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C# Web Mercator utility class
/// <summary>
/// Conversion routines for Google, TMS, and Microsoft Quadtree tile representations, derived from
/// http://www.maptiler.org/google-maps-coordinates-tile-bounds-projection/
/// </summary>
public class WebMercator
{
private const int TileSize = 256;
private const int EarthRadius = 6378137;
private const double InitialResolution = 2 * Math.PI * EarthRadius / TileSize;
private const double OriginShift = 2 * Math.PI * EarthRadius / 2;
//Converts given lat/lon in WGS84 Datum to XY in Spherical Mercator EPSG:900913
public static Point LatLonToMeters(double lat, double lon)
{
var p = new Point();
p.X = lon * OriginShift / 180;
p.Y = Math.Log(Math.Tan((90 + lat) * Math.PI / 360)) / (Math.PI / 180);
p.Y = p.Y * OriginShift / 180;
return p;
}
//Converts XY point from (Spherical) Web Mercator EPSG:3785 (unofficially EPSG:900913) to lat/lon in WGS84 Datum
public static Point MetersToLatLon(Point m)
{
var ll = new Point();
ll.X = (m.X / OriginShift) * 180;
ll.Y = (m.Y / OriginShift) * 180;
ll.Y = 180 / Math.PI * (2 * Math.Atan(Math.Exp(ll.Y * Math.PI / 180)) - Math.PI / 2);
return ll;
}
//Converts pixel coordinates in given zoom level of pyramid to EPSG:900913
public static Point PixelsToMeters(Point p, int zoom)
{
var res = Resolution(zoom);
var met = new Point();
met.X = p.X * res - OriginShift;
met.Y = p.Y * res - OriginShift;
return met;
}
//Converts EPSG:900913 to pyramid pixel coordinates in given zoom level
public static Point MetersToPixels(Point m, int zoom)
{
var res = Resolution(zoom);
var pix = new Point();
pix.X = (m.X + OriginShift) / res;
pix.Y = (m.Y + OriginShift) / res;
return pix;
}
//Returns a TMS (NOT Google!) tile covering region in given pixel coordinates
public static Tile PixelsToTile(Point p)
{
var t = new Tile();
t.X = (int)Math.Ceiling(p.X / (double)TileSize) - 1;
t.Y = (int)Math.Ceiling(p.Y / (double)TileSize) - 1;
return t;
}
public static Point PixelsToRaster(Point p, int zoom)
{
var mapSize = TileSize << zoom;
return new Point(p.X, mapSize - p.Y);
}
//Returns tile for given mercator coordinates
public static Tile MetersToTile(Point m, int zoom)
{
var p = MetersToPixels(m, zoom);
return PixelsToTile(p);
}
//Returns bounds of the given tile in EPSG:900913 coordinates
public static Rect TileBounds(Tile t, int zoom)
{
var min = PixelsToMeters(new Point(t.X * TileSize, t.Y * TileSize), zoom);
var max = PixelsToMeters(new Point((t.X + 1) * TileSize, (t.Y + 1) * TileSize), zoom);
return new Rect(min, max);
}
//Returns bounds of the given tile in latutude/longitude using WGS84 datum
public static Rect TileLatLonBounds(Tile t, int zoom)
{
var bound = TileBounds(t, zoom);
var min = MetersToLatLon(new Point(bound.Left, bound.Top));
var max = MetersToLatLon(new Point(bound.Right, bound.Bottom));
return new Rect(min, max);
}
//Resolution (meters/pixel) for given zoom level (measured at Equator)
public static double Resolution(int zoom)
{
return InitialResolution / (Math.Pow(2, zoom));
}
public static double ZoomForPixelSize(double pixelSize)
{
for (var i = 0; i < 30; i++)
if (pixelSize > Resolution(i))
return i != 0 ? i - 1 : 0;
throw new InvalidOperationException();
}
// Switch to Google Tile representation from TMS
public static Tile ToGoogleTile(Tile t, int zoom)
{
return new Tile(t.X, ((int)Math.Pow(2, zoom) - 1) - t.Y);
}
// Switch to TMS Tile representation from Google
public static Tile ToTmsTile(Tile t, int zoom)
{
return new Tile(t.X, ((int)Math.Pow(2, zoom) - 1) - t.Y);
}
//Converts TMS tile coordinates to Microsoft QuadTree
public static string QuadTree(int tx, int ty, int zoom)
{
var quadtree = "";
ty = ((1 << zoom) - 1) - ty;
for (var i = zoom; i >= 1; i--)
{
var digit = 0;
var mask = 1 << (i - 1);
if ((tx & mask) != 0)
digit += 1;
if ((ty & mask) != 0)
digit += 2;
quadtree += digit;
}
return quadtree;
}
//Converts a quadtree to tile coordinates
public static Tile QuadTreeToTile(string quadtree, int zoom)
{
int tx= 0, ty = 0;
for (var i = zoom; i >= 1; i--)
{
var ch = quadtree[zoom - i];
var mask = 1 << (i - 1);
var digit = ch - '0';
if ((digit & 1) != 0)
tx += mask;
if ((digit & 2) != 0)
ty += mask;
}
ty = ((1 << zoom) - 1) - ty;
return new Tile(tx, ty);
}
//Converts a latitude and longitude to quadtree at the specified zoom level
public static string LatLonToQuadTree(Point latLon, int zoom)
{
Point m = LatLonToMeters(latLon.Y, latLon.X);
Tile t = MetersToTile(m, zoom);
return QuadTree(t.X, t.Y, zoom);
}
//Converts a quadtree location into a latitude/longitude bounding rectangle
public static Rect QuadTreeToLatLon(string quadtree)
{
int zoom = quadtree.Length;
Tile t = QuadTreeToTile(quadtree, zoom);
return TileLatLonBounds(t, zoom);
}
//Returns a list of all of the quadtree locations at a given zoom level within a latitude/longude box
public static List<string> GetQuadTreeList(int zoom, Point latLonMin, Point latLonMax)
{
if (latLonMax.Y< latLonMin.Y|| latLonMax.X< latLonMin.X)
return null;
Point mMin = LatLonToMeters(latLonMin.Y, latLonMin.X);
Tile tmin = MetersToTile(mMin, zoom);
Point mMax = LatLonToMeters(latLonMax.Y, latLonMax.X);
Tile tmax = MetersToTile(mMax, zoom);
var arr = new List<string>();
for (var ty = tmin.Y; ty <= tmax.Y; ty++)
{
for (var tx = tmin.X; tx <= tmax.X; tx++)
{
var quadtree = QuadTree(tx, ty, zoom);
arr.Add(quadtree);
}
}
return arr;
}
}
/// <summary>
/// Reference to a Tile X, Y index
/// </summary>
public class Tile
{
public Tile() { }
public Tile(int x, int y)
{
X = x;
Y = y;
}
public int X { get; set; }
public int Y { get; set; }
}
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