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Complete example code showing how to construct a UDP packet from scratch and inject it on a WiFi interface in Linux
/**
* Hello, and welcome to this brief, but hopefully complete, example file for
* wireless packet injection using pcap.
*
* Although there are various resources for this spread on the web, it is hard
* to find a single, cohesive piece that shows how everything fits together.
* This file aims to give such an example, constructing a fully valid UDP packet
* all the way from the 802.11 PHY header (through radiotap) to the data part of
* the packet and then injecting it on a wireless interface
*
* Skip down a couple of lines, as the following is just headers and such that
* we need.
*/
#include <pcap.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <arpa/inet.h>
#include <linux/ip.h>
#include <linux/udp.h>
/* Defined in include/linux/ieee80211.h */
struct ieee80211_hdr {
uint16_t /*__le16*/ frame_control;
uint16_t /*__le16*/ duration_id;
uint8_t addr1[6];
uint8_t addr2[6];
uint8_t addr3[6];
uint16_t /*__le16*/ seq_ctrl;
//uint8_t addr4[6];
} __attribute__ ((packed));
#define WLAN_FC_TYPE_DATA 2
#define WLAN_FC_SUBTYPE_DATA 0
/*************************** START READING AGAIN ******************************/
/* A bogus MAC address just to show that it can be done */
const uint8_t mac[6] = { 0x01, 0x23, 0x45, 0x67, 0x89, 0xab };
/**
* Note that we are using the broadcast address as the destination and the
* link-local address as the source to be nice to routers and such.
*
*/
const char * to = "255.255.255.255";
const char * from = "169.254.1.1";
/**
* Radiotap is a protocol of sorts that is used to convey information about the
* physical-layer part of wireless transmissions. When monitoring an interface
* for packets, it will contain information such as what rate was used, what
* channel it was sent on, etc. When injecting a packet, we can use it to tell
* the 802.11 card how we want the frame to be transmitted.
*
* The format of the radiotap header is somewhat odd.
* include/net/ieee80211_radiotap.h does an okay job of explaining it, but I'll
* try to give a quick overview here.
*
* Keep in mind that all the fields here are little-endian, so you should
* reverse the order of the bytes in your head when reading. Also, fields that
* are set to 0 just mean that we let the card choose what values to use for
* that option (for rate and channel for example, we'll let the card decide).
*/
static const uint8_t u8aRadiotapHeader[] = {
0x00, 0x00, // <-- radiotap version (ignore this)
0x18, 0x00, // <-- number of bytes in our header (count the number of "0x"s)
/**
* The next field is a bitmap of which options we are including.
* The full list of which field is which option is in ieee80211_radiotap.h,
* but I've chosen to include:
* 0x00 0x01: timestamp
* 0x00 0x02: flags
* 0x00 0x03: rate
* 0x00 0x04: channel
* 0x80 0x00: tx flags (seems silly to have this AND flags, but oh well)
*/
0x0f, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, // <-- timestamp
/**
* This is the first set of flags, and we've set the bit corresponding to
* IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_F_FCS, meaning we want the card to add a FCS at the end
* of our buffer for us.
*/
0x10,
0x00, // <-- rate
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, // <-- channel
/**
* This is the second set of flags, specifically related to transmissions. The
* bit we've set is IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_F_TX_NOACK, which means the card won't
* wait for an ACK for this frame, and that it won't retry if it doesn't get
* one.
*/
0x08, 0x00,
};
/**
* After an 802.11 MAC-layer header, a logical link control (LLC) header should
* be placed to tell the receiver what kind of data will follow (see IEEE 802.2
* for more information).
