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dictionary.json[The Codezine]
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{
"abandoned industrial site": [
"Site that cannot be used for any purpose, being contaminated by pollutants."
],
"abandoned vehicle": [
"A vehicle that has been discarded in the environment, urban or otherwise, often found wrecked, destroyed, damaged or with a major component part stolen or missing."
],
"abiotic factor": [
"Physical, chemical and other non-living environmental factor."
],
"access road": [
"Any street or narrow stretch of paved surface that leads to a specific destination, such as a main highway."
],
"access to the sea": [
"The ability to bring goods to and from a port that is able to harbor sea faring vessels."
],
"accident": [
"An unexpected, unfortunate mishap, failure or loss with the potential for harming human life, property or the environment.",
"An event that happens suddenly or by chance without an apparent cause."
],
"accumulator": [
"A rechargeable device for storing electrical energy in the form of chemical energy, consisting of one or more separate secondary cells.\\n(Source: CED)"
],
"acidification": [
"Addition of an acid to a solution until the pH falls below 7."
],
"acidity": [
"The state of being acid that is of being capable of transferring a hydrogen ion in solution."
],
"acidity degree": [
"The amount of acid present in a solution, often expressed in terms of pH."
],
"acid rain": [
"Rain having a pH less than 5.6."
],
"acid": [
"A compound capable of transferring a hydrogen ion in solution.",
"Being harsh or corrosive in tone.",
"Having an acid, sharp or tangy taste.",
"A powerful hallucinogenic drug manufactured from lysergic acid.",
"Having a pH less than 7, or being sour, or having the strength to neutralize alkalis, or turning a litmus paper red."
],
"acoustic filter": [
"A device employed to reject sound in a particular range of frequencies while passing sound in another range of frequencies."
],
"acoustic insulation": [
"The process of preventing the transmission of sound by surrounding with a nonconducting material."
],
"acoustic level": [
"Physical quantity of sound measured, usually expressed in decibels.\\n(Source: KORENa)"
],
"acoustic property": [
"The characteristics found within a structure that determine the quality of sound in its relevance to hearing.\\n(Source: KOREN)"
],
"acoustics": [
"The science of the production, transmission and effects of sound."
],
"actinide": [
"An element member of the actinide group of 15 radioactive elements."
],
"actinium": [
"A radioactive element of the actinide series, occurring as a decay product of uranium. It is used as an alpha particle source and in neutron production.\\n(Source: CED)"
],
"action group": [
"A collection of persons united to address specific sociopolitical or socioeconomic concerns."
],
"activated carbon": [
"A powdered, granular or pelleted form of amorphous carbon characterized by a very large surface area per unit volume because of an enormous number of fine pores.\\n(Source: LANDY)"
],
"activated sludge": [
"Sludge that has been aerated and subjected to bacterial action; used to speed breakdown of organism matter in raw sewage during secondary waste treatment.\\n(Source: LANDY)"
],
"act": [
"Something done voluntarily by a person, and of such a nature that certain legal consequences attach to it.",
"Legal documents, decrees, edicts, laws, judgments, etc.",
"To do something.",
"To perform a theatrical role."
],
"adaptable species": [
"Species capable of adapting to changing circumstances."
],
"chemical addition": [
"Chemical reaction in which one or more of the double bonds or triple bonds in an unsaturated compound is converted to a single bond by the addition of other atoms or groups."
],
"additional packaging": [
"Additional packaging around the normal sales packaging, for example as protection against theft or for the purpose of advertising."
],
"addition polymer": [
"A polymer formed by the chain addition of unsaturated monomer molecules, such as olefins, with one another without the formation of a by-product, as water; examples are polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene."
],
"additive": [
"A substance mixed in small quantities with another product to modify its chemical or physical state, for example to make food look visually more attractive.",
"Proper to be added."
],
"adhesive": [
"Substance used for sticking objects together."
],
"acceptable daily intake": [
"The measurement of the amount of any chemical substance that can be safely consumed by a human being in a day. Calculations are usually based on the maximum level of a substance that can be fed to animals without producing any harmful effects. This is divided by a \"safety factor\" to allow for the differences between animals and humans and to take account of the variation in human diets."
],
"administration": [
"The management or direction of the affairs of a public or private office, business or organization."
],
"administrative body": [
"Any governmental agency or organization charged with managing and implementing regulations, laws and government policies.\\n(Source: BLD)",
"All representatives in a company that have the assignment to administrate the company itself."
],
"administrative competence": [
"The power of an administrative organ to exercise control over a certain field."
],
"administrative fiat": [
"An authoritative decree, sanction or order issued from an office with executive or managerial authority, without necessarily having the force of law or its equivalent.\\n(Source: RHW / BLD)"
],
"administrative jurisdiction": [
"The extent, power or territory in which an office with executive or managerial authority administers justice or declares judgments.\\n(Source: RHW / BLD)"
],
"administrative law": [
"Body of law created by administrative agencies in the form of rules, regulations, orders and decisions to carry out regulatory powers and duties of such agencies.\\n(Source: BLACK)"
],
"administrative sanction": [
"Any formal official imposition of penalty or fine, e.g.: destruction, taking, seizure, or withholding of property; assessment of damages, reimbursement, restitution, compensation, costs, charges or fees; requirement, revocation or suspension of license; or any other compulsory or restrictive action taken by an organization, agency or its representative."
],
"adsorption": [
"The physical or chemical bonding of molecules of gas, liquid or a dissolved substance to the external surface of a solid or the internal surface, if the material is porous, in a very thin layer."
],
"adult": [
"A person who is fully grown, developed or of a specified age.",
"(of animals) fully developed."
],
"adult education": [
"Any instruction or training, informal or formal, which is geared to persons of mature age, regardless of previous education, and typically offered by university extension programs, employers, correspondence courses or community groups."
],
"advertisement": [
"The action of drawing public attention to goods, services or events, often through paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, television or radio.\\n(Source: C / RHW)"
],
"product advertising": [
"The creation and dissemination of paid announcements or public notices to draw attention to goods, services or events offered by some entity, usually for purchase.\\n(Source: RHW)"
],
"advice": [
"Official notice, opinion, counsel or recommendation that is optional or at the receiver's discretion."
],
"aeration": [
"Exposition to the action of air."
],
"aerial photograph": [
"An image of the ground surface made on a light-sensitive material and taken at a high altitude from an aircraft, spacecraft or rocket.\\n(Source: MHD)"
],
"aerobic process": [
"A process requiring the presence of oxygen."
],
"aerobiology": [
"The study of the atmospheric dispersal of airborne fungus spores, pollen grains, and microorganisms; and, more broadly, of airborne propagules of algae and protozoans, minute insects such as aphids, and pollution gases and particles which exert specific biologic effects."
],
"aerodynamic noise": [
"Acoustic noise caused by turbulent airflow over the surface of a body."
],
"aerosol": [
"A gaseous suspension of ultramicroscopic particles of a liquid or a solid.\\n(Source: MGH)",
"An aerosol can for applying paint, deodorant, etc., as a fine spray."
],
"afforestation": [
"Establishment of a new forest by seeding or planting of nonforested land.",
"The planting of trees on land which was previously used for other uses than forestry.",
"The planting of trees in an area, or the management of an area to allow trees to regenerate or colonize naturally, in order to produce a forest."
],
"Africa": [
"The second largest of the continents, on the Mediterranean in the north, the Atlantic in the west, and the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Indian Ocean in the east."
],
"afterburning": [
"The incineration of polluting gases and particles resulting from incompletely combusted fuel, and the breakdown of other molecules associated with combustion into inert chemicals."
],
"age": [
"The period of time that a person, animal or plant has lived or is expected to live.",
"To begin to look older; to get older.",
"To make older.",
"A period of history having some distinctive feature.",
"How long something has existed."
],
"agricultural biotechnology": [
"An advanced technology that allows plant breeders to make precise genetic changes to impart beneficial traits to crop plants."
],
"agricultural building": [
"The buildings and adjacent service areas of a farm.\\n(Source: WEBSTE)"
],
"agricultural ecology": [
"Study of the ecology of agricultural systems and the natural resources required to sustain them."
],
"agricultural economics": [
"An applied social science that deals with the production, distribution, and consumption of agricultural or farming goods and services."
],
"agricultural engineering": [
"A discipline concerned with developing and improving the means for providing food and fiber for mankind's needs.\\n(Source: MGH)"
],
"agricultural equipment": [
"Machines utilized for tillage, planting, cultivation and harvesting of crops. Despite its benefits in increasing yields, mechanisation has clearly had some adverse environmental effects: deep ploughing exposes more soil to wind and water erosion; crop residues can be removed as opposed to ploughing back into the soil; removal of residues can lead to a serious loss of organic content in the soil, which may increase the risk of soil erosion.\\n(Source: MGH / DOBRIS)"
],
"agricultural machinery": [
"Machines utilized for tillage, planting, cultivation and harvesting of crops. Despite its benefits in increasing yields, mechanisation has clearly had some adverse environmental effects: deep ploughing exposes more soil to wind and water erosion; crop residues can be removed as opposed to ploughing back into the soil; removal of residues can lead to a serious loss of organic content in the soil, which may increase the risk of soil erosion.\\n(Source: MGH / DOBRIS)"
],
"agricultural management": [
"The administration or handling of soil, crops and livestock."
