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PCI Passthrough on Fedora 31

PCI Passthrough

Hardware:

  • Mainboard ASUS PRIME Z390-A Z390
  • ASUS Dual-GTX1650-O4G
  • Intel i9 9900
  • 32GB Ram
  • NEC Corporation uPD720200 USB 3.0 Host Controller
  • Samsung Electronics Co Ltd NVMe SSD Controller SM981/PM981/PM983 (1 TB)
  • Samsung Electronics Co Ltd NVMe SSD Controller SM961/PM961 (256 GB)

Operating Systems:

  • Host: Fedora 31
  • Guest: Windows 10

Bios Settings:

  • enable VMX
  • enable VT-d

Host preparation:

  • install fedora on the 1TB M.2

  • use custom partitioning and let the half free for data transfer between host and guest

  • after installation, update system and install virtualization and uefi bios for the VM:

    • dnf install @virtualization
    • dnf install edk2-ovmf
  • prepare grub with nano /etc/default/grub and add to GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX= at the end:

    • intel_iommu=on iommu=pt rd.driver.pre=vfio-pci
  • activate modules:

    • echo "vfio" > /etc/modules-load.d/vfio.conf
    • echo "vfio-pci" > /etc/modules-load.d/vfio-pci.conf
    • echo "vfio_iommu_type1" > /etc/modules-load.d/vfio_iommu_type1.conf
    • echo "vfio_virqfd" > /etc/modules-load.d/vfio_virqfd.conf
  • reconfigure grub:

    • dracut -f --kver $(uname -r)
    • grub2-mkconfig > /etc/grub2-efi.cfg
    • reboot
  • check iommu groups and get device IDs:

    • for g in /sys/kernel/iommu_groups/*; do echo "IOMMU Group ${g##*/}:"; for d in $g/devices/*; do echo -e "\t$(lspci -nns ${d##*/})"; done; done
    • get all IDs within the group where you devices is member, example output:
      • IOMMU Group 1:
             00:01.0 PCI bridge [0604]: Intel Corporation Xeon E3-1200 v5/E3-1500 v5/6th Gen Core Processor PCIe Controller (x16) [8086:1901] (rev 0d)
             01:00.0 VGA compatible controller [0300]: NVIDIA Corporation TU117 [GeForce GTX 1650] [10de:1f82] (rev a1)
             01:00.1 Audio device [0403]: NVIDIA Corporation Device [10de:10fa] (rev a1)
        
      IDs are: 8086:1901, 10de:1f82, 10de:10fa
      
      
  • for passthrough I need the IDs from graphic card, USB Controller, and the small M.2:

    • 8086:1901,10de:1f82,10de:10fa,144d:a804,1033:0194
  • add this IDs to /etc/modprobe.d/vfio.conf:

    • options vfio-pci ids=8086:1901,10de:1f82,10de:10fa,144d:a804,1033:0194
    • reconfigure kernel and grub again:
    • dracut -f --kver $(uname -r)
    • grub2-mkconfig > /etc/grub2-efi.cfg
    • reboot
  • check if VFIO driver are loaded:

    • dmesg | grep -i vfio
    • and also every device with: lspci -nnk -d 10de:1f82

install VM

  • use virt-manager
  • add PCI devices to the VM:
    • add hardware > pci host device > ...:
      • add graphic card, with audio device
      • add the small M.2
      • add the USB controller
  • don't create an virtual hard drive, we use the M.2
  • don't create many CPUs, create 1 socket, with cores and threads
  • install windows 10
  • after installation shutdown VM and edit xml virsh edit vmname:
    • after editing <features></features> should look like:
    <features>
        <acpi/>
        <apic/>
        <hyperv>
            <relaxed state='on'/>
            <vapic state='on'/>
            <spinlocks state='on' retries='8191'/>
            <vendor_id state='on' value='10DE'/>
        </hyperv>
        <kvm>
            <hidden state='on'/>
        </kvm>
        <vmport state='off'/>
    </features>
    
  • boot guest again and install all update

host tuning

  • change fedora window manager from wayland to x11 in /etc/gdm/custom.conf:
    ...
    [daemon]
    WaylandEnable=false
    DefaultSession=gnome-xorg.desktop
    ...
    
  • restart host
  • install and configure barrier
  • format the free space from the bigger M.2 and share it with samba

References:

@fleekix

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@fleekix fleekix commented Mar 22, 2020

Hey there jb, thanks for the write up. I followed your guide since it is the most relevant for my system (being fedora 31). I am running into very degraded performance issues though and I'm wondering if there is something stupid I missed perhaps?

