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Replication Internals Wiki

Replication in 3.4

Replication is the set of systems used to continuously copy data from a primary server to secondary servers so if the primary server fails a secondary server can take over soon. This process is intended to be mostly transparent to the user, with drivers taking care of routing queries to the requested replica. MongoDB supports two forms of replication: replica sets and master-slave.

Master-Slave

This article will focus on replica sets, which are the main way people use replication today. Master-slave has one master node and multiple slave nodes. Slaves replicate from the master and all failover is done manually. Slave nodes can only replicate from other slave nodes if the other slave nodes are configured as masters themselves.

Master-slave replication also allows for filtered replication. Slaves can replicate some chosen subset of the collections.

Master-slave also allows for an unlimited number of slave nodes, only limited by your hardware.

Replica sets

Replica sets are a group of nodes with one primary and multiple secondaries. The primary is responsible for all writes. Users may specify that reads from secondaries are acceptable with a slaveOK flag, but they are not by default.

Steady State Replication

The normal running of a replica set is referred to as steady state replication. This is when there is one primary and multiple secondaries. Each secondary is replicating data from the primary, or another secondary off of which it is chaining.

Life as a Primary

Doing a Write

When a user does a write, all a primary node does is apply the write to the database like a standalone would. The one difference is that replica set nodes have an OpObserver that inserts a document to the oplog whenever a write to the database happens, describing the write. The oplog is an ordinary capped collection called oplog.rs in the local database. There are a few optimizations made for it in WiredTiger, but otherwise it is an ordinary collection.

If a write does multiple operations, each will have its own oplog entry; for example, inserts with implicit collection creation create two oplog entries, one for the create and one for the insert.

These entries are rewritten from the initial operation to make them idempotent; for example, updates with $inc are changed to use $set.

Secondaries drive oplog replication via a pull process.

Writes can also specify a write concern. If a command includes a write concern, the command will just block in its own thread until the oplog entries it generates have been replicated to the requested number of nodes. The primary keeps track of how up-to-date the secondaries are to know when to return. A write concern can specify a number of nodes to wait for, or majority. If majority is specified, the write waits for that write to be in the committed snapshot as well, so that it can be read with readConcern: { level: majority } reads. (If this last sentence made no sense, come back to it at the end).

Life as a Secondary

In general, secondaries just choose a node to sync from, their sync source, and then pull operations from its oplog and apply those oplog entries to their own copy of the data on disk.

Secondaries also constantly update their sync source with their progress so that the primary can satisfy write concerns.

Oplog Fetching

A secondary keeps its data synchronized with its sync source by fetching oplog entries from its sync source. This is done via the OplogFetcher.

The OplogFetcher first sends a find command to the sync source's oplog, and then follows with a series of getMores on the cursor.

The OplogFetcher makes use of the Fetcher for this task, which is a generic class used for fetching data from a collection on a remote node. A Fetcher is given a find command and then follows that command with getMore requests. The Fetcher also takes in a callback function that is called with the results of every batch.

Let’s refer to the sync source as node A and the fetching node as node B.

The find command that B’s OplogFetcher first sends to sync source A has a greater than or equal predicate on the timestamp of the last oplog entry it has fetched. The original find command should always return at least 1 document due to the greater than or equal predicate. If it does not, that means that the A’s oplog is behind B's and thus A should not be B’s sync source. If it does return a non-empty batch, but the first document returned does not match the last entry in B’s oplog, that means that B's oplog has diverged from A's and it should go into ROLLBACK.

After getting the original find response, secondaries check the metadata that accompanies the response to see if the sync source is still a good sync source. Secondaries check that the node has not rolled back since it was chosen and that it is still ahead of them.

The OplogFetcher uses long-polling. It specifies awaitData: true, tailable: true so that the getMores block until their maxTimeMS expires waiting for more data instead of returning immediately. If there is no data to return at the end of maxTimeMS, the OplogFetcher receives an empty batch and simply issues another getMore.

If any fetch requests have an error, then the OplogFetcher creates a new Fetcher. It restarts the Fetcher with a new find command each time it receives an error for a maximum of 3 retries. If it expires its retries then the OplogFetcher shuts down with an error status.

