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Split Tunneling tutorial - with openconnect (tested, works with Cisco AnyConnect VPN) Source: http://lists.unix-ag.uni-kl.de/pipermail/vpnc-devel/2009-February/002990.html

Table of Contents

  1. DISCLAIMER 2. Status 3. Introduction 4. Security issues 5. DNS 6. Web Proxy 7. Extended connection script 8. Example 9. Changelog

  1. DISCLAIMER =============

Misusing the information provided in this document, you can open a security hole in the network protected by VPN. Nor the authors of this document nor the developers of vpnc can be considered responsible for any damage or legal issue caused by using the information in this document. If you are not fully aware of all the possible consequences created by your actions, DON'T use any of the configuration below.

  1. Status =========

Following information has been tested only with Linux host and Nortel server. Any support or suggestion to improve this tutorial and to include other hosts and servers is warmly welcome.

  1. Introduction ===============

A usual VPN configuration routes all the network connections through the VPN tunnel. Split tunnel is able to discriminate between IPs that have to be accessed through the VPN tunnel and IPs that have to be accessed directly. Practically, split tunnel lets your computer accessing the secure network through the VPN tunnel, while also accessing internet directly.

Split tunnel is usually set and controlled by the VPN server configuration and deployed to VPN client. This tutorial explains how to use vpnc to set your own split tunnel on client side, bypassing server setting. Possible applications are:

  • fixing, on client side, a server misconfiguration;
  • enabling split tunnel when server doesn't offer it.

Several users connect to VPN just to access their corporate internal mail server. When VPN is on, lack of split tunnel stops every connection not supported or allowed in the corporate network (e.g. video, voip, chat, ssh) or dramatically slows down connection to other internet resources.

Thanks to split tunnel, you can still read mail form corporate server, while enjoying full internet experience.

  1. Security issues ==================

Split tunnel is usually not enabled in VPN servers, since it can open a security hole. In fact, in a split tunnel configuration, your computer can act as a bridge between internet and the protected network. Typical risky situations are:

  • your computer is not fully secured (e.g. infected by virus or, even worst, part of a botnet);
  • your computer has active accounts that can be accessed remotely;
  • you use a pear-to-pear SW that builds a mesh network. For such reason, most VPN server administrator guide discourage split tunnel, and system administrators usually don't take risk, keeping it disabled. So, be aware that any split tunnel on client side is done "by you" "at your own risk!" My personal suggestion is to enable it ONLY in specific situation, and only for few dedicated servers in the protected network (e.g. mail server). List one by one each server you need to connect with, and never enable a whole subnet.
  1. DNS ======

Consider that your computer only manages "one" set of DNS servers. Usually corporate networks deploy their own DNS server, that only resolves corporate internal name space. In a split tunnel your computer cannot inquire either corporate and internet DNS, but only one of them. You have now to decide which DNS you have to use, while you can use the local static lookup table in /etc/hosts for the other case.

Of course, you can setup a local DNS server, that inquires either corporate or internet DNS. Such arrangement is not covered by this tutorial.

If you only want to use the corporate mail server (supposed having fix IP), you can resolve it with /etc/hosts, and use internet DNS for all other cases.

  1. Web Proxy ============

Some corporate network is organized with a proxy server to access external web sites that can also be used to access internal ones. In this case, you do not have to configure routes to every corporate internal website you want to access, but just route to the proxy server. You can then use the same proxy to access internet web sites, or you can use a browser proxy switch (e.g. FoxyProxy http://foxyproxy.mozdev.org/ for Firefox) to select the best routing.

  1. Extended connection script =============================

Current vpnc just follows what VPN server configures. To setup your own split tunnel, there is no need to modify vpnc code, nor the connection script /etc/vpnc/vpnc-script. It is possible to create an extension of such script; practically a script that sets few variables and in turns calls /etc/vpnc/vpnc-script script. More details in example below.

  1. Example ========== In the following example we will consider:
  • Linux host (maybe valid for other UNIXes);
  • Nortel server (maybe works as is also with Cisco);
  • split tunnel to access just few hosts inside the corporate network;
  • hosts in corporate network have fixed IP addresses;
  • DNS and all other routes to internet.

8.1 Step 1

List all the hosts you need to access in the corporate network. In the following example we will consider:

  • mail server, to read messages: pop3.mycom.com;
  • smtp server, to send messages out: smtp.mycom.com;
  • ldap server, to search mail accounts: ldap.mycom.com;
  • internet proxy, to access internal websites: proxy.mycom.com. Avoid a long list; keep security in mind and just map what you really need.

