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Git Cheatsheet

Git

Global Settings

Reminder

Press minus + shift + s and return to chop/fold long lines!

Show folder content: ls -la

Notes

Do not put (external) dependencies in version control!

Setup

See where Git is located: which git

Get the version of Git: git --version

Create an alias (shortcut) for git status: git config --global alias.st status

Help: git help

General

Initialize Git: git init

Get everything ready to commit: git add .

Get custom file ready to commit: git add index.html

Commit changes: git commit -m "Message"

Commit changes with title and description: git commit -m "Title" -m "Description..."

Add and commit in one step: git commit -am "Message"

Remove files from Git: git rm index.html

Update all changes: git add -u

Remove file but do not track anymore: git rm --cached index.html

Move or rename files: git mv index.html dir/index_new.html

Undo modifications (restore files from latest commited version): git checkout -- index.html

Restore file from a custom commit (in current branch): git checkout 6eb715d -- index.html

Reset

Go back to commit: git revert 073791e7dd71b90daa853b2c5acc2c925f02dbc6

Soft reset (move HEAD only; neither staging nor working dir is changed): git reset --soft 073791e7dd71b90daa853b2c5acc2c925f02dbc6

Undo latest commit: git reset --soft HEAD~

Mixed reset (move HEAD and change staging to match repo; does not affect working dir): git reset --mixed 073791e7dd71b90daa853b2c5acc2c925f02dbc6

Hard reset (move HEAD and change staging dir and working dir to match repo): git reset --hard 073791e7dd71b90daa853b2c5acc2c925f02dbc6

Hard reset of a single file (@ is short for HEAD): git checkout @ -- index.html

Update & Delete

Test-Delete untracked files: git clean -n

Delete untracked files (not staging): git clean -f

Unstage (undo adds): git reset HEAD index.html

Update most recent commit (also update the commit message): git commit --amend -m "New Message"

Branch

Show branches: git branch

Create branch: git branch branchname

Change to branch: git checkout branchname

Create and change to new branch: git checkout -b branchname

Rename branch: git branch -m branchname new_branchname or: git branch --move branchname new_branchname

Show all completely merged branches with current branch: git branch --merged

Delete merged branch (only possible if not HEAD): git branch -d branchname or: git branch --delete branchname

Delete not merged branch: git branch -D branch_to_delete

Merge

True merge (fast forward): git merge branchname

Merge to master (only if fast forward): git merge --ff-only branchname

Merge to master (force a new commit): git merge --no-ff branchname

Stop merge (in case of conflicts): git merge --abort

Stop merge (in case of conflicts): git reset --merge // prior to v1.7.4

Undo local merge that hasn't been pushed yet: git reset --hard origin/master

Merge only one specific commit: git cherry-pick 073791e7

Rebase: git checkout branchname » git rebase master or: git merge master branchname (The rebase moves all of the commits in master onto the tip of branchname.)

Cancel rebase: git rebase --abort

Squash multiple commits into one: git rebase -i HEAD~3 (source)

Squash-merge a feature branch (as one commit): git merge --squash branchname (commit afterwards)

Stash

Put in stash: git stash save "Message"

Show stash: git stash list

Show stash stats: git stash show stash@{0}

Show stash changes: git stash show -p stash@{0}

Use custom stash item and drop it: git stash pop stash@{0}

Use custom stash item and do not drop it: git stash apply stash@{0}

Use custom stash item and index: git stash apply --index

Create branch from stash: git stash branch new_branch

Delete custom stash item: git stash drop stash@{0}

Delete complete stash: git stash clear

Gitignore & Gitkeep

About: https://help.github.com/articles/ignoring-files

Useful templates: https://github.com/github/gitignore

Add or edit gitignore: nano .gitignore

Track empty dir: touch dir/.gitkeep

Log

Show commits: git log

Show oneline-summary of commits: git log --oneline

Show oneline-summary of commits with full SHA-1: git log --format=oneline

Show oneline-summary of the last three commits: git log --oneline -3

Show only custom commits: git log --author="Sven" git log --grep="Message" git log --until=2013-01-01 git log --since=2013-01-01

Show only custom data of commit: git log --format=short git log --format=full git log --format=fuller git log --format=email git log --format=raw

Show changes: git log -p

Show every commit since special commit for custom file only: git log 6eb715d.. index.html

