattempts_total')");
} else {
//has some records, increment attempts
$loginattempts_total = $loginattempts_total + 1;
mysql_query("UPDATE `ipcheck` SET `failedattempts` = '$loginattempts_total' WHERE `loggedip` = '$iptocheck'");
}
}
//Possible brute force attacker is targeting randomly
if ($registered == FALSE) {
if (!($fetch = mysql_fetch_array(mysql_query("SELECT `loggedip` FROM `ipcheck` WHERE `loggedip`='$iptocheck'")))) {
//no records
//insert failed attempts
$loginattempts_total = 1;
$loginattempts_total = intval($loginattempts_total);
mysql_query("INSERT INTO `ipcheck` (`loggedip`, `failedattempts`) VALUES ('$iptocheck', '$loginattempts_total')");
} else {
//has some records, increment attempts
$loginattempts_total = $loginattempts_total + 1;
mysql_query("UPDATE `ipcheck` SET `failedattempts` = '$loginattempts_total' WHERE `loggedip` = '$iptocheck'");
}
}
} else {
//user successfully authenticates with the provided username and password
//Reset login attempts for a specific username to 0 as well as the ip address
$loginattempts_username = 0;
$loginattempts_total = 0;
$loginattempts_username = intval($loginattempts_username);
$loginattempts_total = intval($loginattempts_total);
mysql_query("UPDATE `authentication` SET `loginattempt` = '$loginattempts_username' WHERE `username` = '$user'");
mysql_query("UPDATE `ipcheck` SET `failedattempts` = '$loginattempts_total' WHERE `loggedip` = '$iptocheck'");
//Generate unique signature of the user based on IP address
//and the browser then append it to session
//This will be used to authenticate the user session
//To make sure it belongs to an authorized user and not to anyone else.
//generate random salt
function genRandomString() {
//credits: http://bit.ly/a9rDYd
$length = 50;
$characters = "0123456789abcdef";
for ($p = 0; $p < $length; $p++) {
$string .= $characters[mt_rand(0, strlen($characters))];
}
return $string;
}
$random = genRandomString();
$salt_ip = substr($random, 0, $length_salt);
//hash the ip address, user-agent and the salt
$useragent = $_SERVER["HTTP_USER_AGENT"];
$hash_user = sha1($salt_ip . $iptocheck . $useragent);
//concatenate the salt and the hash to form a signature
$signature = $salt_ip . $hash_user;
//Regenerate session id prior to setting any session variable
//to mitigate session fixation attacks
session_regenerate_id();
//Finally store user unique signature in the session
//and set logged_in to TRUE as well as start activity time
$_SESSION['signature'] = $signature;
$_SESSION['logged_in'] = TRUE;
$_SESSION['LAST_ACTIVITY'] = time();
}
}
if (!$_SESSION['logged_in']):
?>
<!DOCTYPE HTML>
<html>
<head>
<title>Login</title>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
<style type="text/css">
.invalid {
border: 1px solid #000000;
background: #FF00FF;
}
</style>
</head>
<body >
<h2>Restricted Access</h2>
<br />
Hi! This private website is restricted to public access. Please enter username and password to proceed.
<br /><br />
<!-- START OF LOGIN FORM -->
<form action="<?php echo htmlentities($_SERVER['PHP_SELF']); ?>" method="POST">
Username: <input type="text" class="<?php if ($validationresults == FALSE)
echo "invalid"; ?>" id="user" name="user">
Password: <input name="pass" type="password" class="<?php if ($validationresults == FALSE)
echo "invalid"; ?>" id="pass" >
<br /><br />
<?php if (($loginattempts_username > 2) || ($registered == FALSE) || ($loginattempts_total > 2)) { ?>
Type the captcha below:
<br /> <br />
<?php
require_once('recaptchalib.php');
echo recaptcha_get_html($publickey);
?>
<br />
<?php } ?>
<?php if ($validationresults == FALSE)
echo '<font color="red">Please enter valid username, password or captcha (if required).</font>'; ?><br />
<input type="submit" value="Login">
</form>
<!-- END OF LOGIN FORM -->
<br />
<br />
If you are not registered. You can register by clicking <a href="register.php">here</a>.
</body>
</html>
<?php
exit();
endif;
?>
<?php
/*
* This is a PHP Secure login system.
* - Documentation and latest version
* Refer to readme.txt
* - To download the latest copy:
* http://www.php-developer.org/php-secure-authentication-of-user-logins/
* - Discussion, Questions and Inquiries
* email codex_m@php-developer.org
*
* Copyright (c) 2011 PHP Secure login system -- http://www.php-developer.org
* AUTHORS:
* Codex-m
* Refer to license.txt to how code snippets from other authors or sources are attributed.
