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Clojure ns syntax cheat-sheet
;; * :require makes functions available with a namespace prefix
;; and optionally can refer functions to the current ns.
;; * :import refers Java classes to the current namespace.
;; * :refer-clojure affects availability of built-in (clojure.core)
;; functions.
;; Updated: 12/09/2016 ~ghoseb
;; Refers clojure.string into current NS, e.g.:
;; (clojure.string/lower-case "FooBar)
(:require [clojure.string])
;; Refers string into current NS, e.g.:
;; (string/lower-case "FooBar")
(:require [clojure.string :as string])
;; Refers all functions from clojure.string and
;; clojure.set into current NS, e.g.:
;; (union #{:a :b} #{:a :c} #{:b :d})
;; (lower-case "FooBar")
(:require [clojure.string :refer :all]
[clojure.set :refer :all])
;; Refers only lower-case and union into current NS, e.g.:
;; (union #{:a :b} #{:a :c} #{:b :d})
;; (lower-case "FooBar")
(:require [clojure.string :refer [lower-case]]
[clojure.set :refer [union]])
;; Refers ancestors & descendants into current NS as xml-ancestors & xml-descendants
(:refer [ :rename {ancestors xml-ancestors,
descendants xml-descendants}])
;; Refers ArrayList and HashMap into current NS:
(:import [java.util ArrayList HashMap])
;; Excludes built-in print
(:refer-clojure :exclude [print])
;; Excludes all built-ins except print
(:refer-clojure :only [print])
;; Renames built-in print to core-print
(:refer-clojure :rename {print core-print})
;; Reload all dependencies while loading the ns
(:require [clojure.string :as cs :refer [split join]] :reload)
;; Be verbose about loading the deps
(:require [clojure.string :as cs :refer [split join]] :verbose)
;; There is also :reload-all that reloads every depenency in the ns
(:require [clojure.string :refer [split join]] :reload-all)
;; Everything together
(:require [clojure.string :as cs :refer [split join]] :verbose :reload))
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What is the meaning of :refer in the following :
(:require [io.pedestal.service.http.route.definition :refer [defroutes]]


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Hmm. On "what means (:require [io.pedestal.service.http.route.definition :refer [defroutes]]) ", I got two hypotheses :

  1. (:require [io.pedestal.service.http.route.definition])
    (:use [io.pedestal.service.http.route.definition :only [defroutes]])
  2. (:use [io.pedestal.service.http.route.definition :only [defroutes]])

Don't know which would be right :/ if any ;)

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I think I got it.

On the pedestal tutorial,
I found :
(:require [datomic.api :as d :refer (q)]))

where we get access to every function by prefixing d/ in front of it. Except for the q function that we can access directly, thanks to :refer.


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cmpitg commented Apr 24, 2014

I suggest adding the following as the combination of :only and :rename:

;; Refers sqrt into current NS as ccm-sqrt, other math functions are not
;; refered, e.g.
;; (ccm-sqrt 4)
[:use [clojure.contrib.math :only [sqrt] :rename {sqrt ccm-sqrt}]]

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@cmpitg as far as I know :use is deprecated.

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:refer lets you use the function without the namespace qualifier.

(ns wawa
(:require [datomic.api :as d :refer [q]]))

(= (d/q args) (q args) (datomic.api/q args) )

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torgeir commented Aug 9, 2015

Awesome. I never get this right.

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Intey commented Aug 16, 2015

In my case, i need to set require with refering to some function, but already have that name bounded to another func(addevent). It's was too straightforward for me to be assume immediately.

(ns project.handler.addevent
        [project.view.pages :refer [addevent] :rename {addevent addevent-page}))

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thanks bro greetings get to know

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