Show changes of every commit since special commit for custom file only: git log -p 6eb715d.. index.html

Show stats and summary of commits: git log --stat --summary

Show history of commits as graph: git log --graph

Show history of commits as graph-summary: git log --oneline --graph --all --decorate

Compare

Compare modified files: git diff

Compare modified files and highlight changes only: git diff --color-words index.html

Compare modified files within the staging area: git diff --staged

Compare branches: git diff master..branchname

Compare branches like above: git diff --color-words master..branchname^

Compare commits: git diff 6eb715d git diff 6eb715d..HEAD git diff 6eb715d..537a09f

Compare commits of file: git diff 6eb715d index.html git diff 6eb715d..537a09f index.html

Compare without caring about spaces: git diff -b 6eb715d..HEAD or: git diff --ignore-space-change 6eb715d..HEAD

Compare without caring about all spaces: git diff -w 6eb715d..HEAD or: git diff --ignore-all-space 6eb715d..HEAD

Useful comparings: git diff --stat --summary 6eb715d..HEAD

Blame: git blame -L10,+1 index.html

Releases & Version Tags

Show all released versions: git tag

Show all released versions with comments: git tag -l -n1

Create release version: git tag v1.0.0

Create release version with comment: git tag -a v1.0.0 -m 'Message'

Checkout a specific release version: git checkout v1.0.0

Collaborate

Show remote: git remote

Show remote details: git remote -v

Add remote upstream from GitHub project: git remote add upstream https://github.com/user/project.git

Add remote upstream from existing empty project on server: git remote add upstream ssh://root@123.123.123.123/path/to/repository/.git

Fetch: git fetch upstream

Fetch a custom branch: git fetch upstream branchname:local_branchname

Merge fetched commits: git merge upstream/master

Remove origin: git remote rm origin

Show remote branches: git branch -r

Show all branches (remote and local): git branch -a

Create and checkout branch from a remote branch: git checkout -b local_branchname upstream/remote_branchname

Compare: git diff origin/master..master

Push (set default with -u): git push -u origin master

Push: git push origin master

Force-Push: `git push origin master --force

Pull: git pull

Pull specific branch: git pull origin branchname

Fetch a pull request on GitHub by its ID and create a new branch: git fetch upstream pull/ID/head:new-pr-branch

Clone to localhost: git clone https://github.com/user/project.git or: git clone ssh://user@domain.com/~/dir/.git

Clone to localhost folder: git clone https://github.com/user/project.git ~/dir/folder

Clone specific branch to localhost: git clone -b branchname https://github.com/user/project.git

Clone with token authentication (in CI environment): git clone https://oauth2:<token>@gitlab.com/username/repo.git

Delete remote branch (push nothing): git push origin :branchname or: git push origin --delete branchname

Archive

Create a zip-archive: git archive --format zip --output filename.zip master

Export/write custom log to a file: git log --author=sven --all > log.txt

Troubleshooting

Ignore files that have already been committed to a Git repository: http://stackoverflow.com/a/1139797/1815847

Security

Hide Git on the web via .htaccess: RedirectMatch 404 /\.git (more info here: http://stackoverflow.com/a/17916515/1815847)

Large File Storage

Website: https://git-lfs.github.com/

Install: brew install git-lfs

Track *.psd files: git lfs track "*.psd" (init, add, commit and push as written above)

@yolayne

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commented Jan 27, 2015

Small typo under "General" section:

Get verything ready to commit: git add .

@wreckday

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commented Feb 11, 2015

good one!

@Bhavik3

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commented Feb 12, 2015

it helps a lot for me ....thanks

@hofmannsven

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commented Feb 16, 2015

Thanks, also updated the typo 😊

@boonchu

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commented Feb 16, 2015

I thought about quick manual for git. You did it. Thanks.

@ghost

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commented Mar 17, 2015

Great work. Any of the branch stuff work for releases? When migrating for example, I am able to run (in Unix) for remote ingit branch -r | grep -v '->'; do git branch --track $remote; done and then upon a push, get all of my branches to the new repo. Any shortcuts for the releases?