  • MOTHERBOARD: Gigabyte Aorus Master X299
  • CPU: i9-9900X (6host, 4guest)
  • GPU1: RTX2070 Super (guest)
  • GPU2: RTX2060 Super (host)
  • 32GB Ram (8GB guest)

I'm running awesomewm and have set up my vms via virt-manager. I edited the xml on virt-manager as well.
I have installed windows about 4 times now using different settings including initially with bios, then q35/uefi and also i440fx uefi.

Here is the current i440fx xml:

<domain type="kvm">
  <name>win10-i440</name>
  <uuid>e1948277-a2ea-4a5e-8f71-4d907ae7c65e</uuid>
  <metadata>
    <libosinfo:libosinfo xmlns:libosinfo="http://libosinfo.org/xmlns/libvirt/domain/1.0">
      <libosinfo:os id="http://microsoft.com/win/10"/>
    </libosinfo:libosinfo>
  </metadata>
  <memory unit="KiB">8388608</memory>
  <currentMemory unit="KiB">8388608</currentMemory>
  <vcpu placement="static">4</vcpu>
  <os>
    <type arch="x86_64" machine="pc-i440fx-4.1">hvm</type>
    <loader readonly="yes" type="pflash">/usr/share/OVMF/OVMF_CODE.fd</loader>
    <nvram>/var/lib/libvirt/qemu/nvram/win10-i440_VARS.fd</nvram>
    <boot dev="cdrom"/>
  </os>
  <features>
    <acpi/>
    <apic/>
    <hyperv>
      <relaxed state="on"/>
      <vapic state="on"/>
      <spinlocks state="on" retries="8191"/>
      <vendor_id state="on" value="10DE"/>
    </hyperv>
    <kvm>
      <hidden state="on"/>
    </kvm>
    <vmport state="off"/>
  </features>
  <cpu mode="host-model" check="partial">
    <model fallback="allow"/>
  </cpu>
  <clock offset="localtime">
    <timer name="rtc" tickpolicy="catchup"/>
    <timer name="pit" tickpolicy="delay"/>
    <timer name="hpet" present="no"/>
    <timer name="hypervclock" present="yes"/>
  </clock>
  <on_poweroff>destroy</on_poweroff>
  <on_reboot>restart</on_reboot>
  <on_crash>destroy</on_crash>
  <pm>
    <suspend-to-mem enabled="no"/>
    <suspend-to-disk enabled="no"/>
  </pm>
  <devices>
    <emulator>/usr/bin/qemu-system-x86_64</emulator>
    <controller type="usb" index="0" model="qemu-xhci" ports="15">
      <address type="pci" domain="0x0000" bus="0x00" slot="0x05" function="0x0"/>
    </controller>
    <controller type="pci" index="0" model="pci-root"/>
    <interface type="network">
      <mac address="52:54:00:56:ca:3c"/>
      <source network="default"/>
      <model type="e1000e"/>
      <address type="pci" domain="0x0000" bus="0x00" slot="0x03" function="0x0"/>
    </interface>
    <input type="mouse" bus="ps2"/>
    <input type="keyboard" bus="ps2"/>
    <sound model="ac97">
      <address type="pci" domain="0x0000" bus="0x00" slot="0x04" function="0x0"/>
    </sound>
    <video>
      <model type="virtio" heads="1" primary="yes">
        <acceleration accel3d="no"/>
      </model>
      <address type="pci" domain="0x0000" bus="0x00" slot="0x02" function="0x0"/>
    </video>
    <hostdev mode="subsystem" type="pci" managed="yes">
      <source>
        <address domain="0x0000" bus="0xb3" slot="0x00" function="0x0"/>
      </source>
      <rom bar="off"/>
      <address type="pci" domain="0x0000" bus="0x00" slot="0x06" function="0x0"/>
    </hostdev>
    <hostdev mode="subsystem" type="pci" managed="yes">
      <source>
        <address domain="0x0000" bus="0x65" slot="0x00" function="0x0"/>
      </source>
      <rom bar="off"/>
      <address type="pci" domain="0x0000" bus="0x00" slot="0x07" function="0x0"/>
    </hostdev>
    <hostdev mode="subsystem" type="pci" managed="yes">
      <source>
        <address domain="0x0000" bus="0x65" slot="0x00" function="0x1"/>
      </source>
      <rom bar="off"/>
      <address type="pci" domain="0x0000" bus="0x00" slot="0x08" function="0x0"/>
    </hostdev>
    <hostdev mode="subsystem" type="pci" managed="yes">
      <source>
        <address domain="0x0000" bus="0x65" slot="0x00" function="0x2"/>
      </source>
      <rom bar="off"/>
      <address type="pci" domain="0x0000" bus="0x00" slot="0x09" function="0x0"/>
    </hostdev>
    <hostdev mode="subsystem" type="pci" managed="yes">
      <source>
        <address domain="0x0000" bus="0x65" slot="0x00" function="0x3"/>
      </source>
      <rom bar="off"/>
      <address type="pci" domain="0x0000" bus="0x00" slot="0x0a" function="0x0"/>
    </hostdev>
    <hostdev mode="subsystem" type="usb" managed="yes">
      <source>
        <vendor id="0x1532"/>
        <product id="0x0207"/>
      </source>
      <address type="usb" bus="0" port="1"/>
    </hostdev>
    <hostdev mode="subsystem" type="usb" managed="yes">
      <source>
        <vendor id="0x046d"/>
        <product id="0xc539"/>
      </source>
      <address type="usb" bus="0" port="2"/>
    </hostdev>
    <memballoon model="virtio">
      <address type="pci" domain="0x0000" bus="0x00" slot="0x0b" function="0x0"/>
    </memballoon>
  </devices>
</domain>

