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Boyer-Moore Implementations for @coolbutuseless' comparisons
def alphabet_index(c):
Returns the index of the given character in the English alphabet, counting from 0.
return ord(c.lower()) - 97 # 'a' is ASCII character 97
def match_length(S, idx1, idx2):
Returns the length of the match of the substrings of S beginning at idx1 and idx2.
if idx1 == idx2:
return len(S) - idx1
match_count = 0
while idx1 < len(S) and idx2 < len(S) and S[idx1] == S[idx2]:
match_count += 1
idx1 += 1
idx2 += 1
return match_count
def fundamental_preprocess(S):
Returns Z, the Fundamental Preprocessing of S. Z[i] is the length of the substring
beginning at i which is also a prefix of S. This pre-processing is done in O(n) time,
where n is the length of S.
if len(S) == 0: # Handles case of empty string
return []
if len(S) == 1: # Handles case of single-character string
return [1]
z = [0 for x in S]
z[0] = len(S)
z[1] = match_length(S, 0, 1)
for i in range(2, 1+z[1]): # Optimization from exercise 1-5
z[i] = z[1]-i+1
# Defines lower and upper limits of z-box
l = 0
r = 0
for i in range(2+z[1], len(S)):
if i <= r: # i falls within existing z-box
k = i-l
b = z[k]
a = r-i+1
if b < a: # b ends within existing z-box
z[i] = b
else: # b ends at or after the end of the z-box, we need to do an explicit match to the right of the z-box
z[i] = a+match_length(S, a, r+1)
l = i
r = i+z[i]-1
else: # i does not reside within existing z-box
z[i] = match_length(S, 0, i)
if z[i] > 0:
l = i
r = i+z[i]-1
return z
def bad_character_table(S):
Generates R for S, which is an array indexed by the position of some character c in the
English alphabet. At that index in R is an array of length |S|+1, specifying for each
index i in S (plus the index after S) the next location of character c encountered when
traversing S from right to left starting at i. This is used for a constant-time lookup
for the bad character rule in the Boyer-Moore string search algorithm, although it has
a much larger size than non-constant-time solutions.
if len(S) == 0:
return [[] for a in range(26)]
R = [[-1] for a in range(26)]
alpha = [-1 for a in range(26)]
for i, c in enumerate(S):
alpha[alphabet_index(c)] = i
for j, a in enumerate(alpha):
return R
def good_suffix_table(S):
Generates L for S, an array used in the implementation of the strong good suffix rule.
L[i] = k, the largest position in S such that S[i:] (the suffix of S starting at i) matches
a suffix of S[:k] (a substring in S ending at k). Used in Boyer-Moore, L gives an amount to
shift P relative to T such that no instances of P in T are skipped and a suffix of P[:L[i]]
matches the substring of T matched by a suffix of P in the previous match attempt.
Specifically, if the mismatch took place at position i-1 in P, the shift magnitude is given
by the equation len(P) - L[i]. In the case that L[i] = -1, the full shift table is used.
Since only proper suffixes matter, L[0] = -1.
L = [-1 for c in S]
N = fundamental_preprocess(S[::-1]) # S[::-1] reverses S
for j in range(0, len(S)-1):
i = len(S) - N[j]
if i != len(S):
L[i] = j
return L
def full_shift_table(S):
Generates F for S, an array used in a special case of the good suffix rule in the Boyer-Moore
string search algorithm. F[i] is the length of the longest suffix of S[i:] that is also a
prefix of S. In the cases it is used, the shift magnitude of the pattern P relative to the
text T is len(P) - F[i] for a mismatch occurring at i-1.
F = [0 for c in S]
Z = fundamental_preprocess(S)
longest = 0
for i, zv in enumerate(reversed(Z)):
longest = max(zv, longest) if zv == i+1 else longest
F[-i-1] = longest
return F
def string_search(P, T):
Implementation of the Boyer-Moore string search algorithm. This finds all occurrences of P
in T, and incorporates numerous ways of pre-processing the pattern to determine the optimal
amount to shift the string and skip comparisons. In practice it runs in O(m) (and even
sublinear) time, where m is the length of T. This implementation performs a case-insensitive
search on ASCII alphabetic characters, spaces not included.
if len(P) == 0 or len(T) == 0 or len(T) < len(P):
return []
matches = []
# Preprocessing
R = bad_character_table(P)
L = good_suffix_table(P)
F = full_shift_table(P)
k = len(P) - 1 # Represents alignment of end of P relative to T
previous_k = -1 # Represents alignment in previous phase (Galil's rule)
while k < len(T):
i = len(P) - 1 # Character to compare in P
h = k # Character to compare in T
while i >= 0 and h > previous_k and P[i] == T[h]: # Matches starting from end of P
i -= 1
h -= 1
if i == -1 or h == previous_k: # Match has been found (Galil's rule)
matches.append(k - len(P) + 1)
k += len(P)-F[1] if len(P) > 1 else 1
else: # No match, shift by max of bad character and good suffix rules
char_shift = i - R[alphabet_index(T[h])][i]
if i+1 == len(P): # Mismatch happened on first attempt
suffix_shift = 1
elif L[i+1] == -1: # Matched suffix does not appear anywhere in P
suffix_shift = len(P) - F[i+1]
else: # Matched suffix appears in P
suffix_shift = len(P) - L[i+1]
shift = max(char_shift, suffix_shift)
previous_k = k if shift >= i+1 else previous_k # Galil's rule
k += shift
return matches
#include <stdint.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#define ALPHABET_LEN 256
#define NOT_FOUND patlen
#define max(a, b) ((a < b) ? b : a)
// delta1 table: delta1[c] contains the distance between the last
// character of pat and the rightmost occurrence of c in pat.