],
"agricultural pest": [
"Insects and mites that damage crops, weeds that compete with field crops for nutrients and water, plants that choke irrigation channels or drainage systems, rodents that eat young plants and grain, and birds that eat seedlings or stored foodstuffs.\\n(Source: WRIGHT)"
],
"agricultural policy": [
"A course of action adopted by government or some other organization that determines how to deal with matters involving the cultivation of land; raising crops; feeding, breeding and raising livestock or poultry; and other farming issues.\\n(Source: RHW)"
],
"agricultural production": [
"The amount of grown crops and breeded livestock per year in a given area."
],
"agriculture": [
"The production of plants and animals useful to man, involving soil cultivation and the breeding and management of crops and livestock."
],
"agrochemical": [
"Any substance or mixture of substances used or intended to be used for preventing, destroying, repelling, attracting, inhibiting, or controlling any insects, rodents, birds, nematodes, bacteria, fungi, weeds or other forms of plant, animal or microbial life regarded as pests."
],
"agroforestry": [
"The interplanting of farm crops and trees, especially leguminous species. In semiarid regions and on denuded hillsides, agroforestry helps control erosion and restores soil fertility, as well as supplying valuable food and commodities at the same time.\\n(Source: ALL)"
],
"agroindustry": [
"Industry dealing with the supply, processing and distribution of farm products.\\n(Source: PHC)"
],
"agrometeorology": [
"The study of the interaction between meteorological and hydrological factors, on the one hand, and agriculture in the widest sense, including horticulture, animal husbandry and forestry, on the other.\\n(Source: EURMET)"
],
"AIDS": [
"A disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)."
],
"air": [
"A predominantly mechanical mixture of a variety of individual gases forming the earth's enveloping atmosphere.",
"To expose to fresh air.",
"To send data over the airwaves, as in radio or television.",
"An expression or appearance indicating a certain state of mind.",
"A succession of notes forming a distinctive sequence.",
"The space above the earth's surface where planes fly.",
"To expose to cool or cold air so as to cool or freshen."
],
"air conditioning": [
"A system or process for controlling the temperature and sometimes the humidity and purity of the air in a house, etc."
],
"aircraft": [
"A vehicle, designed to be supported by the air, either by the dynamic action of the air upon the surfaces of the structure or object or by its own buoyancy.\\n(Source: MGH)"
],
"aircraft noise": [
"Noise caused by various sources associated with aircraft operation, such as propeller and engine exhaust, jet noise, and sonic boom."
],
"air movement": [
"Air movements within the Earth's atmospheric circulation; also called planetary winds. Two main components are recognized: first, the latitudinal meridional component due to the Coriolis force (a deflecting motion or force discussed by G.G. de Coriolis in 1835. The rotation of the Earth causes a body moving across its surface to be deflected to the right in the N hemisphere and to the left in the S hemisphere); and secondly, the longitudinal component and the vertical movement, resulting largely from varying pressure distributions due to differential heating and cooling of the Earth's surface.\\n(Source: WHIT)"
],
"air pollutant": [
"Any pollutant agent or combination of such agents, including any physical, chemical, biological, radioactive substance or matter which is emitted into or otherwise enters the ambient air and can, in high enough concentrations, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material.\\n(Source: LEE / TOE)"
],
"air pollution": [
"Presence in the atmosphere of large quantities of gases, solids and radiation produced by the burning of natural and artificial fuels, chemical and other industrial processes and nuclear explosions."
],
"airport": [
"A landing and taking-off area for civil aircraft, usually with surfaced runways and aircraft maintenance and passenger facilities."
],
"air quality": [
"The degree to which air is polluted; the type and maximum concentration of man-produced pollutants that should be permitted in the atmosphere.\\n(Source: ALL / WRIGHT)"
],
"air quality control": [
"The measurement of ambient air-pollution concentrations in order to determine whether there is a problem in a given region.\\n(Source: CONFERa)"
],
"air safety": [
"Any measure, technique or design intended to reduce the risk of harm posed by either moving vehicles or projectiles above the earth's surface or pollutants to the earth's atmosphere."
],
"air temperature": [
"The temperature of the atmosphere which represents the average kinetic energy of the molecular motion in a small region and is defined in terms of a standard or calibrated thermometer in thermal equilibrium with the air."
],
"air traffic": [
"Aircraft moving in flight or on airport runways."
],
"air traffic law": [
"International rules and conventions relating to air transportation."
],
"air traffic regulation": [
"Rules and regulations that govern civil and military air traffic."
],
"air transportation": [
"The use of aircraft, predominantly airplanes, to move passengers and cargo."
],
"alarm": [
"The act of signalling an impending danger in order to call attention to some event or condition.",
"A signal given to call attention to some event or condition which may be an impending danger."
],
"alcohol": [
"A group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The molecules in the series vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group. Alcohol includes methanol and ethanol.\\n(Source: EIADOE)",
"A flammable, colorless liquid which is used amongst others as solvent, disinfectant and intoxicant.",
"A drink (a liquor or brew) containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol."
],
"alga": [
"Simple, green, aquatic plants without stems, roots or leaves. They are found floating in the sea and fresh water, but they also grow on the surface of damp walls, rocks, the bark of trees and on soil.\\n(Source: WRIGHT)"
],
"algal bloom": [
"Excessive and rapid growth of algae and other aquatic plants. It takes place when there are too many nutrients in the water through pollution from agricultural areas, i.e. higher levels of nitrogen and phosphates."
],
"algicide": [
"Any substance or chemical applied to kill or control algal growth."
],
"alicyclic compound": [
"Any substance composed of two or more unlike atoms held together by chemical bonds characterized by straight-chained, branched or cyclic properties."
],
"alicyclic hydrocarbon": [
"A class of organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms joined to form one or more rings and having the properties of both aliphatic and cyclic substances.\\n(Source: MGH / RRDA)"
],
"aliphatic compound": [
"Any organic compound of hydrogen and carbon characterized by a straight chain of the carbon atoms.\\n(Source: MGH)"
],
"aliphatic hydrocarbon": [
"Hydrocarbons having an open chain of carbon atoms, whether normal or forked, saturated or unsaturated.\\n(Source: MGH)"
],
"alkali land": [
"Any geomorphic area, often a level lake-like plain, with soil containing a high percentage of mineral salts, located especially in arid regions.\\n(Source: MHD / RHW)"
],
"alkali soil": [
"Soil that contains sufficient exchangeable sodium to interfere with water penetration and crop growth, either with or without appreciable quantities of soluble salts.\\n(Source: LANDY)"
],
"alkane": [
"Paraffins. A homologous series of saturated hydrocarbons having the general formula CnH2n+2. Their systematic names end in -ane. They are chemically inert, stable, and flammable. The first four members of the series (methane, ethane, propane, butane) are gases at ordinary temperatures; the next eleven are liquids, and form the main constituents of paraffin oil; the higher members are solids. Paraffin waxs consists mainly of higher alkanes.\\n(Source: UVAROV)",
"Member of the homologous series of saturated hydrocarbons having the general formula CnH2n+2."
],
"alkyl compound": [
"Compound containing one or more alkyl radicals."
],
"allergen": [
"Any antigen, such as pollen, a drug, or food, that induces an allergic state in humans or animals.\\n(Source: MGH)"
],
"allergy": [
"A condition of abnormal sensitivity in certain individuals to contact with substances such as proteins, pollens, bacteria, and certain foods. This contact may result in exaggerated physiologic responses such as hay fever, asthma, and in severe enough situations, anaphylactic shock.\\n(Source: KOREN)"
],
"allocation": [
"The assignment or allotment of resources to various uses in accord with a stated goal or policy.\\n(Source: ODE)"
],
"alloy": [
"Any of a large number of substances having metallic properties and consisting of two or more elements; with few exceptions, the components are usually metallic elements."
],
"alluvion": [
"An overflowing; an inundation or flood, especially when the water is charged with much suspended material.\\n(Source: BJGEO)"
],
"alpha radiation": [
"A stream of alpha particles which are ejected from many radioactive substances having a penetrating power of a few cm in air but can be stopped by a thin piece of paper."
],
"alternative technology": [
"Technology that aims to utilize resources sparingly, with minimum damage to the environment."
],
"alumina": [
"A natural or synthetic oxide of aluminum widely distributed in nature, often found as a constituent part of clays, feldspars, micas and other minerals, and as a major component of bauxite."
],
"alveolus": [
"A tiny, thin-walled, capillary-rich sac in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place."
],
"amalgam": [
"A solution of a metal in mercury."
],
"Americas": [
"Continent which extends on a great part of the Occidental Hemisphere of the Earth, from the Artic Ocean in the North, to the Cape Horn in the South at the confluence of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, which delimits the continent on the East and West respectively."
],
"Ames test": [
"A bioassay developed by Bruce N. Ames in 1974, performed on bacteria to assess the capability of environmental chemicals to cause mutations."
