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case -> jump table (see fcase8, fcase9)
#!/bin/sh
#|-*- mode:lisp -*-|#
#|
exec ros -Q -- $0 "$@"
|#
(progn ;;init forms
(ros:ensure-asdf)
#+quicklisp (ql:quickload '(:alexandria :trivia :iterate) :silent t))
(defpackage :ros.script.case.3724474528
(:use :cl :alexandria :trivia :iterate))
(in-package :ros.script.case.3724474528)
#|
The code below incrementally improves the CASE macro which,
when naively implemented, performs a linear scan on the keys (i.e. very long COND form containing lots of EQL)
and the worst-case runtime is O(N) for N keyforms.
Meanwhile, `switch` statement in C typically compiles to a
jump-table, where the program counter of the target branch can be
directly computed from the argument.
Allegro CL and CLISP are known to perform this optimization when all keyforms are known to be an integer.
But SBCL, while being the fastest in all other use cases, does not perform this optimization [1].
The article is 8 yrs old, but this is still valid, as I show below.
Edit: I tested CCL on my machine and it also does this optimization. So, this code here is entirely for SBCL.
[1] references another article [2], which would have contained some interesting code, but the link is currently 404.
NSCASE macro [3] stores functions in an array generated within LOAD-TIME-VALUE.
However, since LTV forms are evaluated in null-lexenv,
the body of the conditional branches cannot access the surrounding lexical variables.
By the way, this jump-table conversion seems to be implemented even on symbolics 3600 compiler[4].
Note that the method referenced in the later part of [4] does not work on SBCL (array referencing functions)
since this causes the array to be allocated each time the surrounding function is called.
I demonstrate this on fcase, which was taken from a japanese site [5].
The final implementation fcase9, while using SBCL-internal functions, does not have a
restriction which is present in NCASE.
fcase8 does not use SBCL-internal functions, but it requires the user to list the lexical variables
that it has to be referenced from the conditional branches.
fcase7 is an implemenation that use binary search instead of a table. This might be useful when
the keys are sparse.
Anyways, to make it work for non-integers I need a bit more work.
[1] http://nklein.com/2009/07/lisp-jump-tables/
[2] http://exploring-lisp.blogspot.jp/2009/07/tinkering-with-jump-tables.html
[3] https://web.archive.org/web/20040613044135/http://www.tfeb.org/programs/ncase.lisp
[4] http://ml.cddddr.org/slug/msg02816.html
[5] http://g000001.cddddr.org/3644058435
|#
;; from http://g000001.cddddr.org/3644058435
(defun 256way/case (i)
(let ((rand (random 10)))
(case i
. #.(loop :for x :from 0 :repeat 256
:collect `((,x) (progn (* i rand)))))))
(defun test (fn x)
(print
(time
(let (tem)
(dotimes (i 1000000 tem)
(setq tem (funcall fn x)))))))
(test #'256way/case 255) ; 0.232 sec 4809bytes
(test #'256way/case 0) ; 0.050 sec
;; naive lambda+vector
(defmacro fcase (i &body body)
`(funcall
(svref (vector ,@(loop :for b :in body
:collect `(lambda () ,b)))
,i)))
(defun 256way/fcase (i)
(let ((rand (random 10)))
(fcase i
. #.(loop :for x :from 0 :repeat 256
:collect `(progn (* i rand))))))
(test #'256way/fcase 255) ; 4.3sec 10,255,897,520 bytes consed
(test #'256way/fcase 0) ; 4.3sec 10,255,902,528 bytes consed
;; flet+vector