*
* Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
* of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
* in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
* to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
* copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
* furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
*
* The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
* all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
*
* THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
* IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
* FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
* AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
* LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
* OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
* THE SOFTWARE.
*/
//require user configuration and database connection parameters
///////////////////////////////////////
//START OF USER CONFIGURATION/////////
/////////////////////////////////////
//Define MySQL database parameters
$username = "Your MySQL username";
$password = "Your MySQL password";
$hostname = "Your MySQL hostname";
$database = "Your MySQL database name";
//Define your canonical domain including trailing slash!, example:
$domain = "http://www.example.com/";
//Define sending email notification to webmaster
$email = 'youremail@example.com';
$subject = 'New user registration notification';
$from = 'From: www.example.com';
//Define Recaptcha parameters
$privatekey = "Your Recaptcha private key";
$publickey = "Your Recaptcha public key";
//Define length of salt,minimum=10, maximum=35
$length_salt = 15;
//Define the maximum number of failed attempts to ban brute force attackers
//minimum is 5
$maxfailedattempt = 5;
//Define session timeout in seconds
//minimum 60 (for one minute)
$sessiontimeout = 180;
////////////////////////////////////
//END OF USER CONFIGURATION/////////
////////////////////////////////////
//DO NOT EDIT ANYTHING BELOW!
$dbhandle = mysql_connect($hostname, $username, $password)
or die("Unable to connect to MySQL");
$selected = mysql_select_db($database, $dbhandle)
or die("Could not select $database");
$loginpage_url = $domain . 'securelogin/';
$forbidden_url = $domain . 'securelogin/403forbidden.php';
?>
<?php
require('authenticate.php');
?>
Hi this is a protected content! You are logged-in. Happy viewing.
<br />
<br />
===============<br />
Navigation Menu<br />
===============<br />
<a href="index.php">Homepage</a><br />
<a href="about.php">About this page</a><br />
<?php if (isset($_SESSION['logged_in'])) { ?><a href="logout.php?signature=<?php echo $_SESSION['signature']; ?>">Logout</a><br /><?php } ?>
PHP Secure Login System
Copyright 2011 by Codex-m at www.php-developer.org
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
(at your option) any later version.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
Wherever third party code has been used, credit has been given in the code's
comments.
PHP Secure Login System is released under the GPL
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
Version 2, June 1991
Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
Preamble
The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public
License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. This
General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
the GNU Library General Public License instead.) You can apply it to
your programs, too.
When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
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To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
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The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
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OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS
TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE
PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
WRITTEN OFFER
The source code for any program binaries or compressed scripts that are
included with this program can be freely obtained at the following URL:
http://www.php-developer.org/php-secure-authentication-of-user-logins/
<?php
session_start();
require('config.php');
function sanitize($data) {
$data = trim($data);
$data = htmlspecialchars($data);