],
"amine": [
"One of a class of organic compounds which can be considered to be derived from ammonia by replacement of one or more hydrogens by organic radicals.\\n(Source: MGH)"
],
"amino acid": [
"Organic compounds containing a carboxyl group (-COOH) and an amino group (-NH2). About 30 amino acids are known. They are fundamental constituents of living matter because protein molecules are made up of many amino acid molecules combined together. Amino acids are synthesized by green plants and some bacteria, but some (arginine, histidine, lysine. threonine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, valine, phenylalanine, tryptophane) cannot be synthesized by animals and therefore are essential constituents of their diet. Proteins from specific plants may lack certain amino acids, so a vegetarian diet must include a wide range of plant products.\\n(Source: ALL)"
],
"ammonia": [
"A colorless gaseous alkaline compound that is very soluble in water, has a characteristic pungent odour, is lighter than air, and is formed as a result of the decomposition of most nitrogenous organic material."
],
"ammonification": [
"Addition of ammonia or ammonia compounds, especially to the soil."
],
"ammonium": [
"A positively charged polyatomic cation of the chemical formula NH4+ formed by protonation of ammonia (NH3)."
],
"amphibian": [
"A class of vertebrate animals characterized by a moist, glandular skin, gills at some stage of development, and no amnion during the embryonic stage.\\n(Source: MGH)"
],
"amusement park": [
"An open-air entertainment area consisting of stalls, side shows etc.\\n(Source: CED)"
],
"analysis": [
"The mathematical study of functions, sequences, series, limits, derivatives and integrals."
],
"analytical chemistry": [
"The branch of chemistry dealing with techniques which yield any type of information about chemical systems.\\n(Source: MGH)"
],
"analytical method": [
"Method to analyse the performance of a process or system."
],
"anatomy": [
"The science concerned with the physical structure of animals and plants."
],
"angiosperm": [
"The division of seed plants that includes all the flowering plants, characterized by the possession of flowers. The ovules, which become seeds after fertilization, are enclosed in ovaries. The xylem contains true vessels. The angiospermae are divided into two subclasses: Monocotyledoneae and Dycotiledoneae.\\n(Source: ALL)"
],
"angling": [
"The art or sport of catching fish with a rod and line and a baited hook or other lure, such as a fly."
],
"animal disease": [
"A disease that is mainly found in certain animals (and not in plants or humans)."
],
"animal ecology": [
"A study of the relationships of animals to their environment.\\n(Source: MGH)"
],
"animal experiment": [
"Investigation carried out in animals for research purposes."
],
"animal genetics": [
"The scientific study of the hereditary material of animals for theoretical and practical applications such as increased population, conservation and disease research.\\n(Source: EEN)"
],
"animal housing": [
"Any kind of shelter, refuge affording protection to animals."
],
"animal husbandry": [
"A branch of agriculture concerned with the breeding and feeding of domestic animals.\\n(Source: MGH)"
],
"animal manure": [
"Animal excreta collected from stables and barnyards with or without litter; used to enrich the soil.\\n(Source: MGH)"
],
"animal noise": [
"Noise caused by animals such as dogs kept in kennels or in private homes as pets."
],
"animal nutrition": [
"Ingestion, digestion and/or assimilation of food by animals."
],
"animal physiology": [
"Study of the normal processes and metabolic functions of animal organisms.\\n(Source: LBC)"
],
"animal protection": [
"Precautionary actions or procedures taken to prevent or reduce the harm to sentient, non-human species, posed, in most cases, by humans."
],
"animal for slaughter": [
"Animals bred and killed for the production of food."
],
"animal shelter": [
"A protection providing housing for animals in bad weather. (Source: RRDA)",
"A facility that houses homeless, lost or abandoned animals; primarily a large variety of dogs and cats and other animals used as pets."
],
"animal": [
"Any living organism characterized by voluntary movement, the possession of cells with noncellulose cell walls and specialized sense organs enabling rapid response to stimuli, and the ingestion of complex organic substances such as plants and other animals.",
"Any living organism of the Animalia reign except human",
"Of or relating to animals."
],
"animal trade": [
"The process or act of exchanging, buying or selling animals, especially livestock."
],
"anion": [
"An ion that is negatively charged."
],
"annelid": [
"An animal member of the phylum Annelida."
],
"antagonism": [
"The situation in which two chemicals upon interaction interfere in such a way that the action of one partially or completely inhibits the effects of the other."
],
"Antarctica": [
"A continent lying chiefly within the Antarctic Circle and asymmetrically centered on the South Pole."
],
"Antarctic ecosystem": [
"The ecosystem of the antarctic region of planet Earth."
],
"Antarctic Ocean": [
"The waters, including ice shelves, that surround the continent of Antarctica, which comprise the southernmost parts of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian oceans, and also the Ross, Amundsen, Bellingshausen and Weddell seas."
],
"Antarctic region": [
"An area within the Antarctic Circle that includes the fifth largest continent and its surrounding waters, consisting mostly of thick ice shelves.\\n(Source: INP / CIA)"
],
"anthropic activity": [
"Action resulting from or influenced by human activity or intervention."
],
"anthropologic reserve": [
"Area of protection of the life style of societies where traditional human activities are still maintained and the exploitation of natural resources is still carried out without compromising the future availability."
],
"antibiotic": [
"A chemical substance, produced by microorganisms and synthetically, that has the capacity to inhibit the growth of, and even to destroy, bacteria and other microorganisms."
],
"antibody": [
"A complex protein that is produced in response to the introduction of a specific antigen into an animal. Antibodies belong to a class of proteins called immunoglobins, which are formed by plasma cells in the blood as a defence mechanism against invasion by parasites, notably bacteria and viruses, either by killing them or rendering them harmless.\\n(Source: ALL2)"
],
"anticipation of danger": [
"The act of foreseeing, expecting and taking measures against possible future exposure to harm, death or a thing that causes these.\\n(Source: ISEP)"
],
"apartment block": [
"An apartment building in which each apartment is individually wholly owned and the common areas are jointly owned."
],
"apiculture": [
"The agricultural practice of intentional maintenance of honey bee colonies."
],
"appeal": [
"Resort to a superior court to review the decision of an inferior court or administrative agency.",
"Request turned to an administrative or judicial organ in order to obtain the review or revocation of an action or provision.",
"To take a court case to a higher court for review."
],
"appeal procedure": [
"Procedure through which it is possible to resort to a superior court to review the decision of an inferior court."
],
"applied ecology": [
"The application of ecological principles to the solution of human problems."
],
"applied science": [
"Science whose results are employed in technical applications."
],
"aquaculture": [
"The cultivation and harvest of freshwater or marine animals and plants, in ponds, tanks, cages or on protected beds."
],
"aquatic animal": [
"Animal having a water habitat."
],
"aquatic ecology": [
"The study of the relationships among aquatic living organisms and between those organisms and their environment.\\n(Source: ALLa)"
],
"aquatic mammal": [
"A diverse group of roughly 120 species of mammal that are primarily ocean-dwelling or depend on the ocean for food."
],
"aquatic organism": [
"Organisms which live in water.\\n(Source: PHC)"
],
"aquatic plant": [
"Plant adapted for a partially or completely submerged life."
],
"aqueduct": [
"A channel for supplying water; often underground, but treated architecturally on high arches when crossing valleys or low ground.",
"Duct for conveying water to a given place.",
"Canal or passage in the body in which liquids flow."
],
"aquifer": [
"Layers of rock, sand or gravel that can absorb water and allow it to flow."
],
"arable farming": [
"Growing crops as opposed to dairy farming, cattle farming, etc."
],
"arboriculture": [
"The planting and care of woody plants, especially trees."
],
"archaeological site": [
"Any location containing significant relics and artifacts of past culture.\\n(Source: LANDY)"
],
"archaeology": [
"The scientific study of the material remains of the cultures of historical or prehistorical peoples.\\n(Source: MGH)"
],
"archipelago": [
"A group of many islands including the waters that surround them.\\n(Source: DOE)",
"A cluster of several islands."
],
"architecture": [
"The art and science of designing and building structures, or large groups of structures, in keeping with aesthetic and functional criteria.",
"A specification that identifies components and their associated functionality, describes connectivity of components, and describes the mapping of functionality onto components."
],
"Arctic Ocean": [
"The smallest and most poorly studied of the oceans on earth. It covers an area of 14 million square km that is divided by three submarine ridges, i.e. the Alpha Ridge, the Lomonosov Ridge, and an extension of the mid-Atlantic ridge. It is also nearly landlocked, covered\\nyear-round by pack ice, and the third of its area is continental shelf.\\n(Source: OCEAN)"
],
"Arctic region": [
"The northernmost area of the earth, centered on the North Pole, that includes the Arctic Ocean, the northern reaches of Canada, Alaska, Russia, Norway and most of Greenland, Iceland and Svalbard.\\n(Source: INP)"
],
"distribution area": [
"The overall geographical distribution of a talon."
],
"armament": [
"The weapons, ammunition and equipment held by a military unit or state.",
"The total force held by a military unit or state."
],
"armed forces": [
"The military units of a state, typically divided by their differing contexts of operations, such as the army, navy, air force and marines."