Any help is appreciated greatly, thanks in advance.

@jb-alvarado

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@jb-alvarado jb-alvarado commented Apr 7, 2020

Hi fleekix, sorry for my late response. What I see is, that you have a different machine type. I use pc-q35-4.1, and in your hostdev I don't see any vfio drivers.

Here is my xml, but not everything has to match:

<domain type='kvm' id='1'>
  <name>win10</name>
  <uuid>cb331742-4231-466a-948e-13b26fe64323</uuid>
  <metadata>
    <libosinfo:libosinfo xmlns:libosinfo="http://libosinfo.org/xmlns/libvirt/domain/1.0">
      <libosinfo:os id="http://microsoft.com/win/10"/>
    </libosinfo:libosinfo>
  </metadata>
  <memory unit='KiB'>18432000</memory>
  <currentMemory unit='KiB'>18432000</currentMemory>
  <vcpu placement='static' current='8'>32</vcpu>
  <resource>
    <partition>/machine</partition>
  </resource>
  <os>
    <type arch='x86_64' machine='pc-q35-4.1'>hvm</type>
    <loader readonly='yes' type='pflash'>/usr/share/edk2/ovmf/OVMF_CODE.fd</loader>
    <nvram>/var/lib/libvirt/qemu/nvram/win10_VARS.fd</nvram>
    <bootmenu enable='yes'/>
  </os>
  <features>
    <acpi/>
    <apic/>
    <hyperv>
      <relaxed state='on'/>
      <vapic state='on'/>
      <spinlocks state='on' retries='8191'/>
      <vendor_id state='on' value='10DE'/>
    </hyperv>
    <kvm>
      <hidden state='on'/>
    </kvm>
    <vmport state='off'/>
  </features>
  <cpu mode='custom' match='exact' check='full'>
    <model fallback='forbid'>Skylake-Client-IBRS</model>
    <vendor>Intel</vendor>
    <topology sockets='1' cores='4' threads='8'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='ss'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='vmx'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='hypervisor'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='tsc_adjust'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='clflushopt'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='umip'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='md-clear'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='stibp'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='arch-capabilities'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='ssbd'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='xsaves'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='pdpe1gb'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='ibpb'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='amd-ssbd'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='rdctl-no'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='ibrs-all'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='skip-l1dfl-vmentry'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='mds-no'/>
    <feature policy='disable' name='hle'/>
    <feature policy='disable' name='rtm'/>
    <feature policy='disable' name='mpx'/>
  </cpu>
  <clock offset='localtime'>
    <timer name='rtc' tickpolicy='catchup'/>
    <timer name='pit' tickpolicy='delay'/>
    <timer name='hpet' present='no'/>
    <timer name='hypervclock' present='yes'/>
  </clock>
  <on_poweroff>destroy</on_poweroff>
  <on_reboot>restart</on_reboot>
  <on_crash>destroy</on_crash>
  <pm>
    <suspend-to-mem enabled='no'/>
    <suspend-to-disk enabled='no'/>
  </pm>
  <devices>
    <emulator>/usr/bin/qemu-system-x86_64</emulator>
    <disk type='file' device='cdrom'>
      <driver name='qemu'/>
      <target dev='sda' bus='sata'/>
      <readonly/>
      <boot order='2'/>
      <alias name='sata0-0-0'/>
      <address type='drive' controller='0' bus='0' target='0' unit='0'/>
    </disk>
    <controller type='usb' index='0' model='qemu-xhci' ports='15'>
      <alias name='usb'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x02' slot='0x00' function='0x0'/>
    </controller>
    <controller type='sata' index='0'>
      <alias name='ide'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x1f' function='0x2'/>
    </controller>
    <controller type='pci' index='0' model='pcie-root'>
      <alias name='pcie.0'/>
    </controller>
    <controller type='pci' index='1' model='pcie-root-port'>
      <model name='pcie-root-port'/>
      <target chassis='1' port='0x10'/>
      <alias name='pci.1'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x02' function='0x0' multifunction='on'/>
    </controller>
    <controller type='pci' index='2' model='pcie-root-port'>
      <model name='pcie-root-port'/>
      <target chassis='2' port='0x11'/>
      <alias name='pci.2'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x02' function='0x1'/>
    </controller>
    <controller type='pci' index='3' model='pcie-root-port'>
      <model name='pcie-root-port'/>
      <target chassis='3' port='0x12'/>
      <alias name='pci.3'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x02' function='0x2'/>
    </controller>
    <controller type='pci' index='4' model='pcie-root-port'>
      <model name='pcie-root-port'/>
      <target chassis='4' port='0x13'/>
      <alias name='pci.4'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x02' function='0x3'/>
    </controller>
