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@grantcarthew grantcarthew/Test-SSD.ps1
Last active Nov 5, 2019

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PowerShell script to test if a hard disk is an Solid State Disk (SSD) or not.
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Detects if the passed Physical Disk Id is a Solid State Disk (SSD) or a
spindle disk. Returns true for an SSD and false for anything else.
.DESCRIPTION
Use Get-PhysicalDisk to get the Physical Disk Ids for the system you wish
to test. This script supports values being passed throught the pipeline.
The methods used for detecting are by reading the Nominal Media Rotation
Rate and Seek Penalty. These values are measured through method calls
into the Kernel32.dll. If either of the Win32 DLL calls return true then
the script will return false. If an exception occurs in either of the
Win32 DLL calls, the return value will be dependant on the remaining call.
.PARAMETER PhysicalDiskId
The LUN based physical disk id.
.EXAMPLE
Get-PhysicalDisk | Select-Object -ExpandProperty DeviceId | Test-SSD
This example will test all the disks on the local computer.
.EXAMPLE
if (Test-SSD -PhysicalDiskId 0) { $delay = 0 }
This example will change the delay variable on a script if the
first physical disk is an SSD.
#>
[CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true,
ConfirmImpact="Low")]
[OutputType([boolean])]
Param
(
[Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
ValueFromPipeline=$true,
ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName=$true,
Position=0)]
[Int]
$PhysicalDiskId
)
Begin {
$code = @"
using Microsoft.Win32.SafeHandles;
using System;
using System.Runtime.InteropServices;
using System.Text;
namespace Util
{
public class DetectSSD
{
// For CreateFile to get handle to drive
private const uint GENERIC_READ = 0x80000000;
private const uint GENERIC_WRITE = 0x40000000;
private const uint FILE_SHARE_READ = 0x00000001;
private const uint FILE_SHARE_WRITE = 0x00000002;
private const uint OPEN_EXISTING = 3;
private const uint FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL = 0x00000080;
// CreateFile to get handle to drive
[DllImport("kernel32.dll", SetLastError = true)]
private static extern SafeFileHandle CreateFileW(
[MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPWStr)]
string lpFileName,
uint dwDesiredAccess,
uint dwShareMode,
IntPtr lpSecurityAttributes,
uint dwCreationDisposition,
uint dwFlagsAndAttributes,
IntPtr hTemplateFile);
// For control codes
private const uint FILE_DEVICE_MASS_STORAGE = 0x0000002d;
private const uint IOCTL_STORAGE_BASE = FILE_DEVICE_MASS_STORAGE;
private const uint FILE_DEVICE_CONTROLLER = 0x00000004;
private const uint IOCTL_SCSI_BASE = FILE_DEVICE_CONTROLLER;
private const uint METHOD_BUFFERED = 0;
private const uint FILE_ANY_ACCESS = 0;
private const uint FILE_READ_ACCESS = 0x00000001;
private const uint FILE_WRITE_ACCESS = 0x00000002;
private static uint CTL_CODE(uint DeviceType, uint Function,
uint Method, uint Access)
{
return ((DeviceType << 16) | (Access << 14) |
(Function << 2) | Method);
}
// For DeviceIoControl to check no seek penalty
private const uint StorageDeviceSeekPenaltyProperty = 7;
private const uint PropertyStandardQuery = 0;
[StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
private struct STORAGE_PROPERTY_QUERY
{
public uint PropertyId;
public uint QueryType;
[MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.ByValArray, SizeConst = 1)]
public byte[] AdditionalParameters;
}
[StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
private struct DEVICE_SEEK_PENALTY_DESCRIPTOR
{
public uint Version;
public uint Size;
[MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.U1)]