@SekharBeri

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commented Mar 31, 2015

Great work it helps me lot thank you

@ryrych

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commented May 1, 2015

Thanks for the info how to chop long files! It is especially useful for generated translations.js - every time you make a little change in a translation first you get hundreds of lines before and then the same amount of lines after (as there's only one line in the file)

@jfmercer

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commented Jun 5, 2015

Great work. Thanks.

@adampmoss

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commented Aug 18, 2015

Thanks for this. Bookmarked.

@tomer-ben-david

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commented Sep 7, 2015

Best git cheatsheet, bookmarked.

@tomer-ben-david

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commented Sep 8, 2015

I tend to use this alot, do you as well?

Show working tree status and ignore untracked files:
git status -uno

@boobiebewbs

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commented Sep 23, 2015

how do I set myself as a normal branch not a master branch?

@NZOzzDeveloper

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commented Jan 28, 2016

thanks for the cheat sheet :)

@baluragala

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commented Feb 2, 2016

Superb !!! Great Cheatsheet..

@jitendra3109

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commented Feb 6, 2016

Awesome!!

@kropiv

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commented May 23, 2016

thanks a lot!

@developersamim

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commented Jun 28, 2016

very helpful... awesome tutorial

@mhdphp

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commented Jul 3, 2016

Excellent... thanks!

@kishorboddu

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commented Jul 4, 2016

thanks a lot, very helpful

@adharjain

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commented Jul 12, 2016

Awsome Help!

@tiennv90

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commented Aug 8, 2016

thank you very much for making this script

@rjangheldotcom

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commented Aug 8, 2016

nice work, thanks.

@Brentophillips

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commented Oct 12, 2016

Best list I've found, thanks! I have a large folder in a GitHub repo master branch with too many pngs inside to delete manually online. Any chance you can go through the steps, in order and for a beginner, showing how, after I've cloned my repo on my desktop, I can delete a folder and return the repo?

@Nzalo

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commented Oct 18, 2016

thanks for this 👍

@phaniapsr

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commented Nov 11, 2016

Covered all basic commands.. Thanks alot

@stevexyz

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commented Dec 5, 2016

Get everything ready to commit including deletion and renaming: git add -A .

@stevexyz

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commented Dec 5, 2016

See the last actions on the repo: "git reflog"

@khalidrizvi

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commented Jan 25, 2017

very helpful

@srinivas1787

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commented Jan 27, 2017

Awesome Sir.... Really very help ful :)

@fazlearefin

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commented Feb 4, 2017

Get everything ready to commit: git add .

If you are not in the base of the git repo, this command does not add all files to staging area. Better to use

git add -A

@Rongcong

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commented Feb 8, 2017

It's brilliant. Thanks for your contribution!

@jackbraj

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commented Feb 14, 2017

There is a typo in "Merge to master (forc a new commit): git merge --no-ff branchname".
It should be force?

@SARAN-thala

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commented Feb 19, 2017

Nice one.
It's very useful for beginners to Git.

@JaharshKotha

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commented Feb 23, 2017

What about going to different versions in the log ?

@mohammedfouad90

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commented Mar 16, 2017

Good work man .. Thanks :)

@ileontiuc

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commented Mar 31, 2017

Hi! very nice overview!
do you know if there a way of checking whether the changes from a specific commit are still maintained in another commit? (via git terminal)

@imusman

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commented Apr 12, 2017

@sipoma

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commented Apr 28, 2017

Well Done!!! Very Very Useful

@KateGH

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commented May 12, 2017

Thank you for sharing, really useful!!

@wiseosho

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commented May 30, 2017

Thank you for sharing!.

@huoxudong125

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commented Jul 14, 2017

@edwinpopham

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commented Aug 9, 2017

Cool easy place to get a reminder about some commands

@parameshnalla

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commented Aug 21, 2017

Great work. Thank you

@michaeljwiebe

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commented Sep 11, 2017

Awesome, thanks for this resource! Just one question here, this seems like it can't be right since its the same command...

Commit to most recent commit: git commit --amend -m "Message"
Update most recent commit message: git commit --amend -m "New Message"

@JerryKacmar

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commented Sep 11, 2017

Great list, thanks for this.

I would add:
Show history of changes for one file: gitk [filename]

@amoljore751986

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commented Sep 22, 2017

Thanks, Very helpful

@MuraraAllan

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commented Sep 22, 2017

Thank you!