*
* For political reasons, IP wasn't allocated a global so-called SAP number,
* which means that a simple LLC header is not enough to indicate that an IP
* frame was sent. 802.2 does, however, allow EtherType types (the same kind of
* type numbers used in, you guessed it, Ethernet) through the use of the
* "Subnetwork Access Protocol", or SNAP. To use SNAP, the three bytes in the
* LLC have to be set to the magical numbers 0xAA 0xAA 0x03. The next five bytes
* are then interpreted as a SNAP header. To specify an EtherType, we need to
* set the first three of them to 0. The last two bytes can then finally be set
* to 0x0800, which is the IP EtherType.
*/
const uint8_t ipllc[8] = { 0xaa, 0xaa, 0x03, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x08, 0x00 };
/**
* A simple implementation of the internet checksum used by IP
* Not very interesting, so it has been moved below main()
*/
uint16_t inet_csum(const void *buf, size_t hdr_len);
int main(void) {
/* The parts of our packet */
uint8_t *rt; /* radiotap */
struct ieee80211_hdr *hdr;
uint8_t *llc;
struct iphdr *ip;
struct udphdr *udp;
uint8_t *data;
/* Other useful bits */
uint8_t *buf;
size_t sz;
uint8_t fcchunk[2]; /* 802.11 header frame control */
struct sockaddr_in saddr, daddr; /* IP source and destination */
/* PCAP vars */
char errbuf[PCAP_ERRBUF_SIZE];
pcap_t *ppcap;
/* Total buffer size (note the 0 bytes of data and the 4 bytes of FCS */
sz = sizeof(u8aRadiotapHeader) + sizeof(struct ieee80211_hdr) + sizeof(ipllc) + sizeof(struct iphdr) + sizeof(struct udphdr) + 0 /* data */ + 4 /* FCS */;
buf = (uint8_t *) malloc(sz);
/* Put our pointers in the right place */
rt = (uint8_t *) buf;
hdr = (struct ieee80211_hdr *) (rt+sizeof(u8aRadiotapHeader));
llc = (uint8_t *) (hdr+1);
ip = (struct iphdr *) (llc+sizeof(ipllc));
udp = (struct udphdr *) (ip+1);
data = (uint8_t *) (udp+1);
/* The radiotap header has been explained already */
memcpy(rt, u8aRadiotapHeader, sizeof(u8aRadiotapHeader));
/**
* Next, we need to construct the 802.11 header
*
* The biggest trick here is the frame control field.
* http://www.wildpackets.com/resources/compendium/wireless_lan/wlan_packets
* gives a fairly good explanation.
*
* The first byte of the FC gives the type and "subtype" of the 802.11 frame.
* We're transmitting a data frame, so we set both the type and the subtype to
* DATA.
*
* Most guides also forget to mention that the bits *within each byte* in the
* FC are reversed (!!!), so FROMDS is actually the *second to last* bit in
* the FC, hence 0x02.
*/
fcchunk[0] = ((WLAN_FC_TYPE_DATA << 2) | (WLAN_FC_SUBTYPE_DATA << 4));
fcchunk[1] = 0x02;
memcpy(&hdr->frame_control, &fcchunk[0], 2*sizeof(uint8_t));
/**
* The remaining fields are more straight forward.
* The duration we can set to some arbitrary high number, and the sequence
* number can safely be set to 0.
* The addresses here can be set to whatever, but bear in mind that which
* address corresponds to source/destination/BSSID will vary depending on
* which of TODS and FROMDS are set. The full table can be found at the
* wildpackets.com link above, or condensed here:
*
* +-------+---------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-----------+
* | To DS | From DS | Address 1 | Address 2 | Address 3 | Address 4 |
* +-------+---------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-----------+
* | 0 | 0 | Destination | Source | BSSID | N/A |
* | 0 | 1 | Destination | BSSID | Source | N/A |
* | 1 | 0 | BSSID | Source | Destination | N/A |
* | 1 | 1 | Receiver | Transmitter | Destination | Source |
* +-------+---------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-----------+
*
* Also note that addr4 has been commented out. This is because it should not
* be present unless both TODS *and* FROMDS has been set (as shown above).
*/
hdr->duration_id = 0xffff;
