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zenrecover.py
#!/usr/bin/python
# Copyright 2007 by Tobia Conforto <tobia.conforto@gmail.com>
#
# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General
# Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your
# option) any later version.
#
# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the
# implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License
# for more details.
#
# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program.
# If not, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/
# Versions: 0.1 2007-08-13 Initial release
# 0.2 2008-05-12 Small fixes for Zen Xtra models
# 0.3 2009-02-23 Zen Vision M compatible version (Leho Kraav <leho@kraav.com>)
# 0.2a 2010-07-20 Undid most of 0.3's changes to make it Zen Xtra-compatible again
# (because Tobia Conforto's site no longer has it and 0.3 is the only version of this
# script I can find anywhere)
# Modified it to use LRUCache from http://evan.prodromou.name/Software/Python/LRUCache
# because I couldn't find the module LRU that it used before.
# Added code to reencode path and filenames to UTF-8 since certain "weird" characters in
# filenames appearing on the device caused an unhandled exception.
# (Joe McKenzie <joemck85@gmail.com>)
# 0.2b 2010-07-21 Fixed problem when the filename field contains a path.
# Fixed problem with files added by XNJB for Max OS X
# Fixed a serious bug in the previous revision of this on Gist that created insane dirs
# Combined Xtra and Vision M tag checks to make it a bit easier to convert the script
# Removed use of LRUCache because:
# a. Most sectors are accessed exactly once, making the cache pointless.
# b. On my Slackware 13.1 AMD64 box with Python 2.6,
# with LRUCache: 2.5 MB/s
# without cache: 80 MB/s (d'oh...)
# (AMD Sempron 140, 2 GB RAM, 40 GB Zen Xtra disk image stored on one WD20EARS
# [2 TB WD Green drive], recovering to a directory on another WD20EARS)
# **** Cleaned up code and comments a bit, for instructions to make it work with a ****
# **** Zen Vision M, search this file for "visionm" ****
# (Joe McKenzie <joemck85@gmail.com>)
from __future__ import division
import sys, os, codecs, array, time, operator, getopt, re
class CFS:
# visionm: change this 0x2000 to 0x8000
clusterSize = 0x2000
def __init__(self, filename, offset = 0):
'''Filename and optional offset where the CFS filesystem begins
(offset of cluster -1, the one filled with 0xff)'''
self.image = file(filename)
self.offset = offset
def __getitem__(self, key):
'''Get the nth CFS cluster from the image and cache it for later usage.
Accepts simple slices of clusters, but doesn't process negative indices.
In any case it returns the requested data as a byte string.'''
if isinstance(key, slice):
cstart, cstop = key.start, key.stop
else:
cstart, cstop = key, key + 1
data = ''
for cluster in range(cstart, cstop):
self.image.seek(self.offset + (cluster + 1) * self.clusterSize)
data += self.image.read(self.clusterSize)
return data
def get_byteswapped_data(self, cluster):
'''Get the nth CFS cluster from the image, without caching it.
Swap the position of every two bytes and return it as an array object.
This method is designed for bulk file retrieving.'''