return $data;
}
$signature = sanitize($_GET['signature']);
if ($signature === $_SESSION['signature']) {
//authenticated user request
$_SESSION['logged_in'] = False;
session_destroy();
session_unset();
echo 'You have successfully logout from the private website! Thank you.<br /><br />';
?>
===============<br />
Navigation Menu<br />
===============<br />
<a href="index.php">Homepage</a><br />
<a href="about.php">About this page</a><br />
<?php
} else {
//unauthorized logout
header(sprintf("Location: %s", $forbidden_url));
exit;
}
?>
<?php
/*
* This is a PHP library that handles calling reCAPTCHA.
* - Documentation and latest version
* http://recaptcha.net/plugins/php/
* - Get a reCAPTCHA API Key
* https://www.google.com/recaptcha/admin/create
* - Discussion group
* http://groups.google.com/group/recaptcha
*
* Copyright (c) 2007 reCAPTCHA -- http://recaptcha.net
* AUTHORS:
* Mike Crawford
* Ben Maurer
*
* Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
* of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
* in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
* to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
* copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
* furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
*
* The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
* all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
*
* THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
* IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
* FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
* AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
* LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
* OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
* THE SOFTWARE.
*/
/**
* The reCAPTCHA server URL's
*/
define("RECAPTCHA_API_SERVER", "http://www.google.com/recaptcha/api");
define("RECAPTCHA_API_SECURE_SERVER", "https://www.google.com/recaptcha/api");
define("RECAPTCHA_VERIFY_SERVER", "www.google.com");
/**
* Encodes the given data into a query string format
* @param $data - array of string elements to be encoded
* @return string - encoded request
*/
function _recaptcha_qsencode($data) {
$req = "";
foreach ($data as $key => $value)
$req .= $key . '=' . urlencode(stripslashes($value)) . '&';
// Cut the last '&'
$req = substr($req, 0, strlen($req) - 1);
return $req;
}
/**
* Submits an HTTP POST to a reCAPTCHA server
* @param string $host
* @param string $path
* @param array $data
* @param int port
* @return array response
*/
function _recaptcha_http_post($host, $path, $data, $port = 80) {
$req = _recaptcha_qsencode($data);
$http_request = "POST $path HTTP/1.0\r\n";
$http_request .= "Host: $host\r\n";
$http_request .= "Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded;\r\n";
$http_request .= "Content-Length: " . strlen($req) . "\r\n";
$http_request .= "User-Agent: reCAPTCHA/PHP\r\n";
$http_request .= "\r\n";
$http_request .= $req;
$response = '';
if (false == ( $fs = @fsockopen($host, $port, $errno, $errstr, 10) )) {
die('Could not open socket');
}
fwrite($fs, $http_request);
while (!feof($fs)) $response .= fgets($fs, 1160); // One TCP-IP packet
fclose($fs);
$response = explode("\r\n\r\n", $response, 2);
return $response;
}
/**
* Gets the challenge HTML (javascript and non-javascript version).
* This is called from the browser, and the resulting reCAPTCHA HTML widget
* is embedded within the HTML form it was called from.
* @param string $pubkey A public key for reCAPTCHA
* @param string $error The error given by reCAPTCHA (optional, default is null)
* @param boolean $use_ssl Should the request be made over ssl? (optional, default is false)
* @return string - The HTML to be embedded in the user's form.
*/
function recaptcha_get_html($pubkey, $error = null, $use_ssl = true) {
if ($pubkey == null || $pubkey == '') {
die("To use reCAPTCHA you must get an API key from <a href='https://www.google.com/recaptcha/admin/create'>https://www.google.com/recaptcha/admin/create</a>");
}
if ($use_ssl) {
$server = RECAPTCHA_API_SECURE_SERVER;
} else {
$server = RECAPTCHA_API_SERVER;
}
$errorpart = "";
if ($error) {
$errorpart = "&amp;error=" . $error;
}
return '<script type="text/javascript" src="' . $server . '/challenge?k=' . $pubkey . $errorpart . '"></script>
<noscript>