The OplogFetcher is owned by the BackgroundSync thread. The BackgroundSync thread runs continuously while a node is in SECONDARY state. BackgroundSync sits in a loop, where each iteration it first chooses a sync source with the SyncSourceResolver and then starts up the OplogFetcher. When the OplogFetcher terminates, BackgroundSync restarts sync source selection, exits, or goes into ROLLBACK depending on the return status. The OplogFetcher could terminate because the first batch implies that a rollback is required, it could receive an error from the sync source, or it could just be shut down by its owner, such as when BackgroundSync itself is shut down.

The OplogFetcher does not directly apply the operations it retrieves from the sync source. Rather, it puts them into a buffer (the OplogBuffer) and another thread is in charge of taking the operations off the buffer and applying them. That buffer uses an in-memory blocking queue for steady state replication; there is a similar collection-backed buffer used for initial sync.

Sync Source Selection

Whenever a node starts initial sync, creates a new BackgroundSync (when it stops being primary), or errors on its current OplogFetcher, it must get a new sync source. Sync source selection is done by the SyncSourceResolver.

The SyncSourceResolver delegates the duty of choosing a "sync source candidate" to the ReplicationCoordinator, which in turn asks the TopologyCoordinator to choose a new sync source.

Choosing a sync source candidate

To choose a new sync source candidate, the TopologyCoordinator first checks if the user requested a specific sync source with the replSetSyncFrom command. In that case, the secondary chooses that host as the sync source and resets its state so that it doesn’t use that requested sync source again.

If chaining is disallowed, the secondary needs to sync from the primary, and chooses it as a candidate.

Otherwise, it iterates through all of the nodes and sees which one is the best.

  • First the secondary checks the TopologyCoordinator's cached view of the replica set for the latest optime known to be on the primary. Secondaries do not sync from nodes whose newest oplog entry is more than maxSyncSourceLagSecs seconds behind the primary's newest oplog entry.
  • Secondaries then loop through each node and choose the closest node that satisfies various criteria. “Closest” here is determined by the lowest ping time to each node.
  • If no node satisfies the necessary criteria, then the BackgroundSync waits 1 second and restarts the sync source selection process.
Sync Source Probing

After choosing a sync source candidate, the SyncSourceResolver probes the sync source candidate to make sure it actually is able to fetch from the sync source candidate’s oplog.

  • If the sync source candidate has no oplog or there is an error, the secondary blacklists that sync source for some time and then tries to find a new sync source candidate.
  • If the oldest entry in the sync source candidate's oplog is newer than the node's newest entry, then the node blacklists that sync source candidate as well because the candidate is too far ahead.
  • During initial sync, rollback, or recovery from unclean shutdown, nodes will set a specific OpTime, minValid, that they must reach before it is safe to read from the node and before the node can transition into SECONDARY state. If the secondary has a minValid, then the sync source candidate is checked for that minValid entry.
  • The sync source's RollbackID is also fetched to be checked after the first batch is returned by the OplogFetcher.

If the secondary is too far behind all possible sync source candidates then it goes into maintenance mode and waits for manual intervention (likely a call to resync). If no viable candidates were found, BackgroundSync waits 1 second and attempts the entire sync source selection process again. Otherwise, the secondary found a sync source! At that point BackgroundSync starts an OplogFetcher.

Oplog Entry Application

A separate thread, RSDataSync is used for pulling oplog entries off of the oplog buffer and applying them. RSDataSync constructs a SyncTail in a loop which is used for actually applying the operations. The SyncTail instance does some oplog application, and terminates when there is a state change where we need to pause oplog application. After it terminates, RSDataSync loops back and decides if it should make a new SyncTail and continue.

SyncTail creates multiple threads that apply buffered oplog entries in parallel. Operations are pulled off of the oplog buffer in batches to be applied. Nodes keep track of their “last applied OpTime”, which is only moved forward at the end of a batch. Oplog entries within the same batch are not necessarily applied in order. Operations on a document must be atomic and ordered, operations on the same document will be put on the same thread to be serialized. Additionally, command operations are done serially in batches of size 1. Insert operations are also batched together for improved performance.