memcpy(&hdr->addr1[0], mac, 6*sizeof(uint8_t));
memcpy(&hdr->addr2[0], mac, 6*sizeof(uint8_t));
memcpy(&hdr->addr3[0], mac, 6*sizeof(uint8_t));
hdr->seq_ctrl = 0;
//hdr->addr4;
/* The LLC+SNAP header has already been explained above */
memcpy(llc, ipllc, 8*sizeof(uint8_t));
/**
* Now we're getting into familiar territory, IP headers!
*
* Remember that the tot_length is little-endian, so we need to run htons()
* over the entire "real" length.
*/
daddr.sin_family = AF_INET;
saddr.sin_family = AF_INET;
daddr.sin_port = htons(50505);
saddr.sin_port = htons(50505);
inet_pton(AF_INET, to, (struct in_addr *)&daddr.sin_addr.s_addr);
inet_pton(AF_INET, from, (struct in_addr *)&saddr.sin_addr.s_addr);
ip->ihl = 5; /* header length, number of 32-bit words */
ip->version = 4;
ip->tos = 0x0;
ip->id = 0;
ip->frag_off = htons(0x4000); /* Don't fragment */
ip->ttl = 64;
ip->tot_len = htons(sizeof(struct iphdr) + sizeof(struct udphdr) + 0 /* data */);
ip->protocol = IPPROTO_UDP;
ip->saddr = saddr.sin_addr.s_addr;
ip->daddr = daddr.sin_addr.s_addr;
/**
* The checksum should be calculated over the entire header with the checksum
* field set to 0, so that's what we do
*/
ip->check = 0;
ip->check = inet_csum(ip, sizeof(struct iphdr));
/**
* The UDP header is refreshingly simple.
* Again, notice the little-endianness of ->len
* UDP also lets us set the checksum to 0 to ignore it
*/
udp->source = saddr.sin_port;
udp->dest = daddr.sin_port;
udp->len = htons(sizeof(struct udphdr) + 0 /* data */);
udp->check = 0;
/**
* Finally, we have the packet and are ready to inject it.
* First, we open the interface we want to inject on using pcap.
*/
ppcap = pcap_open_live("wlan0", 800, 1, 20, errbuf);
if (ppcap == NULL) {
printf("Could not open interface wlan0 for packet injection: %s", errbuf);
return 2;
}
/**
* Then we send the packet and clean up after ourselves
*/
if (pcap_sendpacket(ppcap, buf, sz) == 0) {
pcap_close(ppcap);
return 0;
}
/**
* If something went wrong, let's let our user know
*/
pcap_perror(ppcap, "Failed to inject packet");
pcap_close(ppcap);
return 1;
}
/**
* And that's it - a complete wireless packet injection function using pcap!
*/
uint16_t inet_csum(const void *buf, size_t hdr_len)
{
unsigned long sum = 0;
const uint16_t *ip1;
ip1 = (const uint16_t *) buf;
while (hdr_len > 1)
{
sum += *ip1++;
if (sum & 0x80000000)
sum = (sum & 0xFFFF) + (sum >> 16);
hdr_len -= 2;
}
while (sum >> 16)
sum = (sum & 0xFFFF) + (sum >> 16);
return(~sum);
}
@warlock20

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@warlock20 warlock20 commented Mar 4, 2015

Hallo,

I tried this code and tried to capture it with other wifi adapter in monitor mode, but i am not getting any packets! and tried with wireshark too? What may be the problem ?

Thanks in advance

@devkid

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@devkid devkid commented Nov 6, 2016

Setting the IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_F_FCS bit actually indicates to the kernel that the frame already contains the checksum. If you want to avoid the need to calculate it yourself, you should not set that bit.

@rriggio

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@rriggio rriggio commented Oct 17, 2017

Hello,

is there any faster alternative to pcap to inject frames?

R.

@LouisGaspard

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@LouisGaspard LouisGaspard commented Apr 24, 2019

Thanks

@Andrewjeska

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@Andrewjeska Andrewjeska commented Aug 31, 2020

How can I verify that this works in Wireshark? It comes up as Ethernet II with a large blob of data

@jonhoo

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@jonhoo jonhoo commented Sep 1, 2020

@Andrewjeska that sounds odd indeed, but sadly I don't know what might be causing that.

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