    <controller type='pci' index='5' model='pcie-root-port'>
      <model name='pcie-root-port'/>
      <target chassis='5' port='0x14'/>
      <alias name='pci.5'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x02' function='0x4'/>
    </controller>
    <controller type='pci' index='6' model='pcie-root-port'>
      <model name='pcie-root-port'/>
      <target chassis='6' port='0x15'/>
      <alias name='pci.6'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x02' function='0x5'/>
    </controller>
    <controller type='pci' index='7' model='pcie-root-port'>
      <model name='pcie-root-port'/>
      <target chassis='7' port='0x16'/>
      <alias name='pci.7'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x02' function='0x6'/>
    </controller>
    <controller type='pci' index='8' model='pcie-root-port'>
      <model name='pcie-root-port'/>
      <target chassis='8' port='0x17'/>
      <alias name='pci.8'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x02' function='0x7'/>
    </controller>
    <controller type='fdc' index='0'>
      <alias name='fdc0'/>
    </controller>
    <controller type='virtio-serial' index='0'>
      <alias name='virtio-serial0'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x03' slot='0x00' function='0x0'/>
    </controller>
    <interface type='bridge'>
      <mac address='52:54:00:dd:2c:5e'/>
      <source network='br0' portid='691e3257-55f2-4863-9f2a-b077fc452d3e' bridge='br0'/>
      <target dev='vnet0'/>
      <model type='virtio'/>
      <alias name='net0'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x01' slot='0x00' function='0x0'/>
    </interface>
    <serial type='pty'>
      <source path='/dev/pts/0'/>
      <target type='isa-serial' port='0'>
        <model name='isa-serial'/>
      </target>
      <alias name='serial0'/>
    </serial>
    <console type='pty' tty='/dev/pts/0'>
      <source path='/dev/pts/0'/>
      <target type='serial' port='0'/>
      <alias name='serial0'/>
    </console>
    <channel type='spicevmc'>
      <target type='virtio' name='com.redhat.spice.0' state='connected'/>
      <alias name='channel0'/>
      <address type='virtio-serial' controller='0' bus='0' port='1'/>
    </channel>
    <input type='tablet' bus='usb'>
      <alias name='input0'/>
      <address type='usb' bus='0' port='1'/>
    </input>
    <input type='mouse' bus='ps2'>
      <alias name='input1'/>
    </input>
    <input type='keyboard' bus='ps2'>
      <alias name='input2'/>
    </input>
    <graphics type='spice' port='5900' autoport='yes' listen='127.0.0.1'>
      <listen type='address' address='127.0.0.1'/>
      <image compression='off'/>
    </graphics>
    <sound model='ich9'>
      <alias name='sound0'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x1b' function='0x0'/>
    </sound>
    <video>
      <model type='qxl' ram='65536' vram='65536' vgamem='16384' heads='1' primary='yes'/>
      <alias name='video0'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x01' function='0x0'/>
    </video>
    <hostdev mode='subsystem' type='pci' managed='yes'>
      <driver name='vfio'/>
      <source>
        <address domain='0x0000' bus='0x01' slot='0x00' function='0x0'/>
      </source>
      <alias name='hostdev0'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x04' slot='0x00' function='0x0'/>
    </hostdev>
    <hostdev mode='subsystem' type='pci' managed='yes'>
      <driver name='vfio'/>
      <source>
        <address domain='0x0000' bus='0x01' slot='0x00' function='0x1'/>
      </source>
      <alias name='hostdev1'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x05' slot='0x00' function='0x0'/>
    </hostdev>
    <hostdev mode='subsystem' type='pci' managed='yes'>
      <driver name='vfio'/>
      <source>
        <address domain='0x0000' bus='0x05' slot='0x00' function='0x0'/>
      </source>
      <alias name='hostdev2'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x07' slot='0x00' function='0x0'/>
    </hostdev>
    <hostdev mode='subsystem' type='pci' managed='yes'>
      <driver name='vfio'/>
      <source>
        <address domain='0x0000' bus='0x06' slot='0x00' function='0x0'/>
      </source>
      <boot order='1'/>
      <alias name='hostdev3'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x08' slot='0x00' function='0x0'/>
    </hostdev>
    <redirdev bus='usb' type='spicevmc'>
      <alias name='redir0'/>
      <address type='usb' bus='0' port='2'/>
    </redirdev>
    <redirdev bus='usb' type='spicevmc'>
      <alias name='redir1'/>
      <address type='usb' bus='0' port='3'/>
    </redirdev>
    <memballoon model='virtio'>
      <alias name='balloon0'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x06' slot='0x00' function='0x0'/>
    </memballoon>
  </devices>
  <seclabel type='dynamic' model='selinux' relabel='yes'>
    <label>system_u:system_r:svirt_t:s0:c586,c777</label>
    <imagelabel>system_u:object_r:svirt_image_t:s0:c586,c777</imagelabel>
  </seclabel>
  <seclabel type='dynamic' model='dac' relabel='yes'>
    <label>+107:+107</label>
    <imagelabel>+107:+107</imagelabel>
  </seclabel>
</domain>

