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@joshuabradley012
Last active June 17, 2024 07:27
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An example of 2D collisions using JavaScript Canvas
class State {
constructor(display, actors) {
this.display = display;
this.actors = actors;
}
update(time) {
/**
* provide an update ID to let actors update other actors only once
* used with collision detection
*/
const updateId = Math.floor(Math.random() * 1000000);
const actors = this.actors.map(actor => {
return actor.update(this, time, updateId);
});
return new State(this.display, actors);
}
}
class Vector {
constructor(x, y) {
this.x = x;
this.y = y;
}
add(vector) {
return new Vector(this.x + vector.x, this.y + vector.y);
}
subtract(vector) {
return new Vector(this.x - vector.x, this.y - vector.y);
}
multiply(scalar) {
return new Vector(this.x * scalar, this.y * scalar);
}
dotProduct(vector) {
return this.x * vector.x + this.y * vector.y;
}
get magnitude() {
return Math.sqrt(this.x ** 2 + this.y ** 2);
}
get direction() {
return Math.atan2(this.x, this.y);
}
}
class Canvas {
constructor(parent = document.body, width = 400, height = 400) {
this.canvas = document.createElement('canvas');
this.canvas.width = width;
this.canvas.height = height;
parent.appendChild(this.canvas);
this.ctx = this.canvas.getContext('2d');
}
sync(state) {
this.clearDisplay();
this.drawActors(state.actors);
}
clearDisplay() {
// opacity controls the trail effect set to 1 to remove
this.ctx.fillStyle = 'rgba(255, 255, 255, .4)';
this.ctx.fillRect(0, 0, this.canvas.width, this.canvas.height);
this.ctx.strokeStyle = 'black';
this.ctx.strokeRect(0, 0, this.canvas.width, this.canvas.height);
}
drawActors(actors) {
for (let actor of actors) {
if (actor.type === 'circle') {
this.drawCircle(actor);
}
}
}
drawCircle(actor) {
this.ctx.beginPath();
this.ctx.arc(actor.position.x, actor.position.y, actor.radius, 0, Math.PI * 2);
this.ctx.closePath();
this.ctx.fillStyle = actor.color;
this.ctx.fill();
}
}
class Ball {
constructor(config) {
Object.assign(this,
{
id: Math.floor(Math.random() * 1000000),
type: 'circle',
position: new Vector(100, 100),
velocity: new Vector(5, 3),
radius: 25,
color: 'blue',
collisions: [],
},
config
);
}
update(state, time, updateId) {
/**
* if slice occurs on too many elements, it starts to lag
* collisions is an array to allow multiple collisions at once
*/
if (this.collisions.length > 10) {
this.collisions = this.collisions.slice(this.collisions.length - 3);
}
/**
* this is the most stable solution to avoid overlap
* but it is slightly inaccurate
*/
for (let actor of state.actors) {
if (this === actor || this.collisions.includes(actor.id + updateId)) {
continue;
}
/**
* check if actors collide in the next frame and update now if they do
* innaccurate, but it is the easiest solution to the sticky collision bug
*/
const distance = this.position.add(this.velocity).subtract(actor.position.add(actor.velocity)).magnitude;
if (distance <= this.radius + actor.radius) {
const v1 = collisionVector(this, actor);
const v2 = collisionVector(actor, this);
this.velocity = v1;
actor.velocity = v2;
this.collisions.push(actor.id + updateId);
actor.collisions.push(this.id + updateId);
}
}
// setting bounds on the canvas prevents balls from overlapping on update
const upperLimit = new Vector(state.display.canvas.width - this.radius, state.display.canvas.height - this.radius);
const lowerLimit = new Vector(0 + this.radius, 0 + this.radius);
// check if hitting left or right of container
if (this.position.x >= upperLimit.x || this.position.x <= lowerLimit.x) {
this.velocity = new Vector(-this.velocity.x, this.velocity.y);
}
// check if hitting top or bottom of container
if (this.position.y >= upperLimit.y || this.position.y <= lowerLimit.y) {
this.velocity = new Vector(this.velocity.x, -this.velocity.y);
}
const newX = Math.max(Math.min(this.position.x + this.velocity.x, upperLimit.x), lowerLimit.x);
const newY = Math.max(Math.min(this.position.y + this.velocity.y, upperLimit.y), lowerLimit.y);
return new Ball({
...this,
position: new Vector(newX, newY),
});
}
get area() {
return Math.PI * this.radius ** 2;
}
get sphereArea() {
return 4 * Math.PI * this.radius ** 2;
}
}
// see elastic collision: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elastic_collision
const collisionVector = (particle1, particle2) => {
return particle1.velocity
.subtract(particle1.position
.subtract(particle2.position)
.multiply(particle1.velocity
.subtract(particle2.velocity)
.dotProduct(particle1.position.subtract(particle2.position))
/ particle1.position.subtract(particle2.position).magnitude ** 2
)
// add mass to the system
.multiply((2 * particle2.sphereArea) / (particle1.sphereArea + particle2.sphereArea))
);
};
const isMovingTowards = (particle1, particle2) => {
return particle2.position.subtract(particle1.position).dotProduct(particle1.velocity) > 0;
};
const runAnimation = animation => {
let lastTime = null;
const frame = time => {
if (lastTime !== null) {
const timeStep = Math.min(100, time - lastTime) / 1000;
// return false from animation to stop
if (animation(timeStep) === false) {
return;
}
}
lastTime = time;
requestAnimationFrame(frame);
};
requestAnimationFrame(frame);
};
const random = (max = 9, min = 0) => {
return Math.floor(Math.random() * (max - min + 1) + min);
};
const colors = ['red', 'green', 'blue', 'purple', 'orange'];
const collidingBalls = ({ width = 400, height = 400, parent = document.body, count = 50 } = {}) => {
const display = new Canvas(parent, width, height);
const balls = [];
for (let i = 0; i < count; i++) {
balls.push(new Ball({
radius: random(8, 3) + Math.random(),
color: colors[random(colors.length - 1)],
position: new Vector(random(width - 10, 10), random(height - 10, 10)),
velocity: new Vector(random(3, -3), random(3, -3)),
}));
}
let state = new State(display, balls);
runAnimation(time => {
state = state.update(time);
display.sync(state);
});
};
collidingBalls();
@GMartigny
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Hi,
I liked reading your article. It's well explained and has some real interesting detail. Your code is squeaky clean !
I too have done a lot of animation with <canvas> and I though I will share with you what I learned too.

