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Basic RESTful API with Symfony 2 + FOSRestBundle (JSON format only) + FOSUserBundle + FOSOauthServerBundle

Basic RESTful API with Symfony 2 + FOSRestBundle (JSON format only) + FOSUserBundle + FOSOauthServerBundle

The API we are creating in this gist will follow these rules :

  • The API only returns JSON responses
  • All API routes require authentication
  • Authentication is handled via OAuth2 with password Grant Type only (no need for Authorization pages and such).
  • API versioning is managed via a subdomain (e.g. v1.api.example.com)

The API will be written in PHP with the Symfony 2 framework. The following SF2 bundles are used :

Install SF2 and the bundles

The first step is to download Symfony and the related bundles. I willl use the Symfony Installer and Composer (installed globally)

symfony new api
cd api
composer require friendsofsymfony/rest-bundle
composer require jms/serializer-bundle
composer require nelmio/api-doc-bundle
composer require friendsofsymfony/user-bundle
composer require friendsofsymfony/oauth-server-bundle

Add the following lines to app/AppKernel.php to enable the downloaded bundles :

// app/AppKernel.php
class AppKernel extends Kernel
{
    public function registerBundles()
    {
        $bundles = array(
            // ...
            new FOS\RestBundle\FOSRestBundle(),
            new FOS\UserBundle\FOSUserBundle(),
            new FOS\OAuthServerBundle\FOSOAuthServerBundle(),
            new JMS\SerializerBundle\JMSSerializerBundle(),
            new Nelmio\ApiDocBundle\NelmioApiDocBundle(),
        );

        // ...
    }
}

## Configure bundles

A bit of configuration is required now.

NOTE : the classes under the Acme\ApiBundle\Entity namespace will be created in just a minute.

Configuration

Add the following to app/config/config.yml :

# app/config/config.yml
nelmio_api_doc: ~

fos_rest:
    routing_loader:
        default_format: json                            # All responses should be JSON formated
        include_format: false                           # We do not include format in request, so that all responses
                                                        # will eventually be JSON formated

fos_user:
    db_driver: orm
    firewall_name: api                                  # Seems to be used when registering user/reseting password,
                                                        # but since there is no "login", as so it seems to be useless in
                                                        # our particular context, but still required by "FOSUserBundle"
    user_class: Acme\ApiBundle\Entity\User

fos_oauth_server:
    db_driver:           orm
    client_class:        Acme\ApiBundle\Entity\Client
    access_token_class:  Acme\ApiBundle\Entity\AccessToken
    refresh_token_class: Acme\ApiBundle\Entity\RefreshToken
    auth_code_class:     Acme\ApiBundle\Entity\AuthCode
    service:
        user_provider: fos_user.user_manager             # This property will be used when valid credentials are given to load the user upon access token creation

### Security

Add the following to app/config/security.yml :

# app/config/security.yml

security:
    encoders:
        FOS\UserBundle\Model\UserInterface: sha512

    providers:
        fos_userbundle:
            id: fos_user.user_provider.username        # fos_user.user_provider.username_email does not seem to work (OAuth-spec related ("username + password") ?)
    firewalls:
        oauth_token:                                   # Everyone can access the access token URL.
            pattern: ^/oauth/v2/token
            security: false
        api:
            pattern: ^/                                # All URLs are protected
            fos_oauth: true                            # OAuth2 protected resource
            stateless: true                            # Do no set session cookies
            anonymous: false                           # Anonymous access is not allowed

You can add more access_control properties here.

Routing

Add the following to app/config/routing.yml :

# app/config/routing.yml
NelmioApiDocBundle:
    resource: "@NelmioApiDocBundle/Resources/config/routing.yml"
    prefix:   /api/doc

fos_oauth_server_token:
    resource: "@FOSOAuthServerBundle/Resources/config/routing/token.xml"

API Bundle

NOTE : this step is not strictly required : you are actually free to organize your code as you want. I am using only one bundle here for the sake of simplicity, but feel free to follow what you heart says ;)

Next we need to create entities to handle user, access tokens, etc... We are going to create a bundle for that purpose :

php app/console generate:bundle --namespace=Acme/ApiBundle

Next step is creating the entities.