8.2 Step 2

Resolve IP address of all the names you listed in Step 1, and put them in your local file /etc/hosts. We suppose all of them are fixed IP. Sometimes two or more servers are mapped to the same IP. Practically it is the same server that implements multiple functions. In the example below, we suppose that pop3 and smtp services are on the same server. Example of /etc/hosts: ______________________________________________________________________ 127.0.0.1 localhost.localdomain localhost ::1 localhost6.localdomain6 localhost6 10.0.0.130 pop3.mycom.com smtp.mycom.com 10.0.14.1 ldap.mycom.com 10.1.0.5 proxy.mycom.com ______________________________________________________________________

8.3 Step 3

Create a copy of your working vpnc config file: #> cp /etc/vpnc/corp.conf /etc/vpnc/split.conf

8.4 Step 4

Edit the new file "split.conf" and add the following line: Script /etc/vpnc/vpnc-script-corp-split It will force this new configuration to use a special script file.

8.5 Step 5

Create the file /etc/vpnc/vpnc-script-corp-split with following content ______________________________________________________________________ #!/bin/sh

# Add one IP to the list of split tunnel
add_ip ()
{
	export CISCO_SPLIT_INC_${CISCO_SPLIT_INC}_ADDR=$1
        export CISCO_SPLIT_INC_${CISCO_SPLIT_INC}_MASK=255.255.255.255
        export CISCO_SPLIT_INC_${CISCO_SPLIT_INC}_MASKLEN=32
        export CISCO_SPLIT_INC=$(($CISCO_SPLIT_INC + 1))
}

# Initialize empty split tunnel list
export CISCO_SPLIT_INC=0

# Delete DNS info provided by VPN server to use internet DNS
# Comment following line to use DNS beyond VPN tunnel
unset INTERNAL_IP4_DNS

# List of IPs beyond VPN tunnel
add_ip 10.0.0.130	# pop3.mycom.com and smtp
add_ip 10.0.14.1	# ldap.mycom.com
add_ip 10.1.0.5		# proxy.mycom.com

# Execute default script
. /etc/vpnc/vpnc-script

# End of script
______________________________________________________________________

Parameter passed to "add_ip" is used, in /etc/vpnc/vpnc-script, to set routing table by running either "ip" or "route" command, depending on system configuration. While "route" accepts both host names and IP in the command line, "ip" strictly requires numeric IP. This is quite annoying, since would be easier using only host names in the script abobe, keeping numeric IP relations in /etc/hosts only. Eventually, could be possible improving the script above by resolving names before running /etc/vpnc/vpnc-script. The command "gethostip" could be used for name resolution. Does anybody knows if the command "gethostip" is present in every Linux distro?

8.6 Step 6

At last, provide the proper execution permission: #> chmod 755 /etc/vpnc/vpnc-script-corp-split

That's all, folks! You can now run: #> vpnc split.conf

Reading routing table, you can verify the split is active. #> route Kernel IP routing table Destination Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface proxy.mycom.com * 255.255.255.255 UH 0 0 0 tun0 ldap.mycom.com * 255.255.255.255 UH 0 0 0 tun0 pop3.mycom.com * 255.255.255.255 UH 0 0 0 tun0 vpn.mycom.com 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.255 UGH 0 0 0 eth0 192.168.1.0 * 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 eth0 10.2.0.0 * 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 tun0 169.254.0.0 * 255.255.0.0 U 0 0 0 eth0 default 192.168.1.1 0.0.0.0 UG 0 0 0 eth0

9 Changelog

2009-02-28 v0.1 Antonio Borneo <borneo.antonio at gmail.com> * first version

@dlenski

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commented May 29, 2016

Thanks for this tutorial. I was inspired by it to make a vpnc-script replacement that can handle the DNS lookups automatically: https://github.com/dlenski/vpn-slice

So, to replicate your example, you could do:

$ openconnect gateway.mycom.com --script 'vpn-slice pop3.mycom.com ldap.mycom.com proxy.mycom.com'

… and it will do the following:

  • automatically look up those 3 hosts' IP addresses using the VPN-internal DNS servers
  • add routes to those 3 hosts and the DNS servers
  • add the hosts and nameservers to /etc/hosts (automatically cleaned up on disconnect)
  • other than that, no traffic will be routed through the VPN
@JuanjoSalvador

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commented Jan 29, 2017

And 4 years late...

Thanks for this tutorial!

@ghalevy

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commented Feb 13, 2019

Anything for OSX?

@dlenski

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commented May 26, 2019

Anything for OSX?

@ghalevy, dlenski/vpn-slice now supports macOS… as of the recently-merged PR #11.

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