],
"aromatic compound": [
"Compound characterized by the presence of at least one benzene ring."
],
"aromatic hydrocarbon": [
"Hydrocarbon having an unsaturated ring containing alternating double and single bonds, especially containing a benzene ring."
],
"aromatic substance": [
"Substance having a distinctive, usually fragrant smell."
],
"arsenic": [
"A toxic metalloid element with symbol As and atomic number 33, existing in several allotropic forms, that occurs principally in realgar and orpiment and as the free element. It is used in semiconductors, lead-based alloys, and high temperature brasses."
],
"art": [
"The creation of works of beauty or other special significance.",
"The products of human creativity; works of art collectively.",
"A superior skill that one can learn by study, practice, and observation.",
"Photographs or other visual representations in a printed publication."
],
"arthropod": [
"The largest phylum in the animal kingdom; adults typically have segmented body, a sclerotized integument, and many-jointed segmental limbs.\\n(Source: MGH)",
"Animal member of the phylum Arthropoda."
],
"Articulata": [
"Animals characterized by the repetition of similar segments (metameres), exhibited especially by arthropods, annelids, and vertebrates in early embryonic stages and in certain specialized adult structures."
],
"artificial lake": [
"Lake created behind manmade barriers."
],
"asbestos": [
"Generic name for a group of fibrous mineral silicates."
],
"asbestos cement": [
"A hardened mixture of asbestos fibers, Portland cement and water used in relatively thin slabs for shingles, wallboard and siding."
],
"ASEAN": [
"Association of Southeast Asian Nations. Regional organization of states of Southeast Asia created on august 8th, 1967."
],
"ash": [
"The incombustible matter remaining after a substance has been incinerated.",
"Any of the trees belonging to the genus Fraxinus.",
"Wood of the ash tree."
],
"Asia": [
"The world's largest continent. It occupies the eastern part of the Eurasian landmass and its adjacent islands and is separated from Europe by the Ural Mountains. Asia borders on the Arctic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Mediterranean and Red Seas in the west. It includes the largest peninsulas of Asia Minor, India, Arabia, and Indochina and the island groups of Japan, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Ceylon."
],
"assimilation": [
"Conversion of nutritive material to living tissue.\\n(Source: KOREN)"
],
"association": [
"A formal association of people with similar interests."
],
"astronautics": [
"The science of space flight."
],
"astronomy": [
"The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe."
],
"atlas": [
"A bound collection of maps or charts, plates, engravings or tables illustrating any subject.",
"The most superior (first) cervical vertebra of the spine."
],
"atmosphere": [
"The gaseous envelope surrounding the Earth in a several kilometers-thick layer.",
"Gaseous envelope of a celestial body.",
"A store's physical characteristics that are used to develop an image and draw customers."
],
"atmospheric chemistry": [
"The study of the production, transport, modification, and removal of atmospheric constituents in the troposphere and stratosphere."
],
"atmospheric circulation": [
"The general movement and circulation of air, which transfers energy between different levels of the atmosphere."
],
"atmospheric humidity": [
"A measurable quantity of the moisture content found in the earth's atmosphere.\\n(Source: RHW)"
],
"atmospheric model": [
"A simulation, pattern or plan designed to demonstrate the structure or workings of the atmosphere surrounding any object, including the Earth.\\n(Source: APD)"
],
"atmospheric ozone": [
"A triatomic molecule of oxygen; a natural constituent of the atmosphere, with the highest concentrations in the ozone layer or stratosphere; it is found at a level between 15 and 30 km above the Earth, which prevents harmful ultraviolet B radiation, which causes skin cancer and threatens plant life, from reaching the ground. The fragile shield is being damaged by chemicals released on Earth. The main chemicals that are depleting stratospheric ozone are chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which are used in refrigerators, aerosols and as cleaners in many industries and halons, which are used in fire extinguishers. The damage is caused when these chemicals release highly reactive forms of chlorine and bromine.\\n(Source: GILP96 / WRIGHT)"
],
"atmospheric physics": [
"The study of the physical phenomena of the atmosphere."
],
"atmospheric precipitation": [
"The settling out of water from cloud in the form of rain, hail, snow, etc."
],
"atmospheric science": [
"The sciences that study the dynamics, physics and chemistry of atmospheric phenomena and processes."
],
"attribution": [
"Under certain circumstances, the tax law applies attribution rules to assign to one taxpayer the ownership interest of another taxpayer.\\n(Source: WESTS)",
"Act of accrediting an author or an artist for creating a specific work or idea."
],
"audiovisual media": [
"Any means of communication transmitted to both the sense of hearing and the sense of sight, especially technologies directed to large audiences."
],
"autoecology": [
"That part of ecology which deals with individual species and their reactions to environmental factors.\\n(Source: UNUN)"
],
"automobile industry": [
"Branch of industry that manufactures automobiles."
],
"avalanche": [
"A fall or slide of a large mass, as of snow or rock, down a mountainside.",
"Great quantity of ice or snow that falls down suddenly from a mountain slope while increasing in volume and speed."
],
"avalanche protection": [
"The total of measures and devices implemented to protect people, property or natural resources from avalanche conditions, including avalanche forecasting and warning, avalanche zoning, ski testing and the use of explosives and other equipment to stabilize an avalanche area."
],
"aviation law": [
"International rules regulating air transportation."
],
"avifauna": [
"All the birds in a particular region."
],
"background level": [
"Term used in a variety of situations, always as the constant or natural amount of a given substance, radiation, noise, etc."
],
"background radiation": [
"Radiation resulting from natural sources, as opposed to man-made sources, and to which people are exposed in everyday, normal life; for example from rocks and soil."
],
"bacterial bed": [
"A device that removes some suspended solids from sewage."
],
"bactericide": [
"An agent that destroys bacteria."
],
"bacteriology": [
"The science and study of bacteria."
],
"banking": [
"Transactional business between any bank and that bank's clients or customers."
],
"barium": [
"A soft silvery-white metallic element of the alkaline earth group. It has the symbol Ba, and atomic number 56. It is used in bearing alloys and compounds are used as pigments.\\n(Source: CED)"
],
"baseline monitoring": [
"Monitoring of long-term changes in atmospheric compositions of particular significance to the weather and the climate.\\n(Source: YOUNG)"
],
"basic food requirement": [
"The minimum nutriments deemed necessary for a person of a particular age, gender, physiological condition and activity level to sustain life, health and growth."
],
"basicity": [
"The state of a solution of containing an excess of hydroxyl ions."
],
"basidiomycete": [
"Any of various fungi of the subdivision Basidiomycota."
],
"bathing water": [
"A body of water where bathing is permitted."
],
"battery": [
"A cell or several cells connected together, each cell containing the essentials for producing voltaic electricity."
],
"bay": [
"(Laurus nobilis) A shrub of the family Lauraceae.",
"An open, curving indentation made by the sea or a lake into a coastline.",
"To produce a loud, short, explosive sound similar to that of a dog.",
"A herb made from a leaf of several of the shrubs of the family Lauraceae.",
"A compartment in an aircraft used for some specific purpose."
],
"beach": [
"A lat, narrow strip of sand, gravel or pebbles along the shoreline of a body of water (ocean, river, lake).",
"To land on a beach; (of animals) to become stranded out of the water."
],
"beaching": [
"The washing ashore of whales or other cetaceans that have died for natural causes, or because of highly polluted sea water or after being trapped in drift nets."
],
"bee conservation": [
"The care, preservation and husbandry of hymenopterous insects valued for their ability to pollinate crops and other flora or for their production of honey."
],
"beef cattle": [
"Cattle bred for the production of meat."
],
"bee": [
"Any of the membranous-winged insects which compose the superfamily Apoidea in the order Hymenoptera characterized by a hairy body and by sucking and chewing mouthparts.",
"The second letter of the Roman alphabet."
],
"beetle": [
"Any insect of the order Coleoptera, having biting mouthparts and forewings modified to form shell-like protective elytra."
],
"beneficial organism": [
"Any pollinating insect, or any pest predator, parasite, pathogen or other biological control agent which functions naturally or as part of an integrated pest management program to control another pest.\\n(Source: LEE)"
],
"benthic division": [
"The bottom of a body of water often occupied by benthos.\\n(Source: GILP96)"
],
"benthic ecosystem": [
"The interacting system of the biological communities located at the bottom of bodies of freshwater and saltwater and their non-living environmental surroundings.\\n(Source: TOE / DOE)"
],
"benthos": [
"Those organisms attached to, living on, in or near the bottom of the sea, river bed or lake floor."
],
"benzene": [
"A colorless, liquid, flammable, aromatic hydrocarbon used to manufacture styrene and phenol. Also known as benzol.\\n(Source: MGH)"
],
"benzopyrene": [
"A five-ring aromatic hydrocarbon found in coal tar, in cigarette smoke, and as a product of incomplete combustion."
],
"beryllium": [
"A corrosion-resistant, toxic silvery-white metallic element that occurs chiefly in beryl and is used mainly in x-ray windows and in the manufacture of alloys. Symbol: Be, atomic number: 4."
],
"beta radiation": [
"Ionizing radiation which is produced as a stream of high speed electrons emitted by certain types of radioactive substance when they decay."