User entity

This entity is required by FOSUserBundle and will also be used by FOSOAuthServerBundle. As stated in the documentation, you are free to do (almost) whatever you want to with this class. The one used in this gist is just a simple copy/paste of the class available in the documentation, but with the following changes :

  • it extends FOS\UserBundle\Entity\User and not FOS\UserBundle\Model\User (further doctrine schema update did not work for me with the later)
  • the name of the table is customized : @ORM\Table("users")
<?php
// src/Acme/ApiBundle/Entity/User.php

namespace Acme\ApiBundle\Entity;

use FOS\UserBundle\Entity\User as BaseUser;
use Doctrine\ORM\Mapping as ORM;

/**
 * User
 *
 * @ORM\Table("users")
 * @ORM\Entity
 */
class User extends BaseUser
{
    /**
     * @var integer
     *
     * @ORM\Column(name="id", type="integer")
     * @ORM\Id
     * @ORM\GeneratedValue(strategy="AUTO")
     */
    protected $id;


    /**
     * Get id
     *
     * @return integer
     */
    public function getId()
    {
        return $this->id;
    }
}

## Other entities

These entities are required by the FOSOAuthServerBundle. They are simple copy/paste from the documentation with namespace adjustements. Notice the table names have been adjusted too. Also, make sure the targetEntity parameter of the @ORM\ManyToOne annotation points to the user entity you created in the previous step :

<?php
// src/Acme/ApiBundle/Entity/Client.php

namespace Acme\ApiBundle\Entity;

use FOS\OAuthServerBundle\Entity\Client as BaseClient;
use Doctrine\ORM\Mapping as ORM;

/**
 * @ORM\Table("oauth2_clients")
 * @ORM\Entity
 */
class Client extends BaseClient
{
    /**
     * @ORM\Id
     * @ORM\Column(type="integer")
     * @ORM\GeneratedValue(strategy="AUTO")
     */
    protected $id;

    public function __construct()
    {
        parent::__construct();
    }
}
<?php
// src/Acme/ApiBundle/Entity/AccessToken.php

namespace Acme\ApiBundle\Entity;

use FOS\OAuthServerBundle\Entity\AccessToken as BaseAccessToken;
use Doctrine\ORM\Mapping as ORM;

/**
 * @ORM\Table("oauth2_access_tokens")
 * @ORM\Entity
 */
class AccessToken extends BaseAccessToken
{
    /**
     * @ORM\Id
     * @ORM\Column(type="integer")
     * @ORM\GeneratedValue(strategy="AUTO")
     */
    protected $id;

    /**
     * @ORM\ManyToOne(targetEntity="Client")
     * @ORM\JoinColumn(nullable=false)
     */
    protected $client;

    /**
     * @ORM\ManyToOne(targetEntity="User")
     */
    protected $user;
}
<?php
// src/Acme/ApiBundle/Entity/RefreshToken.php

namespace Acme\ApiBundle\Entity;

use FOS\OAuthServerBundle\Entity\RefreshToken as BaseRefreshToken;
use Doctrine\ORM\Mapping as ORM;

/**
 * @ORM\Table("oauth2_refresh_tokens")
 * @ORM\Entity
 */
class RefreshToken extends BaseRefreshToken
{
    /**
     * @ORM\Id
     * @ORM\Column(type="integer")
     * @ORM\GeneratedValue(strategy="AUTO")
     */
    protected $id;

    /**
     * @ORM\ManyToOne(targetEntity="Client")
     * @ORM\JoinColumn(nullable=false)
     */
    protected $client;

    /**
     * @ORM\ManyToOne(targetEntity="User")
     */
    protected $user;
}
<?php
// src/Acme/ApiBundle/Entity/AuthCode.php

namespace Acme\ApiBundle\Entity;

use FOS\OAuthServerBundle\Entity\AuthCode as BaseAuthCode;
use Doctrine\ORM\Mapping as ORM;