@count48

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commented Oct 9, 2017

This will be there on my bookmarks forever , thanks for putting this together @hofmannsven

@yh2n

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commented Oct 17, 2017

Very helpful, thanks!

@AwakenedOne

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commented Nov 6, 2017

Thanks. A huge time saver and very helpful.

@rajops

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commented Nov 9, 2017

Nice that you but together most of the Git commands, thanks 👍

@sanyog96

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commented Nov 11, 2017

Thanks

@JimmyCDChen

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commented Nov 20, 2017

Thanks!

@Arkangel17

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commented Nov 30, 2017

awesome. thanks!

@hoangthach252

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commented Dec 5, 2017

The best cheat sheets. Thanks !

@huoxudong125

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commented Dec 20, 2017

Thanks

@abdelaziz321

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commented Jan 30, 2018

Very helpful 👍

@Valentina9091

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commented Feb 11, 2018

Thanks a lot, very helpful

@pksjw

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commented Feb 26, 2018

This is handy, thanks!

@cavrilionis

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commented Mar 1, 2018

Thanks for this. Bookmarked.

@Joshhortt

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commented Mar 11, 2018

Awesome Cheatsheet, Thanks buddy!

@tech0909

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commented Mar 12, 2018

Nice!

@bestorw01

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commented Mar 12, 2018

Nice! one

@LambertStrategy

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commented Apr 4, 2018

Useful! Thanks.

@jviaches

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commented Apr 4, 2018

Useful list. Well done !

@albannurkollari

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commented Apr 5, 2018

Huge thanks and appreciation. Helpful utmost!

@tripit-qe

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commented Apr 6, 2018

Thanks for all the info. I do have a question if this is the right forum to discuss or post it. Apologize in advance if it is.
Question: How to subtract multiple scattered commit from my local branch?
Story behind it: I have created a branch B out of another branch A which is in review pending. But I need my other branch A data to just refer while working on branch B. Now I am done with branch B and about to create a pull request. While reviewing I felt I need to omit branch A commit from my current branch B. Do I have to use cherry - pick command or how would I trash branch A data from my branch B?

@trevorrd

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commented Apr 12, 2018

Thank you! I will need to print this out, but this helped me a lot! Thanks for taking the time to document it and give examples! :) Cheers!

@ConnerAiken

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commented Apr 14, 2018

Yes, thank you!

@christopher-paul-shaw

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commented Apr 26, 2018

On security section, dont use git repositories for serving websites, rather keep the source in the repository but have a deployment system to prepare the code and copy just the website over to the server,

@noelinetb

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commented May 3, 2018

Thanks for this!

@evermoreg

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commented May 8, 2018

emmm it is really helpful. well explained!

@davewilsondev

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commented May 9, 2018

Thanks :)

@ajernejcic

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commented May 11, 2018

very helpful, thank you

@dhrumilshah7491

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commented Jun 4, 2018

I have committed all my changes to one branch and checkout that branch so I have all codes to my local repo. Now when I will do another commit while checking out I want only modified files into my local repo. what command I can use Or how I can get only modified files in my local repo?

Any help will be appreciated. Thanks

@devanandjha

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commented Jun 21, 2018

Simply awesome...very helpful

@ankurloriya

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commented Jul 17, 2018

awesome. Thank you

@urjaramaniVC

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commented Aug 1, 2018

This is very helpful to me. But,
What is the command if i want to fetch one specific remote branch?

@KuthumiPepple

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commented Aug 8, 2018

Very helpful. Thanks

@cacad101

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commented Sep 13, 2018

Thanks!

@sachin8516

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commented Oct 31, 2018

very helpful 👍

@JDSRAO

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commented Jan 10, 2019

very helpful thank you!

@erdincozden

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commented Jan 11, 2019

@hofmannsven

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Owner Author

commented Jan 16, 2019

👍

@haseebkhan1421

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commented Jan 23, 2019

how can we push repository on to remote using git Bash

Asking because I'm new to this version control system

@YuvrajKhavad

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commented Mar 19, 2019

Wow, Thank you for this.

@shakiz

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commented Mar 19, 2019

Wohoo!! Thanks for sharing these information.

@mrsantacruz86

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commented May 14, 2019

Nice summary! Very useful! Thank you!

@realgio95

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commented Sep 16, 2019

best git summary I have ever seen! Thank You!

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