(defun sym (&rest args)
(apply #'symbolicate (mapcar #'princ-to-string args)))
(defmacro fcase2 (i &body body)
`(flet ,(iter (for b in body)
(for i from 0)
(collecting
`(,(sym 'f i) () ,b)))
(let ((v (vector ,@(iter (for i below (length body))
(collecting `(function ,(sym 'f i)))))))
(funcall (svref v ,i)))))
(defun 256way/fcase2 (i)
(let ((rand (random 10)))
(fcase2 i
. #.(loop :for x :from 0 :repeat 256
:collect `(progn (* i rand))))))
(test #'256way/fcase2 255) ; 4.3sec 10,255,887,264 bytes consed
(test #'256way/fcase2 0) ; 4.4sec 10,255,902,256 bytes consed
;; flet+vector+dx
(defmacro fcase3 (i &body body)
`(flet ,(iter (for b in body)
(for i from 0)
(collecting
`(,(sym 'f i) () ,b)))
(declare (dynamic-extent ,@(iter (for i below (length body))
(collecting `(function ,(sym 'f i))))))
(let ((v (vector ,@(iter (for i below (length body))
(collecting `(function ,(sym 'f i)))))))
(declare (dynamic-extent v))
(funcall (svref v ,i)))))
(defun 256way/fcase3 (i)
(let ((rand (random 10)))
(fcase3 i
. #.(loop :for x :from 0 :repeat 256
:collect `(progn (* i rand))))))
(test #'256way/fcase3 255) ; 1.192 sec 0 bytes consed
(test #'256way/fcase3 0)
;; flet+vector+dx+type
(defmacro fcase3t (i &body body)
`(flet ,(iter (for b in body)
(for j from 0)
(collecting
`(,(sym 'f j) () (locally (declare ((eql ,j) ,i)) ,b))))
(declare (dynamic-extent ,@(iter (for i below (length body))
(collecting `(function ,(sym 'f i))))))
(let ((v (vector ,@(iter (for i below (length body))
(collecting `(function ,(sym 'f i)))))))
(declare (dynamic-extent v))
(funcall (svref v ,i)))))
(defun 256way/fcase3t (i)
(let ((rand (random 10)))
(fcase3t i
. #.(loop :for x :from 0 :repeat 256
:collect `(progn (* i rand))))))
(test #'256way/fcase3t 255) ; 1.192 sec 0 bytes consed
(test #'256way/fcase3t 0) ; 1.187 sec 0 bytes consed
;; lambda+vector+load time value --- does not compile, cannot reference RAND
;; same problem as in NCASE macro https://web.archive.org/web/20040613044135/http://www.tfeb.org/programs/ncase.lisp
(defmacro fcase4 (i &body body)
`(funcall
(svref (load-time-value (vector ,@(loop :for b :in body
:collect `(lambda () ,b)))
t)
,i)))
#+(or)
(defun 256way/fcase4 (i)
(let ((rand (random 10)))
(fcase4 i
. #.(loop :for x :from 0 :repeat 256
:collect `(progn (* i rand))))))
;; flet+vector+load time value --- does not compile, cannot reference functions
(defmacro fcase5 (i &body body)
`(flet ,(iter (for b in body)
(for i from 0)
(collecting
`(,(sym 'f i) () ,b)))
(declare (dynamic-extent ,@(iter (for i below (length body))
(collecting `(function ,(sym 'f i))))))
(let ((v (load-time-value
(vector ,@(iter (for i below (length body))
(collecting `(function ,(sym 'f i))))))))
;; (declare (dynamic-extent v))
(funcall (svref v ,i)))))
#+(or)
(defun 256way/fcase5 (i)
(let ((rand (random 10)))
(fcase5 i
. #.(loop :for x :from 0 :repeat 256
:collect `(progn (* i rand))))))
;; lambda on heap + vector + load time value XXX cannot reference RAND
;; nothing here
;; load time value vector, initially empty, then used as a cache in the initial invokation
(defmacro fcase6 (i &body body)
(with-gensyms (flag v)
`(flet ,(iter (for b in body)
(for j from 0)
(collecting
`(,(sym 'f j) () (locally (declare ((eql ,j) ,i)) ,b))))
(declare (dynamic-extent ,@(iter (for i below (length body))
(collecting `(function ,(sym 'f i))))))
(let ((,flag (load-time-value (list nil)))
(,v (load-time-value