<iframe src="' . $server . '/noscript?k=' . $pubkey . $errorpart . '" height="300" width="500" frameborder="0"></iframe><br/>
<textarea name="recaptcha_challenge_field" rows="3" cols="40"></textarea>
<input type="hidden" name="recaptcha_response_field" value="manual_challenge"/>
</noscript>';
}
/**
* A ReCaptchaResponse is returned from recaptcha_check_answer()
*/
class ReCaptchaResponse {
var $is_valid;
var $error;
}
/**
* Calls an HTTP POST function to verify if the user's guess was correct
* @param string $privkey
* @param string $remoteip
* @param string $challenge
* @param string $response
* @param array $extra_params an array of extra variables to post to the server
* @return ReCaptchaResponse
*/
function recaptcha_check_answer($privkey, $remoteip, $challenge, $response,
$extra_params = array()) {
if ($privkey == null || $privkey == '') {
die("To use reCAPTCHA you must get an API key from <a href='https://www.google.com/recaptcha/admin/create'>https://www.google.com/recaptcha/admin/create</a>");
}
if ($remoteip == null || $remoteip == '') {
die("For security reasons, you must pass the remote ip to reCAPTCHA");
}
//discard spam submissions
if ($challenge == null || strlen($challenge) == 0 || $response == null || strlen($response) == 0) {
$recaptcha_response = new ReCaptchaResponse();
$recaptcha_response->is_valid = false;
$recaptcha_response->error = 'incorrect-captcha-sol';
return $recaptcha_response;
}
$response = _recaptcha_http_post(RECAPTCHA_VERIFY_SERVER,
"/recaptcha/api/verify",
array(
'privatekey' => $privkey,
'remoteip' => $remoteip,
'challenge' => $challenge,
'response' => $response
) + $extra_params
);
$answers = explode("\n", $response [1]);
$recaptcha_response = new ReCaptchaResponse();
if (trim($answers [0]) == 'true') {
$recaptcha_response->is_valid = true;
} else {
$recaptcha_response->is_valid = false;
$recaptcha_response->error = $answers [1];
}
return $recaptcha_response;
}
/**
* gets a URL where the user can sign up for reCAPTCHA. If your application
* has a configuration page where you enter a key, you should provide a link
* using this function.
* @param string $domain The domain where the page is hosted
* @param string $appname The name of your application
*/
function recaptcha_get_signup_url($domain = null, $appname = null) {
return "https://www.google.com/recaptcha/admin/create?" . _recaptcha_qsencode(array('domains' => $domain, 'app' => $appname));
}
function _recaptcha_aes_pad($val) {
$block_size = 16;
$numpad = $block_size - (strlen($val) % $block_size);
return str_pad($val, strlen($val) + $numpad, chr($numpad));
}
/* Mailhide related code */
function _recaptcha_aes_encrypt($val, $ky) {
if (!function_exists("mcrypt_encrypt")) {
die("To use reCAPTCHA Mailhide, you need to have the mcrypt php module installed.");
}
$mode = MCRYPT_MODE_CBC;
$enc = MCRYPT_RIJNDAEL_128;
$val = _recaptcha_aes_pad($val);
return mcrypt_encrypt($enc, $ky, $val, $mode, "\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0");
}
function _recaptcha_mailhide_urlbase64($x) {
return strtr(base64_encode($x), '+/', '-_');
}
/* gets the reCAPTCHA Mailhide url for a given email, public key and private key */
function recaptcha_mailhide_url($pubkey, $privkey, $email) {
if ($pubkey == '' || $pubkey == null || $privkey == "" || $privkey == null) {
die("To use reCAPTCHA Mailhide, you have to sign up for a public and private key, " .
"you can do so at <a href='http://www.google.com/recaptcha/mailhide/apikey'>http://www.google.com/recaptcha/mailhide/apikey</a>");
}
$ky = pack('H*', $privkey);
$cryptmail = _recaptcha_aes_encrypt($email, $ky);
return "http://www.google.com/recaptcha/mailhide/d?k=" . $pubkey . "&c=" . _recaptcha_mailhide_urlbase64($cryptmail);
}
/**
* gets the parts of the email to expose to the user.
* eg, given johndoe@example,com return ["john", "example.com"].
* the email is then displayed as john...@example.com
*/
function _recaptcha_mailhide_email_parts($email) {
$arr = preg_split("/@/", $email);
if (strlen($arr[0]) <= 4) {
$arr[0] = substr($arr[0], 0, 1);
} else if (strlen($arr[0]) <= 6) {
$arr[0] = substr($arr[0], 0, 3);
} else {
$arr[0] = substr($arr[0], 0, 4);
}
return $arr;
}
/**
* Gets html to display an email address given a public an private key.
* to get a key, go to:
*
* http://www.google.com/recaptcha/mailhide/apikey
*/
function recaptcha_mailhide_html($pubkey, $privkey, $email) {