],
"beverage industry": [
"Industry sector which produces beverages."
],
"beverage": [
"Any one of various liquids for drinking."
],
"bibliography": [
"A complete or selective listing of documents by a given subject, author or publisher, often including the description and identification of the editions, dates of issue, titles, authorship, publishers or other written materials.\\n(Source: RHW / ISEP)"
],
"bicycle": [
"A vehicle with two wheels in tandem, pedals connected to the rear wheel by a chain, handlebars for steering, and a saddlelike seat."
],
"bilateral convention": [
"An international agreement, especially one dealing with a specific matter, involving two or both sides, factions, or the like."
],
"bilge oil": [
"Waste oil that accumulates, usually in small quantities, inside the lower spaces of a ship, just inside the shell plating, and usually mixed with larger quantities of water."
],
"bilge water": [
"Water that builds up in the bottom of a ship's bilge."
],
"bioaccumulation": [
"The accumulation of pollutants in living organisms by direct adsorption or through food chains."
],
"bio-availability": [
"The extent to which a drug or other substance is taken up by a specific tissue or organ after administration.\\n(Source: ZINZAN / CEDa)"
],
"biochemistry": [
"The study of chemical substances occurring in living organisms and the reactions and methods for identifying these substances."
],
"biocide": [
"A diverse group of poisonous substance including preservatives, insecticides, disinfectants and pesticides used for the control of organisms that are harmful to human or animal health or that cause damage to natural or manufactured products.\\n(Source: GRAHAW)"
],
"bioclimatology": [
"The study of climate in relation to fauna and flora."
],
"biocoenosis": [
"A community or natural assemblage of organisms; often used as an alternative to ecosystem but strictly is the fauna/flora association excluding physical aspects of the environment."
],
"bioconcentration factor": [
"The quotient of the concentration of a chemical in aquatic organisms at a specific time or during a discrete time period of exposure, divided by the concentration in the surrounding water at the same time or during the same period.\\n(Source: KOREN)"
],
"biodegradability": [
"The extent to which a substance can be decomposed - or rotted - by bacteria and fungi."
],
"biodegradation": [
"Breaking down of a substance by microorganisms."
],
"biodiversity": [
"Number and variety of living organisms; includes genetic diversity, species diversity, and ecological diversity."
],
"bioethics": [
"The study of ethical problems arising from biological research and its applications in such fields as organ transplantation, genetic engineering, or artificial insemination."
],
"biogas": [
"Gas, rich in methane, which is produced by the fermentation of animal dung, human sewage or crop residues in an air-tight container."
],
"biogeochemical cycle": [
"Movement of chemical elements in a circular pathway, from organisms to physical environment, back to organisms."
],
"biogeochemistry": [
"The study of the chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes and reactions that govern the composition of the natural environment and its energy transportation cycles."
],
"biogeographical region": [
"Area of the Earth's surface defined by the species of fauna and flora it contains."
],
"biogeography": [
"The science concerned with the geographical distribution of animal and plant life."
],
"biological engineering": [
"The application of engineering principles and techniques to biology and medicine. It is largely concerned with the design of replacement body parts, such as limbs, heart valves, etc."
],
"biological indicator": [
"A species or organism that is used to grade environmental quality or change."
],
"biological monitoring": [
"The direct measurement of changes in the biological status of a habitat, based on evaluations of the number and distribution of individuals or species before and after a change.\\n(Source: ALL)"
],
"biological nitrogen fixation": [
"A process in which atmospheric nitrogen is converted to ammonia by a pair of bacterial enzymes called nitrogenase."
],
"biological pest control": [
"Any living organism applied to or introduced into the environment that is intended to function as a pesticide against another organism declared to be a pest."
],
"biological weapon": [
"Living organisms (or infective material derived from them) which are intended to cause disease or death in animals, plants, or man, and which depend for their effects on their ability to multiply in the person, animal or plant attacked. Various living organisms (for example, rickettsiae, viruses and fungi), as well as bacteria, can be used as weapons."
],
"biology": [
"A division of the natural sciences concerned with the study of life and living organisms."
],
"bioluminescence": [
"The production of light of various colors by living organisms, e.g. some bacteria and fungi, glow-worms and many marine animals)."
],
"biomass": [
"Biomass refers strictly speaking to the total weight of all the living things in an ecosystem. However, it has come to refer to the amount of plant and crop material that could be produced in an ecosystem for making biofuels and other raw materials used in industry, for example.\\n(Source: WRIGHT)"
],
"biophysics": [
"The science involving the application of physical principles and methods to study and explain the structures of living organisms and the mechanics of life processes."
],
"bioreactor": [
"A container, such as a large fermentation chamber, for growing living organisms that are used in the industrial production of substances such as pharmaceuticals, antibodies, or vaccines."
],
"biorhythm": [
"A cyclically recurring pattern of physiological states in an organism or organ, such as alpha rhythm or circadian rhythm; believed by some to affect physical and mental states and behaviour."
],
"biosafety": [
"The combination of knowledge, techniques and equipment used to manage or contain potentially infectious materials or biohazards in the laboratory environment, to reduce or prevent harm to laboratory workers, other persons and the environment."
],
"biosphere": [
"That part of the Earth and atmosphere capable of supporting living organisms."
],
"biosphere reserve": [
"Protected land and coastal areas that are approved under the Man and Biosphere programme (MAB) in conjunction with the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). Each reserve has to have an ecosystem that is recognized for its diversity and usefulness as a conservation unit. The reserves have at least one core area where there can be no interference with the natural ecosystem. A transition zone surrounds this and within it scientific research is allowed. Beyond this is a buffer zone which protects the whole reserve from agricultural, industrial and urban development. Biosphere reserves and buffer zones were regarded as examples of a new generation of conservation techniques.\\n(Source: WRIGHT)"
],
"biosynthesis": [
"Production, by synthesis or degradation, of a chemical compound by a living organism.\\n(Source: MGH)"
],
"biotechnology": [
"A combination of biology and technology. It is used to describe developments in the application of biological organisms for commercial and scientific purposes."
],
"biotic factor": [
"The influence upon the environment of organisms owing to the presence and activities of other organisms, as distinct from a physical, abiotic, environmental factor."
],
"biotope": [
"A region of relatively uniform environmental conditions, occupied by a given plant community and its associated animal community."
],
"biotope network": [
"Intersection of corridors connecting patchy ecological communities. Species survival tends to be higher in patches that have higher connectivity."
],
"biotope protection": [
"Measures taken to ensure that the biological and physical components of a biotope are in equilibrium by maintaining constant their relative numbers and features."
],
"bird": [
"Any of the bipedal, warm-blooded vertebrates that lay eggs having wings which, for most species, enables them to fly.",
"A powered heavier-than-air aircraft with fixed wings that obtains lift by the Bernoulli effect and is used for transportation.",
"Badminton equipment consisting of a ball of cork or rubber with a crown of feathers."
],
"bird sanctuary": [
"Special area where birds are protected."
],
"bird of prey": [
"Any of various carnivorous bird of the orders Falconiformes and Strigiformes which feed on meat taken by hunting."
],
"bird species": [
"Any species of the warm-blooded vertebrates which make up the class Aves."
],
"birth control": [
"Limitation of the number of children born by preventing or reducing the frequency of impregnation.",
"The intentional prevention of pregnancy through the use of various devices, practices, surgical procedures or medication."
],
"bitumen": [
"A generic term applied to natural inflammable substances of variable colour, hardness, and volatility, composed principally of a mixture of hydrocarbons substantially free from oxygenated bodies."
],
"black coal": [
"A natural black graphitelike material used as a fuel, formed from fossilized plants and consisting of amorphous carbon with various organic and some inorganic compounds."
],
"blast furnace": [
"A tall, cylindrical smelting furnace for reducing iron ore to pig iron; the blast of air blown through solid fuel increases the combustion rate."
],
"bleaching agent": [
"A chemical that removes colors or whitens."
],
"bleaching clay": [
"Clay capable of chemically adsorbing oils, insecticides, alkaloids, vitamins, carbohydrates and other materials; it is used for refining and decolorizing mineral and vegetable oils."
],
"bleaching process": [
"The process of removing colored components from a textile."
],
"blue-green alga": [
"Microorganisms, formerly classified as algae but now regarded as bacteria, including nostoc, which contain a blue pigment in addition to chlorophyll.\\n(Source: CED)"
],
"boating": [
"To travel or go in a boat as a form of recreation."
],
"boiler": [
"An enclosed vessel in which water is heated and circulated, either as hot water or as steam, for heating or power."
],
"boiling point": [
"The temperature at which the transition from the liquid to the gaseous phase occurs in a pure substance at fixed pressure."
],
"book": [
"A collection of sheets of paper bound together to hinge at one edge, containing printed or written material, pictures, etc.",
"Part of a larger published work.",
"To record in a register.",
"To arrange for (something for someone else) in advance.",
"To engage for a performance."
],
"bookkeeping": [
"The art or science of recording business accounts and transactions."