(make-array ,(length body) :element-type 'function :initial-element (lambda ())))))
(unless (car ,flag)
(setf (car ,flag) t)
,@(iter (for i below (length body))
(collecting `(setf (aref ,v i) (function ,(sym 'f i)))))
(print :fitst-time))
;; (declare (dynamic-extent v))
(funcall (svref ,v ,i))))))
(defun 256way/fcase6 (i)
(let ((rand (random 10)))
(fcase6 i
. #.(loop :for x :from 0 :repeat 256
:collect `(progn (* i rand))))))
(test #'256way/fcase6 255) ; 1.06sec 0 bytes
(test #'256way/fcase6 0) ; 1.075sec 0 bytes
;; bitwise binary search + type (CASE version constant-folds types)
(defmacro fcase7 (i &body body)
`(flet ,(iter (for b in body)
(for j from 0)
(collecting
`(,(sym 'f j) () (locally (declare ((eql ,j) ,i)) ,b))))
(declare (dynamic-extent ,@(iter (for i below (length body))
(collecting `(function ,(sym 'f i))))))
,(fcase7-aux i (1- (integer-length (1- (length body)))) 0 (1- (length body)))))
(defun fcase7-aux (i digit min max)
(if (< 0 digit)
`(if (logbitp ,digit ,i)
,(fcase7-aux i (1- digit) (+ min (expt 2 digit)) max)
,(fcase7-aux i (1- digit) min (1- (+ min (expt 2 digit)))))
`(if (logbitp ,digit ,i)
(,(sym 'f max))
(,(sym 'f min)))))
(defun 256way/fcase7 (i) ; 14454 bytes
(let ((rand (random 10)))
(fcase7 i
. #.(loop :for x :from 0 :repeat 256
:collect `(progn (* i rand))))))
(test #'256way/fcase7 255) ; 0.102 0 bytes
(test #'256way/fcase7 0) ; 0.102 0 bytes
(defun 4096way/case (i)
(let ((rand (random 10)))
(case i
. #.(loop :for x :from 0 :repeat 4096
:collect `((,x) (progn (* i rand)))))))
(defun 4096way/fcase7 (i) ; 14454 bytes
(let ((rand (random 10)))
(fcase7 i
. #.(loop :for x :from 0 :repeat 4096
:collect `(progn (* i rand))))))
(test #'4096way/case 4095) ; 8.9sec
(test #'4096way/case 0) ; 0.044sec
(test #'4096way/fcase7 4095) ; 0.128sec
(test #'4096way/fcase7 0) ; 0.129sec
;; lambda+vector+load time value, variables are declared
(defmacro fcase8 (i (&rest vars) &body body)
`(funcall
(svref (load-time-value (vector
,@(iter (for b in body)
(for j from 0)
(collecting
`(lambda (,i ,@vars) (locally (declare ((eql ,j) ,i)) ,b)))))
t)
,i)
,i ,@vars))
(defun 256way/fcase8 (i)
(let ((rand (random 10)))
(fcase8 i (rand)
. #.(loop :for x :from 0 :repeat 256
:collect `(progn (* i rand))))))
(defun 4096way/fcase8 (i)
(let ((rand (random 10)))
(fcase8 i (rand)
. #.(loop :for x :from 0 :repeat 4096
:collect `(progn (* i rand))))))
(test #'4096way/fcase8 4095) ; 0.051sec
(test #'4096way/fcase8 0) ; 0.053sec
;; lambda+vector+load time value, variables are automatically obtained from the environment
(defmacro fcase9 (i &body body &environment env)
(let ((vars (find-lexical-variables env)))
`(funcall
(svref (load-time-value (vector
,@(iter (for b in body)
(for j from 0)
(collecting
`(lambda (,@vars) (locally (declare ((eql ,j) ,i)) ,b)))))
t)
,i)
,@vars)))
(defun find-lexical-variables (env)
(mapcar #'car
(sb-c::lexenv-vars
(sb-c::coerce-to-lexenv env))))
(defun 256way/fcase9 (i)
(let ((rand (random 10)))
(fcase9 i
. #.(loop :for x :from 0 :repeat 256
:collect `(progn (* i rand))))))
(defun 4096way/fcase9 (i)
(let ((rand (random 10)))
(fcase9 i
. #.(loop :for x :from 0 :repeat 4096
:collect `(progn (* i rand))))))
(test #'4096way/fcase9 4095) ; 0.050sec
(test #'4096way/fcase9 0) ; 0.050sec
(defun main (&rest argv)
(declare (ignorable argv)))
;;; vim: set ft=lisp lisp:
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