For the network you should use virtio driver, also for the hard drive when is only a virtual one. Have you also install the virtio drivers in Windows? They are important.

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@barii barii commented Apr 14, 2020

have you used the integrated GPU on the host?
I have the same Motherboard and CPU, I have a Radeon card on the PCI slot closest to the CPU, and an Nvidia in the middle slot, and they appear to be in the same IOMMU slot :(

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@jb-alvarado jb-alvarado commented Apr 14, 2020

Yes I use the GPU from CPU on host. It look like, there is a kernel Patch for that:

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/PCI_passthrough_via_OVMF#Bypassing_the_IOMMU_groups_(ACS_override_patch)

https://github.com/Somersall-Natalie/fedora-acs-override

But I have no idea how good and stable this will work.

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@barii barii commented Apr 14, 2020

yes, your second link is what I tried, but it faild compiling kernel. I haven't looked it in more detail.
also even when the CPU's GPU is enablet, it is not on the list when I run
for d in /sys/kernel/iommu_groups//devices/; do n=${d#/iommu_groups/}; n=${n%%/}; printf 'IOMMU Group %s ' "$n"; lspci -nns "${d##/}"; done;
maybe it doesn't need to be I guess.

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@jb-alvarado jb-alvarado commented Apr 14, 2020

By me the CPU GPU was the default, it can also be configured in the BIOS. But yes, it don't need to be listed.

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@thatnerdjosh thatnerdjosh commented May 22, 2020

This is giving me a black screen where I can't even see anything past grub on the host, also tried ctrl+alt+F* to switch tty

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@jb-alvarado jb-alvarado commented May 26, 2020

Can it be that you have blacklisted your primary GPU?

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@adam-hanna adam-hanna commented Apr 27, 2021

Thanks for the great writeup!

FYI - I wasn't able to use the included command to check iommu groups and get device IDs. Rather, I had to use $ lspci -nn | grep "VGA\|Audio\|USB"

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@LaakJoonas LaakJoonas commented Jul 5, 2021

I followed the guide to the letter, but the system is not booting after changing the Grub settings.

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