Replication and Topology Coordinators

The ReplicationCoordinator is the public api that replication presents to the rest of the code base. It is in charge of coordinating the interaction of replication with the rest of the system.

The ReplicationCoordinator communicates with the storage layer and other nodes through the ReplicationCoordinatorExternalState. The external state also manages and owns all of the replication threads.

The TopologyCoordinator is in charge of maintaining state about the topology of the cluster. It is non-blocking and does a large amount of a node's decision making surrounding replication. Most replication command requests and responses are filled in here.

Both coordinators maintain views of the entire cluster and the state of each node, though there are plans to merge these together.

Communication

Each node has a copy of the ReplicaSetConfig in the ReplicationCoordinator that lists all nodes in the replica set. This config lets each node talk to every other node.

Each node uses the internal client, the legacy c++ driver code in the src/mongo/client directory, to talk to each other node. Nodes talk to each other by sending a mixture of external and internal commands over the same incoming port as user commands. All commands take the same code path as normal user commands. For security, nodes use the keyfile to authenticate to each other. You need to be the system user to run replication commands, so nodes authenticate as the system user when issuing remote commands to other nodes.

Each node communicates with other nodes at regular intervals to:

  • Check the liveness of the other nodes (heartbeats)
  • Stay up to date with the primary (oplog fetching)
  • Update their sync source with their progress (replSetUpdatePosition commands)

Each oplog entry is assigned an Optime to describe when it occurred so other nodes can compare how up-to-date they are.

In the old replication protocol, PV0, OpTimes were simply a timestamp.

In the new protocol, PV1, OpTimes also include a term field which indicates how many elections have occurred since the replica set started.

The election protocol is built on top of Raft, so it is guaranteed that two primaries will not be elected in the same term. This helps differentiate ops that occurred at the same time but from different primaries in the case of a network partition. This article will only talk about PV1, the new replication protocol.

Oplog Fetcher Responses

The OplogFetcher just issues normal find and getMore commands, so the upstream node (the sync source) does not get any information from the request. In the response, however, the downstream node, the one that issues the find to its sync source, gets metadata that it uses to update its view of the replica set.

There are two types of metadata, ReplSetMetadata and OplogQueryMetadata. (The OplogQueryMetadata is new, so there is some temporary field duplication for backwards compatibility.)

ReplSetMetadata

ReplSetMetadata comes with all replication commands and is processed similarly for all commands. It includes:

  1. The upstream node's last committed OpTime
  2. the current term.
  3. the ReplicaSetConfig version (this is used to determine if a reconfig has occurred on the upstream node that hasn't been registered by the downstream node yet).
  4. The replica set ID.

If the metadata has a different config version than the downstream node's config version, then the metadata is ignored until a reconfig command is received that synchronizes the config versions.

The node sets its term to the upstream node's term, and if it's a primary (which can only happen on heartbeats), it steps down.

The last committed OpTime is only used in this metadata for arbiters, to advance their committed optime and in sharding in some places. Otherwise it is ignored.

OplogQueryMetadata

OplogQueryMetadata only comes with OplogFetcher responses. It includes:

  1. The upstream node's last committed OpTime. This is the most recent operation that would be reflected in the snapshot used for readConcern: majority reads.
  2. The upstream node's last applied OpTime.
  3. The index (as specified by the ReplicaSetConfig) of the node that the upstream node thinks is primary.
  4. The index of the upstream node's sync source.

If the metadata says there is still a primary, the downstream node resets its election timeout into the future.

The downstream node sets its last committed OpTime to the last committed OpTime of the upstream node.

When it updates the last committed OpTime, it chooses a new committed snapshot if possible and tells the storage engine to erase any old ones if necessary.

Before sending the next getMore, the downstream node uses the metadata to check if it should change sync sources.

