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Some notes I made while setting up ZSH for the first time
ZSH and Misc Command Line Notes
===============================
Handy Man Pages
---------------
zshexpn Expansion and substitution
zshmisc "Everything and then some"
Command Line Editing
--------------------
ESC-. Insert last argument of previous history line. Repeat to go further back.
ESC-q Delete line and insert it again on next prompt to issue interim command.
ESC-' Quotes whole line
ESC-RETURN Insert literal newline. Easier to edit long lines.
Directories
-----------
cd OLD NEW Swap out OLD with NEW in current full path and try to cd there
DIRNAME cd DIRNAME
cd -<TAB> Select dir from stack
mv FILE ~2 Move FILE to entry 2 on dir stack
### Aliases for 'dirs' and 'cd' (Auto-loaded from ~/.oh-my-zsh/lib/directories.zsh)
d Show 'dirs' directory stack with index numbers.
1,2,3,... cd to the corresponding entry in the directory stack
- cd back and forth between the top two dirs in the stack.
.. cd back one level
... cd back two levels
File Globbing
-------------
Use parentheses for grouping.
<5-12> Numbers from 5 to 12
<5-> Numbers from 5 and up
<-12> Numbers up to 12
<-> Any number
* Any string
? Any character
[...] Any character or character range in set
[^...] Inverted set
x|y x or y. Must be in parentheses.
x# Zero or more occurrences of x
x## One or more occurrences of x
**/ Recursive match for directories. Shorthand for (*/)#
***/ Like **/ but also follows symbolic links.
pat1~pat2 Matches if pattern 1 matches and pattern 2 does not match
### Globbing Qualifiers
Put at the end of the pattern, enclosed in parentheses.
/ Directories
. Plain files
@ Symbolic links
* Executable files
m[Mwhm][-|+]n Modified less/more than n days/months/weeks/hours/minutes ago
L[kKmM][-|+]n File size less/more than n bytes/kilobytes(k|K)/megabytes(m|M)
### Examples
**/*ViewController.[hm](m-5) All view controller files modified in the last 5 days
*(.L0) Zero-length regular files
**/*(.Lm+10) Files larger than 10 MB anywhere in hierarchy
*(m0) Files modified today
Expansions
----------
{x,y,z} x y z
{5..8} 5 6 7 8
=foo Full path of file foo
History
-------
!! Previous command
!n History command number n
!-n Current command minus n
!str Most recent command starting with str
!?str[?] Most recent command containing str
!^ First argument of previous command
!$ Last argument of previous command
!:n N'th argument of previous command
!* All arguments of last command
!!:s/x/y/ Last command with first x replaced by y
!!:gs/x/y/ Last command with all x replaced by y
r Repeat last command
r x=y Repeat last command with x replaced by y
Misc
----
<(COMMAND) Readable pipe containing the output of COMMAND.
Example: ack <(ls DIR1) <(ls DIR2) # See files not in both dirs
$#array Number of elements in array
Snippets
--------
### Read a file into a variable
$ var="$(<file)"
### Copy a directory structure recursively without data/files
$ dirs=(**/*(/))
$ cd -- $dest_root
$ mkdir -p -- $dirs
### Quick for-each on files in a dir
$ for f (*) print -- $f
### Random numbers
$ echo $[${RANDOM}%1000] # random between 0-999
$ echo $[${RANDOM}%11+10] # random between 10-20
$ echo ${(l:3::0:)${RANDOM}} # N digits long (3 digits)
### Random array element
$ array = (*)
$ print $array[$RANDOM%$#array+1]
### Ping a range of hosts
$ for i in {1..254}; do ping -c 1 192.168.1.$i; done
### Add numerical prefix to all files using the default sort order
$ i=1; for j in *; do mv $j $i.$j; ((i++)); done
### Change extension on all matching files
Remember: zmv needs the glob patterns. Not the shell's expansion of them. Hence the quotes
$ zmv '(*).text' '$1.txt' # Equivalent lines. Use match group.
$ zmv -W '*.text' '*.txt' # Equivalent lines. Use wildcard to reference flag.
$ for f (*.text) mv $f $f:r.txt # :e :r :h :t
### Remove leading zeros from file extension
Remember: zmv needs the glob patterns. Not the shell's expansion of them. Hence the quotes
$ ls
filename.001 filename.003 filename.005 filename.007 filename.009
filename.002 filename.004 filename.006 filename.008 filename.010
$ zmv '(filename.)0##(?*)' '$1$2'
$ ls
filename.1 filename.10 filename.2 filename.3 filename.4 filename.5 filename.6 ...
### Lower/uppercase all matching files/dirs
$ zmv '(*)' '${(L)1}' # lowercase
$ zmv '(*)' '${(U)1}' # uppercase
### Rename pic1.jpg, pic2.jpg, ... to pic0001.jpg, pic0002.jpg, ...
$ zmv 'pic(*).jpg' 'pic${(l:4::0:)1}.jpg' # In current dir
$ zmv '(**/)pic(*).jpg' '$1/pic${(l:4::0:)2}.jpg' # Recursively
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