],
"border": [
"The dividing line or frontier between political or geographic regions.",
"The boundary line or the area immediately inside the boundary.",
"The boundary of a surface.",
"To have its boundary touch something; to share a border."
],
"boron": [
"A very hard almost colourless crystalline metalloid element that in impure form exists as a brown amorphous powder. It occurs principally in borax and is used in hardening steel."
],
"botanical garden": [
"A place in which plants are grown, studied and exhibited."
],
"botany": [
"A branch of the biological sciences which embraces the study of plants and plant life."
],
"boundary layer": [
"The layer of fluid adjacent to a physical boundary in which the fluid motion is significantly affected by the boundary and has a mean velocity less than the free stream value.\\n(Source: LBC)"
],
"bovid": [
"Any animal belonging to the Bovidae family."
],
"brackish water": [
"Water, salty between the concentrations of fresh water and sea water; usually 5-10 parts x thousand."
],
"bradyseism": [
"The gradual uplift or descent of part of the Earth's surface caused by the filling or emptying of an underground magma chamber and/or hydrothermal activity."
],
"breast milk": [
"Milk from the breast for feeding babies."
],
"breeding": [
"The application of genetic principles to the improvement of farm animals and cultivated plants."
],
"breeding bird": [
"Individual in a bird population that are involved in reproduction during a particular period in a given place."
],
"brewing industry": [
"A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of commercial enterprises is engaged in the manufacture and marketing of beverages made from malt and hops by steeping, boiling and fermentation, such as beer, ale and other related beverages."
],
"brick": [
"A building material usually made from clay, molded as a rectangular block, and baked or burned in a kiln."
],
"bridge": [
"A structure that spans and provides a passage over a road, railway, river, or some other obstacle.",
"A system which connects two or more local area networks at layer 2.",
"To be or make bridge over something.",
"The ridge of the nose running from the root of the nose down to the tip.",
"An elevated platform above the upper deck of a mechanically propelled ship from which it is navigated.",
"A wrestling move performed from a supine position, lying down face-up."
],
"bromine": [
"A pungent dark red volatile liquid element (symbol Br, atomic number 35) of the halogen series that occurs in brine and is used in the production of chemicals."
],
"brooding": [
"Incubating eggs by sitting on them."
],
"brook": [
"A small stream or rivulet, commonly swiftly flowing in rugged terrain, of lesser length and volume than a creek; especially a stream that issues directly from the ground, as from a spring or seep, or that is produced by heavy rainfall or melting snow.",
"To allow (something that one dislikes or disagrees with) to continue to exist or occur without interference; accept or undergo, often unwillingly."
],
"bryophyte": [
"Any plant of the division Bryophyta, having stems and leaves but lacking true vascular tissue and roots and reproducing by spores: includes the mosses and liverworts."
],
"budget": [
"A balance sheet or statement of estimated receipts and expenditures."
],
"bug": [
"Any of the suborder Heteroptera, having piercing and sucking mouthparts, specialized as a beak.\\n(Source: CED)",
"A problem in computer software or hardware or in electronic hardware in general.",
"To make someone rather angry or impatient; to cause annoyance.",
"Any insect, arachnid, or other terrestrial arthropod that is a pest."
],
"building": [
"Structure with a roof and walls, such as a house or factory.",
"The process of constructing."
],
"building area": [
"Land and other places on, under, in or through which the temporary and permanent works are to be executed and any other lands or places needed for the purposes of construction.\\n(Source: ECHO1)"
],
"building component": [
"A building element which uses industrial products that are manufactured as independent until capable of being joined with other elements."
],
"building land": [
"Area of land suitable for building on."
],
"building material": [
"Any material used in construction, such as steel, concrete, brick, masonry, glass, wood, etc."
],
"building planning": [
"The activity of designing, organizing or preparing for future construction or reconstruction of edifices and facilities.\\n(Source: RHW)"
],
"building site": [
"A piece of land on which a house or other building is being built."
],
"building technology": [
"The application of engineering principles and technology to building design and construction."
],
"built environment": [
"That part of the physical surroundings which are people-made or people-organized, such as buildings and other major structures, roads, bridges and the like, down to lesser objects such as traffic lights, telephone and pillar boxes."
],
"built-up area": [
"Area which is full of houses, shops, offices and other buildings, with very little open space.",
"The area within a city or town, as indicated by appropriate traffic signs (or, in the United Kingdom, by the presence of street lights), where different traffic rules are in effect, such as a reduction of the speed limit."
],
"bulb cultivation": [
"The cultivation of flower bulb is divided into two sectors: for forcing (flower bulbs used by professional growers for the production of cut flowers and potted plants) and for dry sales (flower bulbs for garden planting, flower pots, landscaping and parks).\\n(Source: BULB)"
],
"bus": [
"A large, long-bodied motor vehicle equipped with seating for passengers, usually operating as part of a scheduled service."
],
"business": [
"The activity, position or site associated with commerce or the earning of a livelihood.",
"Commercial, industrial or financial activity."
],
"butterfly": [
"A lepidopteran that is active at day."
],
"button-cell battery": [
"A tiny, circular battery made for a watch or for other microelectric applications."
],
"by-catch": [
"Fish that is caught unintentionally while intending to catch other fish and that is often discarded back into the sea."
],
"by-product": [
"A product from a manufacturing process that is not considered the principal material."
],
"cable": [
"Strands of insulated electrical conductors laid together, usually around a central core, and wrapped in a heavy insulation.",
"To send a message by telegraph."
],
"cadmium": [
"Chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48, silvery gray transition metal."
],
"cadmium contamination": [
"The release and presence in the air, water and soil of cadmium, a toxic, metallic element, from sources such as the burning of coal and tobacco and improper disposal of cadmium-containing waste.\\n(Source: FFD / EEN)"
],
"calcium": [
"A malleable silvery-white metallic element of the alkaline earth group with symbol Ca and atomic number 20; the fifth most abundant element in the earth crust, occurring especially as forms of calcium carbonate. It is an essential constituent of bones and teeth and is used as a deoxidizer in steel.\\n(Source: CED)"
],
"calcium content": [
"Amount of calcium contained in a solution."
],
"calibration": [
"The marking the scale of a measuring instrument so that readings can be made in appropriate units."
],
"canal": [
"An artificial open waterway used for transportation, waterpower, or irrigation."
],
"cancer": [
"Any malignant cellular tumour including carcinoma and sarcoma."
],
"cancer risk": [
"The probability that exposure to some agent or substance will adversely transform cells to replicate and form a malignant tumor."
],
"car": [
"A four-wheeled motor vehicle used for land transport."
],
"carbohydrate": [
"Any of the group of organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, including sugars, starches and celluloses."
],
"carbon": [
"A nonmetallic element with symbol C and atomic number 6 existing in the three crystalline forms: graphite, diamond and buckminsterfullerene: occurring in carbon dioxide, coal, oil and all organic compounds.\\n(Source: CED)"
],
"carbonate": [
"A salt or ester of carbonic acid.\\n(Source: CED)"
],
"carbon cycle": [
"The cycle of carbon in the biosphere, in which plants convert carbon dioxide to organic compounds that are consumed by plants and animals, and the carbon is returned to the biosphere in inorganic form by processes of respiration and decay.\\n(Source: MGH)"
],
"carbon dioxide": [
"A colourless gas with a faint tingling smell and taste."
],
"carbon dioxide tax": [
"Compulsory charges levied on fuels to reduce the output of carbon dioxide (CO2)."
],
"carbon monoxide": [
"Chemical formula CO; a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas."
],
"carcinogenicity": [
"The ability or tendency of a substance or physical agent to cause or produce cancer."
],
"carcinogenicity test": [
"Test for assessing if a chemical or physical agent increases the risk of cancer."
],
"carcinogen": [
"A substance that causes cancer in humans and animals.",
"Causing cancer."
],
"cardiology": [
"The branch of medicine that studies the heart."
],
"cardiovascular disease": [
"The class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins)."
],
"carnivore": [
"An animal that eats meat."
],
"cartography": [
"The making of maps and charts for the purpose of visualizing spatial distributions over various areas of the earth."
],
"cash crop": [
"Crops that are grown for sale in the town markets or for export. They include coffee, cocoa, sugar, vegetables, peanuts and non-foods, like tobacco and cotton."
],
"catalysis": [
"A phenomenon in which a relatively small amount of substance augments the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being consumed.\\n(Source: MGH)"
],
"catalyst": [
"A substance whose presence alters the rate at which a chemical reaction proceeds, but whose own composition remains unchanged by the reaction. Catalysts are usually employed to accelerate reactions(positive catalyst), but retarding (negative) catalysts are also used.\\n(Source: ALL)",
"A substance which speeds up chemical reactions."
],
"catalytic converter": [
"A device designed to clean up the exhaust fumes from petrol-driven vehicles."
],
"catastrophe": [
"A sudden, widespread disaster or calamity that greatly exceeds the resources of an area or region.",
"A sudden violent change in the earth's surface."
],
"catchment area": [
"An area from which surface runoff is carried away by a single drainage system."
],
"cation": [
"A positively charged atom or group of atoms, or a radical which moves to the negative pole (cathode) during electrolysis.\\n(Source: MGH)"
],
"cattle": [
"Domesticated bovine animals, including cows, steers and bulls, raised and bred on a ranch or farm."