Heartbeats

At a default of every 2 seconds, the HeartbeatInterval, every node sends a heartbeat to every other node with the replSetHeartbeat command. This means that the number of heartbeats increases quadratically with the number of nodes and is the reasoning behind the 50 member limit in a replica set. The data, ReplSetHeartbeatArgsV1 that accompanies every heartbeat is:

  1. ReplicaSetConfig version
  2. The id of the sender in the ReplSetConfig
  3. Term
  4. Replica set name
  5. Sender host address

When the remote node receives the heartbeat, it first processes the heartbeat data, and then sends a response back. First, the remote node makes sure the heartbeat is compatible with its replica set name and its ReplicaSetConfig version and otherwise sends an error.

The receiving node's TopologyCoordinator updates the last time it received a heartbeat from the sending node for liveness checking in its MemberHeartbeatData list.

If the sending node's config is higher than the receiving node's, then the receiving node schedules a heartbeat to get the config. The receiving node's ReplicationCoordinator also updates its SlaveInfo with the last update from the sending node and marks it as being up.

It then creates a ReplSetHeartbeatResponse object. This includes:

  1. Replica set name
  2. The receiving node's election time
  3. The receiving node's last applied optime
  4. The receiving node's last durable optime
  5. The node the receiving node thinks is primary
  6. The term of the receiving node
  7. The state of the receiving node
  8. The receiving node's sync source
  9. The receiving node's ReplicaSetConfig version

When the sending node receives the response to the heartbeat, it first processes its ReplSetMetadata like before.

The sending node postpones its election timeout if it sees a primary.

The TopologyCoordinator updates its HeartbeatData. It marks if the receiving node is up or down.

The sending node's TopologyCoordinator then looks at the response and decides the next action to take: no action, priority takeover, or reconfig,

The ReplicationCoordinator then updates the SlaveInfo for the receiving node with its most recently acquired optimes.

If the sending node is primary, this updates the commit point if the sending node sees that a majority of its nodes have reached a newer optime. Any threads blocking on a writeConcern are woken up to check if they now fulfill their requested writeConcern.

The next heartbeat is scheduled and then the next action set by the TopologyCoordinator is executed.

If the action was a priority takeover, then the node ranks all of the priorities in its config and assigns itself a priority takeover timeout proportional to its rank. After that timeout expires the node will check if it's eligible to run for election and if so will begin an election. The timeout is simply: (election timeout) * (priority rank + 1).

Update Position Commands

The last way that replset nodes regularly communicate with each other is through replSetUpdatePosition commands. The ReplicationCoordinatorExternalState creates a SyncSourceFeedback object at startup that is responsible for sending replSetUpdatePosition commands.

The SyncSourceFeedback starts a loop. In each iteration it first waits on a condition variable that is notified whenever the ReplicationCoordinator discovers that a node in the replica set has replicated more operations and become more up-to-date. It checks that it is not in PRIMARY or STARTUP state before moving on.

It then gets the node's sync source and creates a Reporter that actually sends the replSetUpdatePosition command to the sync source. This command keeps getting sent every keepAliveInterval milliseconds ((electionTimeout / 2)) to maintain liveness information about the nodes in the replica set.

In PV1, replSetUpdatePosition commands are the primary means of maintaining liveness. Thus, if the primary cannot communicate directly with every node, but it can communicate with every node through other nodes, it will still stay primary.

The replSetUpdatePosition command contains the following information:

  1. An optimes array containing an object for each live replica set member. This information is filled in by the ReplicationCoordinator with information from its SlaveInfo. Nodes that are believed to be down are not included. Each node contains:

    1. last durable OpTime
    2. last applied OpTime
    3. memberId
    4. ReplicaSetConfig version
  2. ReplSetMetadata. Usually this only comes in responses, but here it comes in the request as well.

When a node receives a replSetUpdatePosition command, the first thing it does is have the ReplicationCoordinatorImpl process the ReplSetMetadata as before.

For every node’s OpTime data in the optimes array, the receiving node updates its view of the replicaset in the replication and topology coordinators. This updates the liveness information of every node in the optimes list. If the data is about the receiving node, it ignores it. If the ReplSetConfig versions don’t match, it errors. If the receiving node is a primary and it learns that the commit point should be moved forward, it does so.

If something has changed and the receiving node itself has a sync source, it forwards its new information to its own sync source.

