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#!/usr/bin/env python
"""
A pure python ping implementation using raw socket.
Note that ICMP messages can only be sent from processes running as root.
Derived from ping.c distributed in Linux's netkit. That code is
copyright (c) 1989 by The Regents of the University of California.
That code is in turn derived from code written by Mike Muuss of the
US Army Ballistic Research Laboratory in December, 1983 and
placed in the public domain. They have my thanks.
Bugs are naturally mine. I'd be glad to hear about them. There are
certainly word - size dependenceies here.
Copyright (c) Matthew Dixon Cowles, <http://www.visi.com/~mdc/>.
Distributable under the terms of the GNU General Public License
version 2. Provided with no warranties of any sort.
Original Version from Matthew Dixon Cowles:
-> ftp://ftp.visi.com/users/mdc/ping.py
Rewrite by Jens Diemer:
-> http://www.python-forum.de/post-69122.html#69122
Revision history
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
March 11, 2010
changes by Samuel Stauffer:
- replaced time.clock with default_timer which is set to
time.clock on windows and time.time on other systems.
May 30, 2007
little rewrite by Jens Diemer:
- change socket asterisk import to a normal import
- replace time.time() with time.clock()
- delete "return None" (or change to "return" only)
- in checksum() rename "str" to "source_string"
November 22, 1997
Initial hack. Doesn't do much, but rather than try to guess
what features I (or others) will want in the future, I've only
put in what I need now.
December 16, 1997
For some reason, the checksum bytes are in the wrong order when
this is run under Solaris 2.X for SPARC but it works right under
Linux x86. Since I don't know just what's wrong, I'll swap the
bytes always and then do an htons().
December 4, 2000
Changed the struct.pack() calls to pack the checksum and ID as
unsigned. My thanks to Jerome Poincheval for the fix.
Januari 27, 2015
Changed receive response to not accept ICMP request messages.
It was possible to receive the very request that was sent.
Last commit info:
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
$LastChangedDate: $
$Rev: $
$Author: $
"""
import os, sys, socket, struct, select, time
if sys.platform == "win32":
# On Windows, the best timer is time.clock()
default_timer = time.clock
else:
# On most other platforms the best timer is time.time()
default_timer = time.time
# From /usr/include/linux/icmp.h; your milage may vary.
ICMP_ECHO_REQUEST = 8 # Seems to be the same on Solaris.
def checksum(source_string):
"""
I'm not too confident that this is right but testing seems
to suggest that it gives the same answers as in_cksum in ping.c
"""
sum = 0
countTo = (len(source_string)/2)*2
count = 0
while count<countTo:
thisVal = ord(source_string[count + 1])*256 + ord(source_string[count])
sum = sum + thisVal
sum = sum & 0xffffffff # Necessary?
count = count + 2
if countTo<len(source_string):
sum = sum + ord(source_string[len(source_string) - 1])
sum = sum & 0xffffffff # Necessary?
sum = (sum >> 16) + (sum & 0xffff)
sum = sum + (sum >> 16)
answer = ~sum
answer = answer & 0xffff
# Swap bytes. Bugger me if I know why.
answer = answer >> 8 | (answer << 8 & 0xff00)
return answer
def receive_one_ping(my_socket, ID, timeout):
"""
receive the ping from the socket.
"""
timeLeft = timeout
while True:
startedSelect = default_timer()
whatReady = select.select([my_socket], [], [], timeLeft)
howLongInSelect = (default_timer() - startedSelect)
if whatReady[0] == []: # Timeout
return
timeReceived = default_timer()
recPacket, addr = my_socket.recvfrom(1024)
icmpHeader = recPacket[20:28]
type, code, checksum, packetID, sequence = struct.unpack(
"bbHHh", icmpHeader
)
# Filters out the echo request itself.
# This can be tested by pinging 127.0.0.1
# You'll see your own request
if type != 8 and packetID == ID:
bytesInDouble = struct.calcsize("d")
timeSent = struct.unpack("d", recPacket[28:28 + bytesInDouble])[0]
return timeReceived - timeSent
timeLeft = timeLeft - howLongInSelect
if timeLeft <= 0:
return
def send_one_ping(my_socket, dest_addr, ID):
"""
Send one ping to the given >dest_addr<.
"""
dest_addr = socket.gethostbyname(dest_addr)
# Header is type (8), code (8), checksum (16), id (16), sequence (16)
my_checksum = 0
# Make a dummy heder with a 0 checksum.
header = struct.pack("bbHHh", ICMP_ECHO_REQUEST, 0, my_checksum, ID, 1)
bytesInDouble = struct.calcsize("d")
data = (192 - bytesInDouble) * "Q"
data = struct.pack("d", default_timer()) + data
# Calculate the checksum on the data and the dummy header.
my_checksum = checksum(header + data)
# Now that we have the right checksum, we put that in. It's just easier
# to make up a new header than to stuff it into the dummy.
header = struct.pack(
"bbHHh", ICMP_ECHO_REQUEST, 0, socket.htons(my_checksum), ID, 1
)
packet = header + data
my_socket.sendto(packet, (dest_addr, 1)) # Don't know about the 1
def do_one(dest_addr, timeout):
"""
Returns either the delay (in seconds) or none on timeout.
"""
icmp = socket.getprotobyname("icmp")
try:
my_socket = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_RAW, icmp)
except socket.error, (errno, msg):
if errno == 1:
# Operation not permitted
msg = msg + (
" - Note that ICMP messages can only be sent from processes"
" running as root."
)
raise socket.error(msg)
raise # raise the original error
my_ID = os.getpid() & 0xFFFF
send_one_ping(my_socket, dest_addr, my_ID)
delay = receive_one_ping(my_socket, my_ID, timeout)
my_socket.close()
return delay
def ping_hosts(hosts, timeout = 2, count = 4):
"""
Send >count< ping to >dest_addr< with the given >timeout< and display
the result.
"""
results = []
for host in hosts:
result = {
'host': host,
'total_count': count,
'lost_count' : 0,
'min_delay': 1000*10,
'max_delay': 0,
'avg_delay': 0,
'pings': [],
}
for i in xrange(count):
print "ping %s..." % host,
try:
delay = do_one(host, timeout)
except socket.gaierror, e:
print "failed. (socket error: '%s')" % e[1]
break
if delay == None:
delay = timeout * 1000
print "failed. (timeout within %0.4fms.)" % delay
result['lost_count'] = result['lost_count'] + 1
result['pings'].append({ 'delay': delay, 'success': False })
else:
delay = delay * 1000
print "get ping in %0.4fms" % delay
result['pings'].append({ 'delay': delay, 'success': True })
if delay > result['max_delay']:
result['max_delay'] = delay
if delay < result['min_delay']:
result['min_delay'] = delay
result['avg_delay'] = sum([ping['delay'] for ping in result['pings']]) / count
result['lost_rate'] = result['lost_count'] / count
results.append(result)
results = sorted(results, key=lambda result: result['avg_delay'])
print '%-20s\t%s\tavg/min/max' % ('host', 'lost/total')
for result in results:
print '%(host)20s\t%(lost_count)s/%(total_count)s \t%(avg_delay)4.4f/%(min_delay)4.4f/%(max_delay)4.4f' % result
if __name__ == '__main__':
ping_hosts(open('hosts.txt').read().splitlines())
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