a = array.array('H')
self.image.seek(self.offset + (cluster + 1) * self.clusterSize)
a.fromfile(self.image, self.clusterSize // 2)
# visionm: comment/remove the following 1 line
a.byteswap()
return a
def inode(self, cluster):
return CFSInode(self, cluster)
def pdp_uint32_xtra(data, offset = 0):
o2, o1, o4, o3 = map(ord, data[offset : offset + 4])
return (o1 << 24) | (o2 << 16) | (o3 << 8) | o4
def pdp_uint32_vision(data, offset = 0):
o4, o3, o2, o1 = map(ord, data[offset : offset + 4])
return (o1 << 24) | (o2 << 16) | (o3 << 8) | o4
def pdp_uint32(data, offset = 0):
# visionm: change "xtra" in the following line to "vision"
return pdp_uint32_xtra(data, offset)
def pdp_uint16(data, offset = 0):
o2, o1 = map(ord, data[offset : offset + 2])
return (o1 << 8) | o2
def ucs2string(data, offset, length): # length in bytes
return codecs.utf_16_le_decode(data[offset : offset + length])[0]
def pdp_getbit(bitmap, bit_no):
return (pdp_uint32(bitmap, bit_no // 32 * 4) >> (bit_no % 32)) & 1
class CFSInode:
filename = '(no filename)'
filesize = 0
path = []
def __init__(self, cfs, cluster):
self.filename = '(no filename)'
self.filesize = 0
self.path = []
self.cluster = cluster
self.cfs = cfs
inode = cfs[cluster]
# reading misc flags and values
print "pdp_uint: %x" % pdp_uint32(inode[4:8])
print "cluster: %x" % cluster
assert pdp_uint32(inode[4:8]) == cluster # self-reference
self.serial = pdp_uint32(inode, 0x78)
# reading metadata
count_metadata = pdp_uint32(inode, 0x7c)
offset = 0x80
self.metadata = {}
for i in range(count_metadata):
assert pdp_uint16(inode, offset) == 3
length = pdp_uint16(inode, offset + 2)
tag = ucs2string(inode, offset + 4, 4)
self.metadata[tag] = inode[offset + 10 : offset + 10 + length]
# byte reordering issue, 07 -> 70, 0= -> =0, 0> -> >0
# but we cannot figure out where to get path info, tag '51' doesnt work
#...putting both the Xtra and Vision M tags here
# First one listed is for Zen Xtra, second/third are for Zen Vision M
# Remove the ones for the Nomad you don't have if the extra checks cause problems
if tag == '07' or tag == '70':
self.filename = unicode(ucs2string(inode, offset + 10, length - 2)).strip('\\/').encode("utf-8")
#I don't have a Vision M, so I can't test this... 51 or =0 might work...
elif tag == '0=' or tag == '51' or tag == '=0':
# handle UTF-8 properly
self.path = unicode(ucs2string(inode, offset + 10, length - 2)).encode("utf-8")
# split on both \ and /
self.path = re.split(r"[\\/]+", self.path.strip('\\/'))
elif tag == '0>' or tag == '>0':
self.filesize = pdp_uint32(inode, offset + 10)
offset += 10 + length
#if filename has / or \ in it, split and append those to the path
# (XNJB puts whole path in filename and leaves path blank)
if '/' in self.filename or '\\' in self.filename:
self.path.extend(re.split(r"[\\/]+", self.filename))
self.filename = self.path.pop()
print 'adjusted filename: %s' % self.filename
print 'adjusted path: %s' % repr(self.path)
# collecting flat list of data clusters
self.dataclusters = []
pointerclusters = []
for off in range(0x20, 0x4c + 1, 4):
c = pdp_uint32(inode, off)
if c != 0xFFFFFFFFL:
self.dataclusters.append(c)
second_class_chain = pdp_uint32(inode, 0x58)
if second_class_chain != 0xFFFFFFFFL:
pointerclusters.append(second_class_chain)
third_class_chain = pdp_uint32(inode, 0x64)
if third_class_chain != 0xFFFFFFFFL:
# visionm: change this 0x2000 to 0x8000
for off in range(0, 0x2000, 4):
c = pdp_uint32(cfs[third_class_chain], off)
if c == 0xFFFFFFFFL:
break
pointerclusters.append(c)
for pnt in pointerclusters:
# visionm: change this 0x2000 to 0x8000
for off in range(0, 0x2000, 4):
c = pdp_uint32(cfs[pnt], off)
if c == 0xFFFFFFFFL:
break
self.dataclusters.append(c)
# reading directory entries
if not self.metadata: # any better way of telling dirs and files apart?
count_direntries = pdp_uint32(self, 8)
self.direntries = []
found = 0
# since clusters are 4 times bigger now, we need % 2 and // 2 instead of ... 8
# visionm: change the 8's in the next TWO lines to 2
assert len(self.dataclusters) % 8 == 0
for block_no in range(len(self.dataclusters) // 8):
block = self[block_no * 0x10000 : block_no * 0x10000 + 0x10000]
bitmap = block[16 : 16 + 204]
for n in range(1632):
if pdp_getbit(bitmap, n):
off = 220 + n * 40
self.direntries.append(CFSDirEntry(cfs, block[off : off + 40]))
found += 1
assert found == count_direntries
def __getitem__(self, key):
'''Returns the given byte (or byte slice) from the file contents.'''