The replSetUpdatePosition command response does not include any information unless there is an error, such as in a ReplSetConfig mismatch.

Read Concern

MongoDB does not provide snapshot isolation. All reads in MongoDB are executed on snapshots of the data taken at some point in time; however if the storage engine yields while executing a read, the read may continue on a newer snapshot. Thus, reads are currently never guaranteed to return all data from one point in time. This means that some documents can be skipped if they are updated and any updates that occurred since the read began may or may not be seen.

Read concern is an option sent with any read command to specify at what consistency level the read should be satisfied. There are 3 read concern levels:

  • Local
  • Majority
  • Linearizable

Local just returns whatever the most up-to-date data is on the node. It does this by reading from the storage engine’s most recent snapshot(s).

Majority uses the last committed snapshot(s) to do its read. The data read only reflects the oplog entries that have been replicated to a majority of nodes in the replica set. Any data seen in majority reads cannot roll back in the future. Thus majority reads prevent dirty reads, though they often are stale reads.

Read concern majority reads usually return as fast as local reads, but sometimes will block. Read concern majority reads do not wait for anything to be committed; they just use different snapshots from local reads. They do block though when the node metadata (in the catalog cache) differs from the committed snapshot. For example, index builds or drops, collection creates or drops, database drops, or collmod’s could cause majority reads to block. Majority reads also block right after startup or rollback when we do not have a committed snapshot.

The storage engine periodically takes snapshots. As a node discovers that its writes have been replicated to secondaries, it updates its committed OpTime. The committed snapshot then becomes the newest snapshot older than the commit point and any older snapshots may be thrown away. MongoDB tells WiredTiger to save up to 1000 snapshots at a time. If the commit level doesn't move, but writes continue to happen, we may hit the limit. Afterwards, no further snapshots are created until the commit point moves and old snapshots are deleted. The commit level might not move if you are doing w:1 writes with an arbiter, for example.

Linearizable read concern actually does block for some time. Linearizability guarantees that if one thread does a write that is acknowledged and tells another thread about that write, then that second thread should see the write. If you transiently have 2 primaries (one has yet to step down) and you read the data from the old primary, the new one may have newer data and you may get a stale read.

To prevent reading from stale primaries, reads block to ensure that the current node remains the primary after the read is complete. Nodes just write a noop to the oplog and wait for it to be replicated to a majority of nodes. The node reads data from the most recent snapshot, and then the noop write occurs after the fact. Thus, since we wait for the noop write to be replicated to a majority of nodes, linearizable reads satisfy all of the same guarantees of read concern majority, and then some. Linearizable read concern reads are only done on the primary, and they only apply to single document reads, since linearizability is only defined as a property on single objects.

afterOpTime is another read concern option, only used internally, only for config servers as replica sets. Read after optime means that the read will block until the node has replicated writes after a certain OpTime. This means that if read concern local is specified it will wait until the local snapshot is beyond the specified optime. If read concern majority is specified it will wait until the committed snapshot is beyond the specified OpTime. In 3.6 this feature will be extended to support a sharded cluster and use a Lamport Clock to provide causal consistency.

Elections

Step Up

A node runs for election when it does a priority takeover or when it doesn't see a primary within the election timeout.

Candidate Perspective

A candidate node first runs a dry-run election. In a dry-run election, a node sends out replSetRequestVotes commands to every node asking if that node would vote for it, but the candidate node does not increase its term. If a primary ever sees a higher term than its own, it steps down. By first conducting a dry-run election, we prevent nodes from increasing their own term when they would not win and prevent needless primary stepdowns. If the node fails the dry-run election, it just continues replicating as normal. If the node wins the dry-run election, it begins a real election.

In the real election, the node first increments its term and votes for itself. it then starts a VoteRequester up, which uses a ScatterGatherRunner to send a replSetRequestVotes command to every single node. Each node then decides if it should vote "aye" or "nay" and responds to the candidate with their vote. When nodes respond, the ReplicationCoordinator updates its SlaveInfo map to say that those nodes are still up for liveness information.

If the candidate received votes from a majority of nodes, including itself, the candidate wins the election.

