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<?php
/**
* Fancy ID generator that creates 20-character string identifiers with the following properties:
*
* 1. They're based on timestamp so that they sort *after* any existing ids.
* 2. They contain 72-bits of random data after the timestamp so that IDs won't collide with other clients' IDs.
* 3. They sort *lexicographically* (so the timestamp is converted to characters that will sort properly).
* 4. They're monotonically increasing. Even if you generate more than one in the same timestamp, the
* latter ones will sort after the former ones. We do this by using the previous random bits
* but "incrementing" them by 1 (only in the case of a timestamp collision).
*/
class PushId
{
/**
* Modeled after base64 web-safe chars, but ordered by ASCII.
*
* @var string
*/
const PUSH_CHARS = '-0123456789ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ_abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz';
/**
* Timestamp of last push, used to prevent local collisions if you push twice in one ms.
*
* @var int
*/
private static $lastPushTime = 0;
/**
* We generate 72-bits of randomness which get turned into 12 characters and appended to the
* timestamp to prevent collisions with other clients. We store the last characters we
* generated because in the event of a collision, we'll use those same characters except
* "incremented" by one.
*
* @var array
*/
private static $lastRandChars = [];
/**
* @return string
*/
public static function generate()
{
$now = (int) microtime(true) * 1000;
$isDuplicateTime = ($now === static::$lastPushTime);
static::$lastPushTime = $now;
$timeStampChars = new SplFixedArray(8);
for ($i = 7; $i >= 0; $i--) {
$timeStampChars[$i] = substr(self::PUSH_CHARS, $now % 64, 1);
// NOTE: Can't use << here because javascript will convert to int and lose the upper bits.
$now = (int) floor($now / 64);
}
static::assert($now === 0, 'We should have converted the entire timestamp.');
$id = implode('', $timeStampChars->toArray());
if (!$isDuplicateTime) {
for ($i = 0; $i < 12; $i++) {
$lastRandChars[$i] = floor(rand(0, 64));
}
} else {
// If the timestamp hasn't changed since last push, use the same random number, except incremented by 1.
for ($i = 11; $i >= 0 && static::$lastRandChars[$i] === 63; $i--) {
static::$lastRandChars[$i] = 0;
}
static::$lastRandChars[$i]++;
}
for ($i = 0; $i < 12; $i++) {
$id .= substr(self::PUSH_CHARS, $lastRandChars[$i], 1);
}
static::assert(strlen($id) === 20, 'Length should be 20.');
return $id;
}
/**
* @param bool $condition
* @param string $message
*/
private static function assert($condition, $message = '')
{
if ($condition !== true) {
throw new RuntimeException($message);
}
}
}
@fanis

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commented Feb 12, 2015

FYI, happened to test this on a PHP 5.2 machine, and just wanted to note that PHP 5.4 is required due to "[]"-style array creation and static keyword, and 5.3 due to SplFixedArray. Both easily fixable if you need it on <=5.3

@jbroadway

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commented Feb 23, 2015

Made a small fix that was causing duplicate time IDs to not generate properly. Also encountering the "Length should be 20" exception every so often, still looking into that one. Here's the fix:

https://gist.github.com/jbroadway/2dd13a7c43800adcdcea

Seems the exception is caused by being one character short:

Length should be 20: -JirjAP7-f4p8YWk9wp
Length should be 20: -JirjAP7-f4p8YWk9wq
Length should be 20: -JirjAP7-f4p8YWk9wr
Length should be 20: -JirjAP7-f4p8YWk9ws
Length should be 20: -JirjAP7-f4p8YWk9wt
Length should be 20: -JirjAP7-f4p8YWk9wu
Length should be 20: -JirjAP7-f4p8YWk9wv
Length should be 20: -JirjAP7-f4p8YWk9ww
Length should be 20: -JirjAP7-f4p8YWk9wx
Length should be 20: -JirjAP7-f4p8YWk9wy
@jbroadway

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commented Feb 24, 2015

Just added a fix for the length exception in my fork too.

@datasage

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commented Feb 11, 2016

The issue with this implementation is that the character key is allowed to get to 64 and there is no character for 64. @jbroadway's solution doesn't quite fix it either. There was also an issue with a strict type check being the wrong data type.

Take a look at this version: https://gist.github.com/datasage/fbd4cdc725598e184c7d

@baversjo

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commented Sep 18, 2017

I noticed that the value of $now always ended with 000. The (int) conversion takes precedence over *1000, so you never get ms precision with above solution. This is a bug specific to the PHP fork; the js implementation has ms in the timestamp.
To fix, replace this line:
$now = (int) microtime(true) * 1000;
with this:
$now = (int) (microtime(true) * 1000);

@romain-w

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commented Mar 14, 2018

This code does not seem to work since 28/11/2017 01:21 AM (Paris)
The part of the code $now % 64 on line 50 goes into negative
This results in the error:

Fatal error: Uncaught exception 'RuntimeException' with message 'We should have converted the entire timestamp.'

My temporary solution was to add after line 54:
if($now < 0 ) $now = 0;

@frozsgy

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commented Jun 28, 2019

The 61st line sometimes causes errors, since there isn't a 64th character. It should be replaced with $lastRandChars[$i] = floor(rand(0, 63));

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