],
"cave": [
"1) An underground hollow with access from the ground surface or from the sea, often found in limestone areas and on rocky coastlines.\\n2) A natural cavity, chamber or recess which leads beneath the surface of the earth, generally in a horizontal or obliquely inclined direction. It may be in the form of a passage or a gallery, its shape depending in part on the joint pattern or structure of the rock and partly on the type of process involved in its excavation. Thus, caves worn by subterranean rivers may be different in character from, and of considerably greater extent than, a sea-cave eroded by marine waves.\\n3) A natural underground open space, generally with a connection to the surface and large enough for a person to enter. The most common type of cave is formed in a limestone by dissolution.\\n(Source: CED / WHIT / BJGEO)"
],
"cellulose": [
"The main polysaccharide in living plants, forming the skeletal structure of the plant cell wall; a polymer of beta-D-glucose linked together with the elimination of water to form chains of 2000-4000 units."
],
"cement": [
"A dry powder made from silica, alumina, lime, iron oxide, and magnesia which hardens when mixed with water; used as an ingredient in concrete."
],
"Central Africa": [
"A geographic region of the African continent close to the equator that includes Cameroon, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, the Central African Republic and the Democratic Republic of Congo."
],
"Central America": [
"A narrow continental region of the Western hemisphere, existing as a bridge between North and South America, often considered to be the southern portion of North America, and including countries such as Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama."
],
"Central Asia": [
"A geographic region of the Asian continent between the Caspian Sea on the west and China on the east, extending northward into the central region of Russia and southward to the northern borders of Iran and Afghanistan, and comprised of independent former republics of the Soviet Union, including Kazakstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan."
],
"central government": [
"A system in which a governing or administrative body has a certain degree of power or authority to prevail in the management of local, national and international matters."
],
"centrifugation": [
"Separation of particles from a suspension in a centrifuge: balanced tubes containing the suspension are attached to the opposite ends of arms rotating rapidly about a central point; the suspended particles are forced outwards, and collect at the bottoms of the tubes.\\n(Source: UVAROV)"
],
"cephalopod": [
"Exclusively marine animals constituting the most advanced class of the Mollusca, including squid, octopuses, and Nautilus.\\n(Source: MGH)"
],
"ceramics": [
"The art and techniques of producing articles of clay, porcelain, etc."
],
"ceramics industry": [
"Industry producing ceramic items."
],
"cetacean": [
"Order of aquatic mammals, including the whales, dolphins, and porpoises."
],
"Chagas' disease": [
"A form of trypanosomiasis found in South America, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, characterized by fever and often inflammation of the hearth muscle.\\n(Source: CED)"
],
"chain management": [
"The administration, organization and planning for the flow of materials or merchandise through various stages of production and distribution, involving a network of vendors, suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, retailers and other trading partners.\\n(Source: MSE)"
],
"charcoal": [
"A porous solid product containing 85-98% carbon and produced by heating carbonaceous materials such as cellulose, wood or peat at 500-600 C\u00b0 in the absence of air.\\n(Source: MGH)"
],
"chelicerate": [
"A subphylum of the phylum Artrophoda; chelicerae are characteristically modified as pincers."
],
"chemical analysis": [
"The complex of operations aiming to determine the kinds of constituents of a given substance.\\n(Source: ZINZAN)"
],
"chemical engineering": [
"The branch of engineering concerned with industrial manufacture of chemical products."
],
"chemical industry": [
"The industry that comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals."
],
"chemical oceanography": [
"The study of the behavior of the chemical elements within the Earth's oceans."
],
"chemical plant": [
"Plants where basic raw materials are chemically converted into a variety of products."
],
"chemical property": [
"Property of a substance depending on the arrangement of the atoms in the molecule, e.g. bio-availability, degradability, persistence, etc.\\n(Source: RRDA)"
],
"chemical reaction": [
"A change in which a substance is transformed into one or more new substances."
],
"chemical": [
"Any substance used in or resulting from a reaction involving changes to atoms or molecules.",
"Of or relating to chemistry."
],
"chemical structure": [
"The arrangement of atoms in a molecule of a chemical compound."
],
"chemical treatment": [
"A process that alters the chemical structure of the constituents of the waste to produce either an innocuous or a less hazardous material. Chemical processes are attractive because they produce minimal air emissions, they can often be carried out on the site of the waste generator, and some processes can be designed and constructed as mobile units.\\n(Source: PARCOR)"
],
"chemical waste": [
"Any by-product of a chemical process, including manufacturing processes. Often this by-product is considered a toxic or polluting substance.\\n(Source: APD / ERG)"
],
"chemical weapon": [
"Chemical agents of warfare including all gaseous, liquid or solid chemical substances which might be employed because of their direct toxic effects on man and animals."
],
"chemisorption": [
"The process of chemical adsorption."
],
"chemistry": [
"The scientific study of the properties, composition, and structure of matter, the changes in structure and composition of matter, and accompanying energy changes."
],
"child": [
"Living being as genetically proceeding from an other one.",
"A person below the age of puberty.",
"An entity that is narrower in scope."
],
"chimney": [
"A vertical structure of brick, masonry, or steel that carries smoke or steam away from a fire, engine, etc."
],
"chiropteran": [
"Order of placental mammals, comprising the bats, having the front limbs modified as wings."
],
"chloride": [
"A compound which is derived from hydrochloric acid and contains the chlorine atom in the -1 oxidation state.\\n(Source: MGH)"
],
"chlorinated hydrocarbon": [
"A class of persistent, broad-spectrum insecticides that linger in the environment and accumulate in the food chain. Among them are DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, chlordane, lindane, endrin, mirex, hexachloride, and toxaphene. In insects and other animals these compounds act primarily on the central nervous system. They also become concentrated in the fats of organisms and thus tend to produce fatty infiltration of the heart and fatty degeneration of the liver in vertebrates. In fishes they have the effect of preventing oxygen uptake, causing suffocation. They are also known to slow the rate of photosynthesis in plants. Their danger to the ecosystem resides in their rate stability and the fact that they are broad-spectrum poisons which are very mobile because of their propensity to stick to dust particles and evaporate with water into the atmosphere.\\n(Source: EPAGLO / PORT)"
],
"chlorination": [
"The application of chlorine to water, sewage or industrial wastes for disinfection or other biological or chemical purposes.\\n(Source: ALL)"
],
"chlorine": [
"A very reactive and highly toxic green, gaseous element, belonging to the halogen family of substances with symbol Cl and atomic number 17."
],
"chloroethylene": [
"A flammable, explosive gas with an ethereal aroma; soluble in alcohol and ether, slightly soluble in water; boils at -14\u00b0 C; an important monomer for polyvinyl chloride and its copolymers; used in organic synthesis and in adhesives."
],
"chlorofluorocarbon": [
"Gases formed of chlorine, fluorine, and carbon whose molecules normally do not react with other substances; they are therefore used as spray can propellants because they do not alter the material being sprayed."
],
"partially halogenated chlorofluorohydrocarbon": [
"Hydrocarbons whose hydrogen atoms have been partially substituted with chlorine and fluorine. They are used in refrigeration, air conditioning, packaging, insulation, or as solvents and aerosol propellants. Because they are not destroyed in the lower atmosphere they drift into the upper atmosphere where their chlorine components destroy ozone."
],
"chlorophenol": [
"Any organochloride of phenol that contains one or more covalently bonded chlorine atoms."
],
"chlorophyll": [
"A green pigment, present in algae and higher plants, that absorbs light energy and thus plays a vital role in photosynthesis."
],
"chlorosis": [
"A disease condition of green plants seen as yellowing of green parts of the plants.\\n(Source: MGH)"
],
"chromatography": [
"A method of separating and analyzing mixtures of chemical substances by selective adsorption in a column of powder or on a strip of paper."
],
"chromium": [
"A hard grey metallic element that takes a high polish, occurring principally in chromite: used in steel alloys and electroplating to increase hardness and corrosion-resistance."
],
"chrysophyta": [
"The golden-brown and orange-yellow algae; a diverse group of microscopically small algae which inhabit fresh and salt water, many being planktonic. They contain carotenoid pigments and may be unicellular, colonial, filamentous or amoeboid."
],
"church": [
"A building where Christian religious activities take place."
],
"city": [
"Term used generically today to denote any urban form but applied particularly to large urban settlements. There are, however, no agreed definitions to separate a city from the large metropolis or the smaller town."
],
"civil air traffic": [
"Air traffic pertaining to or serving the general public, as distinguished from military air traffic."
],
"civil engineering": [
"The planning, design, construction, and maintenance of fixed structures and ground facilities for industry, transportation, use and control of water or occupancy."
],
"civilian protection": [
"The organization and measures, usually under governmental or other authority depending on the country, aimed at preventing, abating or fighting major emergencies for the protection of the civilian population and property, particularly in wartime."
],
"civil law": [
"The body of law dealing with the private relations between members of a community."
],
"classification": [
"An arrangement or organization of persons, items or data elements into groups by reason of common attributes, characteristics, qualities or traits."