Voter Perspective

When a node receives a replSetRequestVotes command, it first checks if the term is up to date and updates its own term accordingly. The ReplicationCoordinator then asks the TopologyCoordinator if it should grant a vote. The vote is rejected if:

  1. It's from an older term.
  2. The config versions do not match.
  3. The replica set name does not match.
  4. The last committed OpTime that comes in the vote request is older than the voter's last applied OpTime.
  5. If it's not a dry-run election and the voter has already voted in this term
  6. If the voter is an arbiter and it can see a healthy primary of greater or equal priority. This is to prevent primary flapping when there are two nodes that can't talk to each other and an arbiter that can talk to both.

Whenever a node votes for itself, or another node, it records that "LastVote" information durably to the local.replset.election collection. This information is read into memory at startup and used in future elections. This ensures that even if a node restarts, it does not vote for two nodes in the same term.

Transitioning to PRIMARY

Now that the candidate has won, it must become PRIMARY. First it notifies all nodes that it won the election via a round of heartbeats. Then the node checks if it needs to catch up from the former primary. Since the node can be elected without the former primary's vote, the primary-elect will attempt to replicate any remaining oplog entries it has not yet replicated from any viable sync source. While these are guaranteed to not be committed, it is still good to minimize rollback when possible.

The primary-elect uses the FreshnessScanner to send a replSetGetStatus request to every other node to see the last applied OpTime of every other node. If the primary-elect’s last applied OpTime is less than the newest last applied OpTime it sees, it will schedule a timer for the catchup-timeout. If that timeout expires or if the node reaches the old primary's last applied OpTime, then the node ends catch-up phase. The node then stops the OplogFetcher.

At this point the node goes into "drain mode". This is when the node has already logged "transition to PRIMARY", but has not yet applied all of the oplog entries in its queue. replSetGetStatus will now say the node is in PRIMARY state. The applier keeps running, and when it completely drains the buffer, it signals to the ReplicationCoordinator to finish the step up process. The node marks that it can begin to accept writes. According to the Raft Protocol, no oplog entries from previous terms can be committed until an oplog entry in the current term is committed. The node now writes a "new primary" noop oplog entry so that it can commit older writes as soon as possible. Finally, the node drops all temporary collections and logs “transition to primary complete”.

Step Down

When a replSetStepDown command comes in, the node begins to check if it can step down. First, the node kills all user operations and they return an error to the user. Then the node loops trying to step down. It repeatedly checks if a majority of nodes are caught up and if one of those caught up nodes is electable or if the user requested it to force a stepdown. It then begins to step down.

Stepdowns also occur if a primary sees a higher term than themselves or if a primary stops being able to transitively communicate with a majority of nodes. The primary does not need to be able to communicate directly with a majority of nodes. If primary A can’t communicate with node B, but A can communicate with C which can communicate with B, that is okay. If you consider the minimum spanning tree on the cluster where edges are connections from nodes to their sync source, then as long as the primary is connected to a majority of nodes, it will stay primary.

Once the node begins to step down, it first sets its state to follower in the TopologyCoordinator. It then transitioning to SECONDARY in the ReplicationCoordinator.

Rollback

Rollback is the process whereby a node that diverges from its sync source undoes the divergent operations and gets back to a consistent point.

This can occur if there is a partition in the network for some time and a node runs for election because it doesn't hear from the primary. There will be some time with 2 primaries and in this time both can take writes. When the partition is healed, the smaller half of the partition may have to roll back its changes and roll forward to match the other one.

Nodes go into rollback if after they receive the first batch of writes from their sync source, they realize that the greater than or equal to predicate did not return the last op in their oplog. When rolling back, nodes are in the ROLLBACK state and reads are prohibited. When a node goes into rollback it drops all snapshots.

The rolling-back node first finds the common point between its oplog and its sync source's oplog. It then goes through all of the operations in its oplog back to the common point and figures out how to undo them.

Simply doing the "inverse" operation is sometimes impossible, such as a document remove where we do not log the entire document that is removed. Instead, the node simply refetches the problematic documents, or entire collections in the case of undoing a drop, from the sync source and replaces the local version with that version. Some operations also have special handling, and some just fail, such as dropDatabase, causing the entire node to shut down.