The elephant in the room is the collision. Of course, it's the most difficult part. Lots of your issues comes from Euler physics (adding speed to position each loop) and can be solved with Verlet integration. It's more complex, but a lot more stable.

Objects have a "position" and a "previous position" properties. Each frame, you move an object by the difference between the two. The magic trick is, you just need to change the "position" to change the velocity.
In case of collision, both particles repeal each other by the distance they overlap multiplied by some ratio.
Check out this pen I made using this technique.

Finally, I would say that immutability is a great thing, but not always the best solution. Here, you're using a lot of memory by duplicating your objects each time you do any operation. I don't have any definitive answer. With a small amount of particles on an decent computer it shouldn't matter anyway.

<canvas> are awesome and you figured out all you need to know to do any 2D animation scene. Keep at it.

@cyrilf
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cyrilf commented Aug 13, 2020

Thanks! 👏
I really appreciate your article. 👌

There is a small typo left. Here's how to fix it.

  • Solution 1:
-const collidingBalls = ({ width = 400, height = 400, parent = document.body, count = 50 }) => {
+const collidingBalls = ({ width = 400, height = 400, parent = document.body, count = 50 } = {}) => {
  • Solution 2:
-collidingBalls();
+collidingBalls({});

@lvisei
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lvisei commented Oct 10, 2020

Cool

@joshuabradley012
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joshuabradley012 commented Oct 12, 2020

@GMartigny thank you so much for the kind words and advice! I will certainly be looking into Vertlet Integration and how it can improve my solution.

@cyrilf I'm not sure I see the mistake? The code works correctly as far as I can tell, what error are you solving for?

@cyrilf
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cyrilf commented Oct 13, 2020

@joshuabradley012 if I copy/paste your gist into a codepen the following error appears: Uncaught TypeError: Cannot read property 'width' of undefined (line 219).
It is due to the fact that the function collidingBalls is expecting an object as an argument but got undefined (so the deconstructing is failing).That's what my two solutions above are trying to solve.

@joshuabradley012
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@cyrilf got it! Thank you. Updating now.

@StarTraX
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StarTraX commented Dec 9, 2022

I found your site when searching for code that I could modify to simulate gas molecules impacting a rough surface for a research project. It's brilliant, but....
After a few minutes running the average speed of the balls starts to increase, and fairly soon goes ballistic. This is a bit of a show-stopper for me as I will need it to run in a stable way for tens of minutes. I assume the issue derives from rounding errors, which will be pretty hard to trace, but I wonder if you have addressed this issue and maybe have a remedy?
PS, I'm running on a Mac in Safari and Chrome.

@joshuabradley012
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@StarTraX I've noticed the same issue. I also believe it derives from rounding errors, but I've noticed it runs differently on different OSs as well, so there may be a frame timing issue.

I have not addressed this issue, unfortunately.

@kelvinpraises
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@StarTraX and @joshuabradley012, it seems that whenever the mass multiplier evaluates to anything greater than 1, it adds entropy and speed into the system. So, putting the multiplier under 1 reduces both the randomness and acceleration.

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