/**
 * @ORM\Table("oauth2_auth_codes")
 * @ORM\Entity
 */
class AuthCode extends BaseAuthCode
{
    /**
     * @ORM\Id
     * @ORM\Column(type="integer")
     * @ORM\GeneratedValue(strategy="AUTO")
     */
    protected $id;

    /**
     * @ORM\ManyToOne(targetEntity="Client")
     * @ORM\JoinColumn(nullable=false)
     */
    protected $client;

    /**
     * @ORM\ManyToOne(targetEntity="User")
     */
    protected $user;
}

You can now update your database schema :

php app/console doctrine:schema:update --force

You should have the following tables created :

mysql> describe users;
+-----------------------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| Field                 | Type         | Null | Key | Default | Extra          |
+-----------------------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| id                    | int(11)      | NO   | PRI | NULL    | auto_increment |
| username              | varchar(255) | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
| username_canonical    | varchar(255) | NO   | UNI | NULL    |                |
| email                 | varchar(255) | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
| email_canonical       | varchar(255) | NO   | UNI | NULL    |                |
| enabled               | tinyint(1)   | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
| salt                  | varchar(255) | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
| password              | varchar(255) | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
| last_login            | datetime     | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| locked                | tinyint(1)   | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
| expired               | tinyint(1)   | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
| expires_at            | datetime     | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| confirmation_token    | varchar(255) | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| password_requested_at | datetime     | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| roles                 | longtext     | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
| credentials_expired   | tinyint(1)   | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
| credentials_expire_at | datetime     | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
+-----------------------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
17 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> describe oauth2_clients;
+---------------------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| Field               | Type         | Null | Key | Default | Extra          |
+---------------------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| id                  | int(11)      | NO   | PRI | NULL    | auto_increment |
| random_id           | varchar(255) | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
| redirect_uris       | longtext     | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
| secret              | varchar(255) | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
| allowed_grant_types | longtext     | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
+---------------------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
5 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> describe oauth2_access_tokens;
+------------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| Field      | Type         | Null | Key | Default | Extra          |
+------------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| id         | int(11)      | NO   | PRI | NULL    | auto_increment |
| client_id  | int(11)      | NO   | MUL | NULL    |                |
| user_id    | int(11)      | YES  | MUL | NULL    |                |
| token      | varchar(255) | NO   | UNI | NULL    |                |
| expires_at | int(11)      | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| scope      | varchar(255) | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
+------------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
6 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> describe oauth2_auth_codes;
+--------------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| Field        | Type         | Null | Key | Default | Extra          |
+--------------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| id           | int(11)      | NO   | PRI | NULL    | auto_increment |
| client_id    | int(11)      | NO   | MUL | NULL    |                |
| user_id      | int(11)      | YES  | MUL | NULL    |                |
| token        | varchar(255) | NO   | UNI | NULL    |                |
| redirect_uri | longtext     | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
| expires_at   | int(11)      | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| scope        | varchar(255) | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
+--------------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
7 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> describe oauth2_refresh_tokens;
+------------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| Field      | Type         | Null | Key | Default | Extra          |
+------------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| id         | int(11)      | NO   | PRI | NULL    | auto_increment |
| client_id  | int(11)      | NO   | MUL | NULL    |                |
| user_id    | int(11)      | YES  | MUL | NULL    |                |
| token      | varchar(255) | NO   | UNI | NULL    |                |
| expires_at | int(11)      | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| scope      | varchar(255) | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
+------------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
6 rows in set (0.00 sec)

Add Oauth2 client

The following step consists in adding a new OAuth2 client. The documentation is not very clear on that point, the following code can be injected in a command to create new client. In our case, we need only one client, so I add the client manually with a simple SQL query :

INSERT INTO `oauth2_clients` VALUES (NULL, '3bcbxd9e24g0gk4swg0kwgcwg4o8k8g4g888kwc44gcc0gwwk4', 'a:0:{}', '4ok2x70rlfokc8g0wws8c8kwcokw80k44sg48goc0ok4w0so0k', 'a:1:{i:0;s:8:"password";}');

## Create admin user

We are going to use the command fos:user:create, provided by FOSUserBundle :

$ php app/console fos:user:create
Please choose a username:admin
Please choose an email:admin@example.com
Please choose a password:admin
Created user admin

Create a REST controller

We can now create a REST controller to deliver a very simple resource, so that we can test that our setup is working properly.