The node first compiles a list of documents, collections, and indexes to fetch and drop. Before actually doing the undo steps, the node "fixes up" the operations by "cancelling out" operations that negate each other to reduce work. The node then drops and fetches all data it needs and replaces the local version with the remote versions.

The node gets the last applied OpTime from the sync source and the Rollback ID to check if a rollback has happened during this rollback, in which case it fails rollback and shuts down. The last applied OpTime is set as the minValid for the node and the node goes into RECOVERING state. The node resumes fetching and applying operations like a normal secondary until it hits that minValid. Only at that point does the node go into SECONDARY state.

This process is very similar to initial sync and startup after an unclean shutdown in that operations are applied on data that may already reflect those operations and operations in the future. This leads to all of the same idempotency concerns and index constraint relaxation.

This code is about to change radically in version 3.6.

Initial Sync

Initial sync is the process the we use to add a new node to a replica set. Initial sync is initiated by the ReplicationCoordinator and done in the DataReplicator. When a node begins initial sync or resync is called, it goes into STARTUP2 state. STARTUP is reserved for the time before initial sync when a node may need to recover from unclean shutdown.

The DataReplicator first gets a sync source. Second, the node drops all of its data except for the local database and recreates the oplog. It then gets the Rollback ID from the sync source to ensure at the end that no rollbacks occurred during initial sync. Finally, it creates an OplogFetcher and starts fetching and buffering oplog entries from the sync source to be applied later. Operations are buffered to a collection so that they are not limited by the amount of memory available.

Data clone phase

The new node then begins to clone data from its sync source. The DataReplicator constructs a DatabasesCloner that's used to clone all of the databases on the upstream node. The DatabasesCloner asks the sync source for a list of its databases and then for each one it creates a DatabaseCloner to clone that database. Each DatabaseCloner asks the sync source for a list of its collections and then creates a CollectionCloner to clone that collection. The CollectionCloner calls listIndexes on the sync source and creates a CollectionBulkLoader to create all of the indexes in parallel with the data cloning. The CollectionCloner then just runs find and getMore requests on the sync source repeatedly until it fetches all of the documents.

Oplog application phase

After the cloning phase of initial sync has finished, the oplog application phase begins. The new node first asks its sync source for its last applied oplog entry and this is saved as minValid, the oplog entry it must apply before it's consistent and can become a secondary.

The new node iterates through all of the buffered operations and applies them to the data on disk. Oplog entries continue to be fetched and added to the buffer while this is occurring.

If an error occurs on application of an entry, it retries the operation by fetching the entire document from the source and just replacing the local document with that one. The last applied OpTime is again fetched from the sync source and minValid is pushed back to this new optime. This can occur if a document that needs to be updated was deleted before it was cloned, so the update op refers to a document that does not exist on the initial syncing node.

Idempotency concerns

Some of the operations that are applied may already be reflected in the data that was cloned since we started buffering oplog entries before the collection cloning phase even started. Consider the following:

  1. Start buffering oplog entries
  2. Insert {a: 1, b: 1} to collection foo
  3. Insert {a: 1, b: 2} to collection foo
  4. Drop collection foo
  5. Recreate collection foo
  6. Create unique index on field a in collection foo
  7. Clone collection foo
  8. Start applying oplog entries and try to insert both {a: 1, b: 1} and {a: 1, b: 2}

As seen here, there can be operations on collections that have since been dropped or indexes could conflict with the data being added. As a result, many errors that occur here are ignored and assumed to resolve themselves. If known problematic operations such as renameCollection are received, where we cannot assume a drop will come and fix them, we abort and retry initial sync.

Finishing initial sync

The oplog application phase concludes when the node applies minValid. The node checks its sync source's Rollback ID to see if a rollback occurred and if so, restarts initial sync. Otherwise, the DataReplicator shuts down and the ReplicationCoordinator starts steady state replication.

Reconfig

TODO: Add a section on initiate and reconfig

Contributing

If you have any comments or additions, please add them here.

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