$emailparts = _recaptcha_mailhide_email_parts($email);
$url = recaptcha_mailhide_url($pubkey, $privkey, $email);
return htmlentities($emailparts[0]) . "<a href='" . htmlentities($url) .
"' onclick=\"window.open('" . htmlentities($url) . "', '', 'toolbar=0,scrollbars=0,location=0,statusbar=0,menubar=0,resizable=0,width=500,height=300'); return false;\" title=\"Reveal this e-mail address\">...</a>@" . htmlentities($emailparts [1]);
}
?>
<?php
/*
* This is a PHP Secure login system.
* - Documentation and latest version
* Refer to readme.txt
* - To download the latest copy:
* http://www.php-developer.org/php-secure-authentication-of-user-logins/
* - Discussion, Questions and Inquiries
* email codex_m@php-developer.org
*
* Copyright (c) 2011 PHP Secure login system -- http://www.php-developer.org
* AUTHORS:
* Codex-m
* Refer to license.txt to how codes from other projects are attributed.
*
* Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
* of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
* in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
* to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
* copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
* furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
*
* The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
* all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
*
* THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
* IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
* FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
* AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
* LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
* OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
* THE SOFTWARE.
*/
//require user configuration and database connection parameters
require('config.php');
//pre-define validation parameters
$usernamenotempty = TRUE;
$usernamevalidate = TRUE;
$usernamenotduplicate = TRUE;
$passwordnotempty = TRUE;
$passwordmatch = TRUE;
$passwordvalidate = TRUE;
$captchavalidation = TRUE;
//Check if user submitted the desired password and username
if ((isset($_POST["desired_password"])) && (isset($_POST["desired_username"])) && (isset($_POST["desired_password1"]))) {
//Username and Password has been submitted by the user
//Receive and validate the submitted information
//sanitize user inputs
function sanitize($data) {
$data = trim($data);
$data = htmlspecialchars($data);
$data = mysql_real_escape_string($data);
return $data;
}
$desired_username = sanitize($_POST["desired_username"]);
$desired_password = sanitize($_POST["desired_password"]);
$desired_password1 = sanitize($_POST["desired_password1"]);
//validate username
if (empty($desired_username)) {
$usernamenotempty = FALSE;
} else {
$usernamenotempty = TRUE;
}
if ((!(ctype_alnum($desired_username))) || ((strlen($desired_username)) > 11)) {
$usernamevalidate = FALSE;
} else {
$usernamevalidate = TRUE;
}
if (!($fetch = mysql_fetch_array(mysql_query("SELECT `username` FROM `authentication` WHERE `username`='$desired_username'")))) {
//no records for this user in the MySQL database
$usernamenotduplicate = TRUE;
} else {
$usernamenotduplicate = FALSE;
}
//validate password
if (empty($desired_password)) {
$passwordnotempty = FALSE;
} else {
$passwordnotempty = TRUE;
}
if ((!(ctype_alnum($desired_password))) || ((strlen($desired_password)) < 8)) {
$passwordvalidate = FALSE;
} else {
$passwordvalidate = TRUE;
}
if ($desired_password == $desired_password1) {
$passwordmatch = TRUE;
} else {
$passwordmatch = FALSE;
}
//Validate recaptcha
require_once('recaptchalib.php');
$resp = recaptcha_check_answer($privatekey, $_SERVER["REMOTE_ADDR"],
$_POST["recaptcha_challenge_field"], $_POST["recaptcha_response_field"]);
if (!$resp->is_valid) {
//captcha validation fails
$captchavalidation = FALSE;
} else {
$captchavalidation = TRUE;
}
if (($usernamenotempty == TRUE)
&& ($usernamevalidate == TRUE)
&& ($usernamenotduplicate == TRUE)
&& ($passwordnotempty == TRUE)
&& ($passwordmatch == TRUE)
&& ($passwordvalidate == TRUE)
&& ($captchavalidation == TRUE)) {
//The username, password and recaptcha validation succeeds.
//Hash the password
//This is very important for security reasons because once the password has been compromised,
//The attacker cannot still get the plain text password equivalent without brute force.
function HashPassword($input) {