The controller

<?php

// src/Acme/ApiBundle/Controller/DemoController.php

namespace Acme\ApiBundle\Controller;

use FOS\RestBundle\Controller\FOSRestController;

class DemoController extends FOSRestController
{
    public function getDemosAction()
    {
        $data = array("hello" => "world");
        $view = $this->view($data);
        return $this->handleView($view);
    }
}

### The route configuration

# src/Acme/ApiBundle/Resources/config/routing.yml
acme_api_demos:
    type: rest
    resource: Acme\ApiBundle\Controller\DemoController

## Check OAuth2 is working

NOTE : the following commands make use of the HTTPie library. Make sure it is installed on your system before using it.

NOTE 2 : the following commands assume you are running Symfony with the built-in HTTP server. Adapt to fit your configuration.

$ http GET http://localhost:8000/app_dev.php/links
HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized
Cache-Control: no-store, private
Connection: close
Content-Type: application/json
...

{
    "error": "access_denied",
    "error_description": "OAuth2 authentication required"
}

We are not welcome here :(

We should now request an Access Token using the client and the user we created earlier. Notice the client_id parameter is a concatenation of the client id, an underscore and the client randomId :

$ http POST http://localhost:8000/app_dev.php/oauth/v2/token \
    grant_type=password \
    client_id=1_3bcbxd9e24g0gk4swg0kwgcwg4o8k8g4g888kwc44gcc0gwwk4 \
    client_secret=4ok2x70rlfokc8g0wws8c8kwcokw80k44sg48goc0ok4w0so0k \
    username=admin \
    password=admin
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Cache-Control: no-store, private
Connection: close
Content-Type: application/json
...

{
    "access_token": "MDFjZGI1MTg4MTk3YmEwOWJmMzA4NmRiMTgxNTM0ZDc1MGI3NDgzYjIwNmI3NGQ0NGE0YTQ5YTVhNmNlNDZhZQ",
    "expires_in": 3600,
    "refresh_token": "ZjYyOWY5Yzg3MTg0MDU4NWJhYzIwZWI4MDQzZTg4NWJjYzEyNzAwODUwYmQ4NjlhMDE3OGY4ZDk4N2U5OGU2Ng",
    "scope": null,
    "token_type": "bearer"
}

We can use the Acces Token we've just been given to authenticate on the next request :

$ http GET http://ledzep.dev:8000/app_dev.php/links \
    "Authorization:Bearer MDFjZGI1MTg4MTk3YmEwOWJmMzA4NmRiMTgxNTM0ZDc1MGI3NDgzYjIwNmI3NGQ0NGE0YTQ5YTVhNmNlNDZhZQ"
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Cache-Control: no-cache
Connection: close
Content-Type: application/json
...

{
    "hello": "world"
}

User information

Get current authenticated user

<?php

use use Symfony\Component\Security\Core\Exception\AccessDeniedException;

// ...
class DemoController extends FOSRestController
{
    // ...
    public function getDemosAction()
    {
        $user = $this->get('security.context')->getToken()->getUser();

        //...
        // Do something with the fully authenticated user.
        // ...
    }
    // ...
}

Check user grants

<?php

use use Symfony\Component\Security\Core\Exception\AccessDeniedException;

// ...
class DemoController extends FOSRestController
{
    // ...
    public function getDemosAction()
    {
        if ($this->get('security.context')->isGranted('ROLE_JCVD') === FALSE) {
            throw new AccessDeniedException();
        }

        // ...
    }
    // ...
}
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