public bool IncursSeekPenalty;
}
// DeviceIoControl to check no seek penalty
[DllImport("kernel32.dll", EntryPoint = "DeviceIoControl",
SetLastError = true)]
[return: MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.Bool)]
private static extern bool DeviceIoControl(
SafeFileHandle hDevice,
uint dwIoControlCode,
ref STORAGE_PROPERTY_QUERY lpInBuffer,
uint nInBufferSize,
ref DEVICE_SEEK_PENALTY_DESCRIPTOR lpOutBuffer,
uint nOutBufferSize,
out uint lpBytesReturned,
IntPtr lpOverlapped);
// For DeviceIoControl to check nominal media rotation rate
private const uint ATA_FLAGS_DATA_IN = 0x02;
[StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
private struct ATA_PASS_THROUGH_EX
{
public ushort Length;
public ushort AtaFlags;
public byte PathId;
public byte TargetId;
public byte Lun;
public byte ReservedAsUchar;
public uint DataTransferLength;
public uint TimeOutValue;
public uint ReservedAsUlong;
public IntPtr DataBufferOffset;
[MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.ByValArray, SizeConst = 8)]
public byte[] PreviousTaskFile;
[MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.ByValArray, SizeConst = 8)]
public byte[] CurrentTaskFile;
}
[StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
private struct ATAIdentifyDeviceQuery
{
public ATA_PASS_THROUGH_EX header;
[MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.ByValArray, SizeConst = 256)]
public ushort[] data;
}
// DeviceIoControl to check nominal media rotation rate
[DllImport("kernel32.dll", EntryPoint = "DeviceIoControl",
SetLastError = true)]
[return: MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.Bool)]
private static extern bool DeviceIoControl(
SafeFileHandle hDevice,
uint dwIoControlCode,
ref ATAIdentifyDeviceQuery lpInBuffer,
uint nInBufferSize,
ref ATAIdentifyDeviceQuery lpOutBuffer,
uint nOutBufferSize,
out uint lpBytesReturned,
IntPtr lpOverlapped);
// For error message
private const uint FORMAT_MESSAGE_FROM_SYSTEM = 0x00001000;
[DllImport("kernel32.dll", SetLastError = true)]
static extern uint FormatMessage(
uint dwFlags,
IntPtr lpSource,
uint dwMessageId,
uint dwLanguageId,
StringBuilder lpBuffer,
uint nSize,
IntPtr Arguments);
// Method for no seek penalty
public static bool HasSeekPenalty(string sDrive)
{
SafeFileHandle hDrive = CreateFileW(
sDrive,
0, // No access to drive
FILE_SHARE_READ | FILE_SHARE_WRITE,
IntPtr.Zero,
OPEN_EXISTING,
FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL,
IntPtr.Zero);
if (hDrive == null || hDrive.IsInvalid)
{
string message = GetErrorMessage(Marshal.GetLastWin32Error());
throw new System.Exception(message);
}
uint IOCTL_STORAGE_QUERY_PROPERTY = CTL_CODE(
IOCTL_STORAGE_BASE, 0x500,
METHOD_BUFFERED, FILE_ANY_ACCESS); // From winioctl.h
STORAGE_PROPERTY_QUERY query_seek_penalty =
new STORAGE_PROPERTY_QUERY();
query_seek_penalty.PropertyId = StorageDeviceSeekPenaltyProperty;
query_seek_penalty.QueryType = PropertyStandardQuery;
DEVICE_SEEK_PENALTY_DESCRIPTOR query_seek_penalty_desc =
new DEVICE_SEEK_PENALTY_DESCRIPTOR();
uint returned_query_seek_penalty_size;
bool query_seek_penalty_result = DeviceIoControl(
hDrive,
IOCTL_STORAGE_QUERY_PROPERTY,
ref query_seek_penalty,
(uint)Marshal.SizeOf(query_seek_penalty),
ref query_seek_penalty_desc,
(uint)Marshal.SizeOf(query_seek_penalty_desc),
out returned_query_seek_penalty_size,
IntPtr.Zero);
hDrive.Close();
if (query_seek_penalty_result == false)
{
string message = GetErrorMessage(Marshal.GetLastWin32Error());
throw new System.Exception(message);
}
else
{
return query_seek_penalty_desc.IncursSeekPenalty;
}
}
// Method for nominal media rotation rate
// (Administrative privilege is required)
public static bool HasNominalMediaRotationRate(string sDrive)
{