//Credits: http://crackstation.net/hashing-security.html
//This is secure hashing the consist of strong hash algorithm sha 256 and using highly random salt
$salt = bin2hex(mcrypt_create_iv(32, MCRYPT_DEV_URANDOM));
$hash = hash("sha256", $salt . $input);
$final = $salt . $hash;
return $final;
}
$hashedpassword = HashPassword($desired_password);
//Insert username and the hashed password to MySQL database
mysql_query("INSERT INTO `authentication` (`username`, `password`) VALUES ('$desired_username', '$hashedpassword')") or die(mysql_error());
//Send notification to webmaster
$message = "New member has just registered: $desired_username";
mail($email, $subject, $message, $from);
//redirect to login page
header(sprintf("Location: %s", $loginpage_url));
exit;
}
}
?>
<!DOCTYPE HTML>
<html>
<head>
<title>Register as a Valid User</title>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
<style type="text/css">
.invalid {
border: 1px solid #000000;
background: #FF00FF;
}
</style>
</head>
<body >
<h2>User registration Form</h2>
<br />
Hi! This private website is restricted to public access. If you want to see the content, please register below. You will be redirected to a login page after successful registration.
<br /><br />
<!-- Start of registration form -->
<form action="<?php echo htmlentities($_SERVER['PHP_SELF']); ?>" method="POST">
Username: (<i>alphanumeric less than 12 characters</i>) <input type="text" class="<?php if (($usernamenotempty == FALSE) || ($usernamevalidate == FALSE) || ($usernamenotduplicate == FALSE))
echo "invalid"; ?>" id="desired_username" name="desired_username"><br /><br />
Password: (<i>alphanumeric greater than 8 characters</i>) <input name="desired_password" type="password" class="<?php if (($passwordnotempty == FALSE) || ($passwordmatch == FALSE) || ($passwordvalidate == FALSE))
echo "invalid"; ?>" id="desired_password" ><br /><br />
Type the password again: <input name="desired_password1" type="password" class="<?php if (($passwordnotempty == FALSE) || ($passwordmatch == FALSE) || ($passwordvalidate == FALSE))
echo "invalid"; ?>" id="desired_password1" ><br />
<br /><br />
Type the captcha below:
<br /> <br />
<?php
require_once('recaptchalib.php');
echo recaptcha_get_html($publickey);
?>
<br /><br />
<input type="submit" value="Register">
<br /><br />
<a href="index.php">Back to Homepage</a><br />
<!-- Display validation errors -->
<?php if ($captchavalidation == FALSE)
echo '<font color="red">Please enter correct captcha</font>'; ?><br />
<?php if ($usernamenotempty == FALSE)
echo '<font color="red">You have entered an empty username.</font>'; ?><br />
<?php if ($usernamevalidate == FALSE)
echo '<font color="red">Your username should be alphanumeric and less than 12 characters.</font>'; ?><br />
<?php if ($usernamenotduplicate == FALSE)
echo '<font color="red">Please choose another username, your username is already used.</font>'; ?><br />
<?php if ($passwordnotempty == FALSE)
echo '<font color="red">Your password is empty.</font>'; ?><br />
<?php if ($passwordmatch == FALSE)
echo '<font color="red">Your password does not match.</font>'; ?><br />
<?php if ($passwordvalidate == FALSE)
echo '<font color="red">Your password should be alphanumeric and greater 8 characters.</font>'; ?><br />
<?php if ($captchavalidation == FALSE)
echo '<font color="red">Your captcha is invalid.</font>'; ?><br />
</form>
<!-- End of registration form -->
</body>
</html>
@benergize

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commented Sep 9, 2018

Don't use SHA* for password hashing!!!!!

See: https://codahale.com/how-to-safely-store-a-password/

Why?

These are all general purpose hash functions, designed to calculate a digest of huge amounts of data in as short a time as possible. This means that they are fantastic for ensuring the integrity of data and utterly rubbish for storing passwords.

(I realize this post is 7 years old, but it's high in Google search results for 'secure PHP login script.')

@beaglie

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commented Sep 28, 2018

An update is required to handle the change in Captcha.

@paktrad

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commented Oct 29, 2018

what all tables need to be created to manage this login system?

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