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This is the code that copilot nearly entirely auto-generates for a function called `finetune` and a 1-line docstring
# I added all the imports by hand
import torch
from torchvision.datasets import ImageFolder
from torchvision import transforms,models
from torch import nn,optim
# For all functions including this one, I wrote the name and docstring, and sometimes also the param names
def finetune(folder, model):
"""fine tune pytorch model using images from folder and report results on validation set"""
if not os.path.exists(folder): raise ValueError(f"{folder} does not exist")
if not os.path.exists(model): raise ValueError(f"{model} does not exist")
if not os.path.exists(f'{folder}/val'): raise ValueError(f"{folder}/val does not exist")
if not os.path.exists(f'{folder}/train'): raise ValueError(f"{folder}/train does not exist")
# build model
model = getattr(models,model)()
model =
# load data
train_set = ImageFolder(folder,'train',transform=data_transforms['train'])
val_set = ImageFolder(folder,'val',transform=data_transforms['val'])
train_loader =,batch_size=4,shuffle=True,num_workers=2)
val_loader =,batch_size=4,shuffle=True,num_workers=2)
# fine-tune
criterion = nn.CrossEntropyLoss()
optimizer = optim.SGD(model.parameters(),lr=0.001,momentum=0.9)
for epoch in range(1,10):
# save model,model)
# `data_transforms` and `device` are both used above but not defined, so I told copilot to define them
# I had to type "data_transforms =" to get copilot to fill out the definition
data_transforms = {
'train': transforms.Compose([
transforms.Normalize([0.485, 0.456, 0.406], [0.229, 0.224, 0.225])
'val': transforms.Compose([
transforms.Normalize([0.485, 0.456, 0.406], [0.229, 0.224, 0.225])
# I had to type "device =" to get copilot to fill out the definition
device = torch.device("cuda:0" if torch.cuda.is_available() else "cpu")
# I had to type "def train(" to get copilot to fill out the definition
# NB: this function doesn't quite work, since it uses `epoch`, but that didn't get passed in
def train(model, train_loader, criterion, optimizer, log_interval=100):
"train model"
for batch_idx, (data, target) in enumerate(train_loader):
data, target =,
output = model(data)
loss = criterion(output, target)
if batch_idx % log_interval == 0:
print('Train Epoch: {} [{}/{} ({:.0f}%)]\tLoss: {:.6f}'.format(
epoch, batch_idx * len(data), len(train_loader.dataset),
100. * batch_idx / len(train_loader), loss.item()))
# I had to type "def validate(" to get copilot to fill out the definition
def validate(model, val_loader, criterion):
"validate model"
val_loss = 0
correct = 0
with torch.no_grad():
for data, target in val_loader:
data, target =,
output = model(data)
val_loss += criterion(output, target).item()
pred = output.max(1, keepdim=True)[1]
correct += pred.eq(target.view_as(pred)).sum().item()
val_loss /= len(val_loader.dataset)
print('\nValidation set: Average loss: {:.4f}, Accuracy: {}/{} ({:.0f}%)\n'.format(
val_loss, correct, len(val_loader.dataset),
100. * correct / len(val_loader.dataset)))
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