// If c does not occur in pat, then delta1[c] = patlen.
// If c is at string[i] and c != pat[patlen-1], we can
// safely shift i over by delta1[c], which is the minimum distance
// needed to shift pat forward to get string[i] lined up
// with some character in pat.
// this algorithm runs in alphabet_len+patlen time.
void make_delta1(int *delta1, uint8_t *pat, int32_t patlen) {
int i;
for (i=0; i < ALPHABET_LEN; i++) {
delta1[i] = NOT_FOUND;
for (i=0; i < patlen-1; i++) {
delta1[pat[i]] = patlen-1 - i;
// true if the suffix of word starting from word[pos] is a prefix
// of word
int is_prefix(uint8_t *word, int wordlen, int pos) {
int i;
int suffixlen = wordlen - pos;
// could also use the strncmp() library function here
for (i = 0; i < suffixlen; i++) {
if (word[i] != word[pos+i]) {
return 0;
return 1;
// length of the longest suffix of word ending on word[pos].
// suffix_length("dddbcabc", 8, 4) = 2
int suffix_length(uint8_t *word, int wordlen, int pos) {
int i;
// increment suffix length i to the first mismatch or beginning
// of the word
for (i = 0; (word[pos-i] == word[wordlen-1-i]) && (i < pos); i++);
return i;
// delta2 table: given a mismatch at pat[pos], we want to align
// with the next possible full match could be based on what we
// know about pat[pos+1] to pat[patlen-1].
// In case 1:
// pat[pos+1] to pat[patlen-1] does not occur elsewhere in pat,
// the next plausible match starts at or after the mismatch.
// If, within the substring pat[pos+1 .. patlen-1], lies a prefix
// of pat, the next plausible match is here (if there are multiple
// prefixes in the substring, pick the longest). Otherwise, the
// next plausible match starts past the character aligned with
// pat[patlen-1].
// In case 2:
// pat[pos+1] to pat[patlen-1] does occur elsewhere in pat. The
// mismatch tells us that we are not looking at the end of a match.
// We may, however, be looking at the middle of a match.
// The first loop, which takes care of case 1, is analogous to
// the KMP table, adapted for a 'backwards' scan order with the
// additional restriction that the substrings it considers as
// potential prefixes are all suffixes. In the worst case scenario
// pat consists of the same letter repeated, so every suffix is
// a prefix. This loop alone is not sufficient, however:
// Suppose that pat is "ABYXCDBYX", and text is ".....ABYXCDEYX".
// We will match X, Y, and find B != E. There is no prefix of pat
// in the suffix "YX", so the first loop tells us to skip forward
// by 9 characters.
// Although superficially similar to the KMP table, the KMP table
// relies on information about the beginning of the partial match
// that the BM algorithm does not have.
// The second loop addresses case 2. Since suffix_length may not be
// unique, we want to take the minimum value, which will tell us
// how far away the closest potential match is.
void make_delta2(int *delta2, uint8_t *pat, int32_t patlen) {
int p;
int last_prefix_index = patlen-1;
// first loop
for (p=patlen-1; p>=0; p--) {
if (is_prefix(pat, patlen, p+1)) {
last_prefix_index = p+1;
delta2[p] = last_prefix_index + (patlen-1 - p);
// second loop
for (p=0; p < patlen-1; p++) {
int slen = suffix_length(pat, patlen, p);
if (pat[p - slen] != pat[patlen-1 - slen]) {
delta2[patlen-1 - slen] = patlen-1 - p + slen;
uint8_t* boyer_moore (uint8_t *string, uint32_t stringlen, uint8_t *pat, uint32_t patlen) {
int i;
int delta1[ALPHABET_LEN];
int *delta2 = (int *)malloc(patlen * sizeof(int));
make_delta1(delta1, pat, patlen);
make_delta2(delta2, pat, patlen);
// The empty pattern must be considered specially
if (patlen == 0) {
return string;
i = patlen-1;
while (i < stringlen) {
int j = patlen-1;
while (j >= 0 && (string[i] == pat[j])) {
if (j < 0) {
return (string + i+1);
i += max(delta1[string[i]], delta2[j]);
return NULL;
bm <- py_run_file("~/Documents/Sandbox/BoyerMoore/")
haystack <- sample(0:12, size = 2000, replace = TRUE)
needle <- c(2L, 10L, 8L)
## the python implementation only searches _actual_ text, so convert to alphabet
## (update: LETTERS[0] does not exist)
n <- paste(LETTERS[needle + 1], collapse = "")
h <- paste(LETTERS[haystack + 1], collapse = "")
found <- bm$string_search(n, h)[1]
identical(n, substr(h, found + 1, found + 3)) ## FYI, these are 0-indexed
## my implementation
sieved_find <- function(needle, haystack) {
sieved <- which(haystack == needle[1L])
for (i in, length(needle) - 1L)) {
sieved <- sieved[haystack[sieved + i] == needle[i + 1L]]
bm$string_search(n, h)[1],
sieved_find(needle, haystack),
times = 1000
# Unit: microseconds
# expr min lq mean median uq max neval cld
# bm$string_search(n, h)[1] 679.451 752.947 869.77227 803.2065 930.105 5190.839 1000 b
# sieved_find(needle, haystack) 8.573 11.833 17.30962 14.9680 20.185 154.544 1000 a
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