SafeFileHandle hDrive = CreateFileW(
sDrive,
GENERIC_READ | GENERIC_WRITE, // Administrative privilege is required
FILE_SHARE_READ | FILE_SHARE_WRITE,
IntPtr.Zero,
OPEN_EXISTING,
FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL,
IntPtr.Zero);
if (hDrive == null || hDrive.IsInvalid)
{
string message = GetErrorMessage(Marshal.GetLastWin32Error());
throw new System.Exception(message);
}
uint IOCTL_ATA_PASS_THROUGH = CTL_CODE(
IOCTL_SCSI_BASE, 0x040b, METHOD_BUFFERED,
FILE_READ_ACCESS | FILE_WRITE_ACCESS); // From ntddscsi.h
ATAIdentifyDeviceQuery id_query = new ATAIdentifyDeviceQuery();
id_query.data = new ushort[256];
id_query.header.Length = (ushort)Marshal.SizeOf(id_query.header);
id_query.header.AtaFlags = (ushort)ATA_FLAGS_DATA_IN;
id_query.header.DataTransferLength =
(uint)(id_query.data.Length * 2); // Size of "data" in bytes
id_query.header.TimeOutValue = 3; // Sec
id_query.header.DataBufferOffset = (IntPtr)Marshal.OffsetOf(
typeof(ATAIdentifyDeviceQuery), "data");
id_query.header.PreviousTaskFile = new byte[8];
id_query.header.CurrentTaskFile = new byte[8];
id_query.header.CurrentTaskFile[6] = 0xec; // ATA IDENTIFY DEVICE
uint retval_size;
bool result = DeviceIoControl(
hDrive,
IOCTL_ATA_PASS_THROUGH,
ref id_query,
(uint)Marshal.SizeOf(id_query),
ref id_query,
(uint)Marshal.SizeOf(id_query),
out retval_size,
IntPtr.Zero);
hDrive.Close();
if (result == false)
{
string message = GetErrorMessage(Marshal.GetLastWin32Error());
throw new System.Exception(message);
}
else
{
// Word index of nominal media rotation rate
// (1 means non-rotate device)
const int kNominalMediaRotRateWordIndex = 217;
if (id_query.data[kNominalMediaRotRateWordIndex] == 1)
{
return false;
}
else
{
return true;
}
}
}
// Method for error message
private static string GetErrorMessage(int code)
{
StringBuilder message = new StringBuilder(255);
FormatMessage(
FORMAT_MESSAGE_FROM_SYSTEM,
IntPtr.Zero,
(uint)code,
0,
message,
(uint)message.Capacity,
IntPtr.Zero);
return message.ToString();
}
}
}
"@
Add-Type -TypeDefinition $code
$hasRotationRate = $true
$hasSeekPenalty = $true
}
Process {
$driveString = "\\.\PhysicalDrive" + $PhysicalDiskId
Write-Verbose -Message "Current disk item id is: $PhysicalDiskId"
Write-Verbose -Message "Current disk string is: $driveString"
Write-Verbose -Message "Calling Win32 DLL Method 'DeviceIoControl' in 'HasNominalMediaRotationRate'."
if ($PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess("Physical Disk $PhysicalDiskId","Read Nominal Media Rotation Rate Property")) {
try {
$hasRotationRate = [Util.DetectSSD]::HasNominalMediaRotationRate([string]$driveString)
} catch {
Write-Verbose -Message "HasNominalMediaRotationRate detection failed with the following error;"
Write-Verbose -Message $Error[0].Exception.Message
$hasRotationRate = $true
}
}
Write-Verbose -Message "Calling Win32 DLL Method 'DeviceIoControl' in 'HasSeekPenalty'."
if ($PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess("Physical Disk $PhysicalDiskId","Read Seek Penalty Property")) {
try {
$hasSeekPenalty = [Util.DetectSSD]::HasSeekPenalty([string]$driveString)
} catch {
Write-Verbose -Message "HasSeekPenalty detection failed with the following error;"
Write-Verbose -Message $Error[0].Exception.Message
$hasSeekPenalty = $true
}
}
# Only return true if the disk has no rotation rate or no seek penalty.
Write-Output -InputObject (!$hasRotationRate -or !$hasSeekPenalty)
}
End {
}
@Adelgrin

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Adelgrin commented May 20, 2019

nice program, but I need it to test all the drives and tell me if it is an SSD or not, just need the info not necessarily the caption or device id

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