if isinstance(key, slice):
bstart, bstop = key.start, key.stop
else:
bstart, bstop = key, key + 1
cs = self.cfs.clusterSize
cstart = bstart // cs
cstop = (bstop - 1) // cs + 1
data = ''.join([ self.cfs[x] for x in self.dataclusters[cstart : cstop] ])
return data[bstart - cs * cstart : bstop - cs * cstart]
class CFSDirEntry:
def __init__(self, cfs, entrydata):
self.cluster = pdp_uint32(entrydata) # cluster no. of the inode
# length of full filename
self.len_filename = pdp_uint16(entrydata, 4)
# first 15 chars of filename
self.shortname = ucs2string(entrydata, 8, min(30, self.len_filename * 2))
if __name__ == '__main__':
# commandline arguments
optlist, args = getopt.gnu_getopt(sys.argv[1:], 'o:')
opts = dict(optlist)
offset = int(opts.get('-o', 20 * 2**20))
if len(args) != 3:
print 'Usage: zenrecover.py [-o OFFSET] DISK_OR_IMAGE SECTION OUTPUT_DIR'
print 'DISK_OR_IMAGE is the disk containing the filesystem, or an image thereof'
print 'OFFSET is the offset at which the filesystem starts (in bytes, default 20M)'
print 'SECTION is the section of the filesystem to recover: "archives" or "songs"'
print 'OUTPUT_DIR is the directory in which to place the recovered files'
sys.exit(1)
cfs = CFS(args[0], offset)
section = args[1]
outdir = args[2]
# find the root inode
rootinode = None
for c in range(4, 0x10000):
if pdp_uint32(cfs[c][:4]) == 0x3bbe0ad9:
print "Found inode at cluster 0x%x" % c
i = cfs.inode(c)
if i.serial != 0xFFFFFFFFL:
print "Found inode at cluster 0x%x, but serial number is not -1" % c
continue
rootinode = i
break
if not rootinode:
raise "Could not find the root inode"
# find the root directories
root = {}
for entry in rootinode.direntries:
root[entry.shortname] = entry.cluster
print root
# begin recovery
dirinode = cfs.inode(root[section])
os.makedirs(outdir)
lastfiles = [(1,1)] # timing of latest few files recovered (size in bytes, time in secs)
t = len(dirinode.direntries)
for i, entry in enumerate(dirinode.direntries):
if entry.shortname != '.':
t0 = time.time()
inode = cfs.inode(entry.cluster)
print
m=inode.metadata
for j in m:
if len(m[j])==4:
print repr(j), pdp_uint32(m[j])
else:
print repr(j), repr(''.join([m[j][x] for x in range(0,len(m[j]),2)]))
print '\r%d%% %.1fMB/s "%s" (%.1fMB)\033[K' % (
i * 100 // t,
operator.truediv(*map(sum, zip(*lastfiles))) / 2**20,
inode.filename[:50],
inode.filesize / 2**20),
sys.stdout.flush()
path = os.path.join(outdir, *inode.path)
try:
os.makedirs(path)
except:
pass
f = file(os.path.join(path, inode.filename), 'w')
remaining = inode.filesize
for c in inode.dataclusters:
if remaining >= cfs.clusterSize:
cfs.get_byteswapped_data(c).tofile(f)
else:
f.write(cfs.get_byteswapped_data(c).tostring()[:remaining])
remaining -= min(cfs.clusterSize, remaining)
f.close()
assert remaining == 0
if len(lastfiles) >= 32: #transfer speed is calculated on latest 32 files
lastfiles.pop(0)
lastfiles.append((inode.filesize, time.time() - t0))
print '\rDone.\033[K'
@ben-xo
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ben-xo commented May 8, 2014

Just dumped the hard disk from my Creative NOMAD Jukebox 3, which had loads of whole-night-long live recordings from gigs on it. It was tricky to track this script down. Many many thanks!

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