],
"clay": [
"A loose, earthy, extremely fine-grained, natural sediment or soft rock composed primarily of clay-size or colloidal particles and characterized by high plasticity and by a considerable content of clay mineral and subordinate amounts of finely divided quartz, decomposed feldspar, carbonates, ferruginous matter, and other impurities; it forms a plastic, moldable mass when finely ground and mixed with water, retains its shape on drying, and becomes firm, rocklike and permanently hard on heating or firing.",
"The physical structure of a dead animal or person."
],
"clean technology": [
"Industrial process which causes little or no pollution."
],
"climate": [
"The average weather condition in a region of the world."
],
"climate protection": [
"Precautionary actions, procedures or installations undertaken to prevent or reduce harm from pollution to natural weather conditions or patterns, including the prevailing temperature, atmospheric composition and precipitation."
],
"climate type": [
"Weather conditions typical of areas roughly corresponding to lines of latitude."
],
"climatic alteration": [
"The slow variation of climatic characteristics over time at a given place. This may be indicated by the geological record in the long term, by changes in the landforms in the intermediate term, and by vegetation changes in the short term.\\n(Source: WHIT)"
],
"climatic change": [
"The long-term fluctuations in temperature, precipitation, wind, and all other aspects of the Earth's climate."
],
"climatic zone": [
"A belt of the earth's surface within which the climate is generally homogeneous in some respect."
],
"climatology": [
"That branch of meteorology concerned with the mean physical state of the atmosphere together with its statistical variations in both space and time as reflected in the weather behaviour over a period of many years."
],
"climax": [
"A botanical term referring to the terminal community said to be achieved when a sere (a sequential development of a plant community or group of plant communities on the same site over a period of time) achieves dynamic equilibrium with its environment and in particular with its prevailing climate. Each of the world's major vegetation climaxes is equivalent to a biome. Many botanists believe that climate is the master factor in a plant environment and that even if several types of plant succession occur in an area they will all tend to converge towards a climax form of vegetation.\\n(Source: WHIT)",
"To reach a sexual climax; to experience orgasm.",
"The moment of most intense feeling and pleasure during sexual activity."
],
"clinical symptom": [
"Any objective evidence of disease or of a patient's condition founded on clinical observation.\\n(Source: RRDA)"
],
"cloning": [
"The production of genetically identical individuals from a single parent."
],
"clothing": [
"Clothes considered as a group.",
"All coverings designed to be worn on a person's body."
],
"cloud": [
"Suspensions of minute water droplets or ice crystals produced by the condensation of water vapour.",
"To cover with clouds."
],
"coagulation": [
"A separation or precipitation from a dispersed state of suspended particles resulting from their growth."
],
"coal": [
"The natural, rocklike, brown to black derivative of forest-type plant material, usually accumulated in peat beds and progressively compressed and indurated until it is finally altered in to graphite-like material."
],
"coal-fired power plant": [
"Power plant which is fuelled by coal."
],
"coal gasification": [
"Process of conversion of coal to a gaseous product which is used as fuel in electric power stations."
],
"coal liquefaction": [
"The process of preparing a liquid mixture of hydrocarbons by destructive distillation of coal.\\n(Source: MGH)"
],
"coal mining": [
"The technical and mechanical job of removing coal from the earth and preparing it for market."
],
"coal refining": [
"The processing of coal to remove impurities."
],
"coal technology": [
"The processing of coal to make gaseous and liquid fuels.\\n(Source: ENVAR)"
],
"coast": [
"A line or zone where the land meets the sea or some other large expanse of water."
],
"coastal erosion": [
"The gradual wearing away of material from a coast by the action of sea water."
],
"coastal fishing": [
"Fishing in an area of the sea next to the shoreline.\\n(Source: PHC)"
],
"coastal water": [
"The part of the ocean directly off the coast."
],
"coastguard": [
"A maritime force which aids shipping, saves lives at sea, prevents smuggling, etc."
],
"coating": [
"A material applied onto or impregnated into a substrate for protective, decorative, or functional purposes. Such materials include, but are not limited to, paints, varnishes, sealers, adhesives, thinners, diluents, and inks."
],
"cobalt": [
"A metallic element with symbol Co and atomic number 27, used chiefly in alloys."
],
"cockroach": [
"The most primitive of the living winged insects."
],
"code": [
"A systematic collection, compendium or revision of laws, rules, or regulations.",
"To enter a program or other instructions into a computer (or other electronic device) to instruct it to do a particular task."
],
"coelenterate": [
"Animals that have a single body cavity (the coelenteron)."
],
"co-incineration": [
"Joint incineration of hazardous waste, in any form, with refuse and/or sludge.\\n(Source: LEE)"
],
"coke": [
"A coherent, cellular, solid residue remaining from the dry distillation of a coking coal or of pitch, petroleum, petroleum residue, or other carbonaceous materials; contains carbon as its principal constituent.\\n(Source: MGH)",
"A street name for cocaine."
],
"cold": [
"A condition of low temperature.",
"Having a low temperature.",
"A contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system; common symptoms include cough, sore throat, runny nose, nasal congestion and sneezing.",
"Psychologically distant; without human warmth or emotion.",
"(color) giving no sensation of warmth.",
"Sexually unresponsive.",
"Without compunction or human feeling."
],
"coliform bacterium": [
"A group of bacteria that are normally abundant in the intestinal tracts of human and other warm-blooded animals and are used as indicators (being measured as the number of individuals found per millilitre of water) when testing the sanitary quality of water."
],
"colloid": [
"An intimate mixture of two substances, one of which, called the dispersed phase, is uniformly distributed in a finely divided state through the second substance, called the dispersion medium."
],
"colloidal state": [
"A system of particles in a dispersion medium, with properties distinct from those of a true solution because of the larger size of the particles. The presence of these particles can often be detected by means of the ultramicroscope.\\n(Source: UVAROV)"
],
"colour": [
"An attribute of things that results from the light they reflect, transmit, or emit in so far as this light causes a visual sensation that depends on its wavelengths.",
"To add color to."
],
"combination effect": [
"A combined effect of two or more substances or organisms which is greater than the sum of the individual effect of each."
],
"combined cycle-power station": [
"This type of plant is flexible in response and can be built in the 100-600 MW capacity range. It produces electrical power from both a gas turbine (ca. 1300\u00b0C gas inlet temperature), fuelled by natural gas or oil plus a steam turbine supplied with the steam generated by the 500\u00b0C exhaust gases from the gas turbine. The thermal efficiency of these stations is ca. 50 per cent compared with a maximum of 40 per cent from steam turbine coal fired power stations. This type of plant can be built in two years compared with six years for a coal-fired station and 10-15 years for nuclear.\\n(Source: PORT)"
],
"combustibility": [
"The property of a substance of being capable of igniting and burning."
],
"combustion engine": [
"An engine that operates by the energy of combustion of a fuel."
],
"commercial law": [
"The whole body of substantive jurisprudence applicable to the rights, intercourse and relations of persons engaged in commerce, trade or mercantile pursuits."
],
"commercial traffic": [
"The operations and movements related to the transportation and exchange of goods.\\n(Source: RRDA)"
],
"commercial vehicle": [
"Vehicle designed and equipped for the transportation of goods."
],
"communications": [
"The concept, science, technique and process of transmitting, receiving or otherwise exchanging information and data."
],
"community-pays principle": [
"A tenet of environmental policy, according to which the costs of ecological challenges, environmental quality improvements and the removal of environmental hazards are allotted to community groups or local corporations and, thereby, to the general public."
],
"commuter traffic": [
"Traffic caused by people travelling regularly over some distance, as between a suburb and a city and back, between their place of residence and their place of work."
],
"commuting": [
"Traveling from one's residence to one's regular place of business and back to the residence."
],
"compaction": [
"Reduction of the bulk of solid waste by rolling and tamping."
],
"company policy": [
"Official guidelines or set of guidelines adopted by a company for the management of its activity."
],
"comparative law": [
"The study of the principles of legal science by the comparison of various systems of law.\\n(Source: BLACK)"
],
"comparative test": [
"A test conducted to determine whether one procedure is better than another."
],
"comparison": [
"The placing together or juxtaposing of two or more items to ascertain, bring into relief, or establish their similarities and dissimilarities."
],
"compensation": [
"Equivalent in money for a loss sustained; equivalent given for property taken or for an injury done to another; recompense or reward for some loss, injury or service.\\n(Source: WESTS)"
],
"economic competition": [
"The market condition where an individual or firm that wants to buy or sell a commodity or service has a choice of possible suppliers or customers."
],
"competitiveness": [
"The ability of a firm to strive in the market with rivals in the production and sale of commodities or services and, analogously, the ability of a country to maintain a relatively high standard of living for its citizens through trade in international markets.\\n(Source: http://www.indiana.edu/~ipe/glossry.html / OED)"
],
"complex formation": [
"Formation of a complex compound. Also known as complexing or complexation."
],
"complexing agent": [
"A substance capable of forming a complex compound with another material in solution."
],
"compost": [
"A mixture of decaying organic matter used to fertilize and condition the soil."
],
"composting": [
"The natural biological decomposition of organic material in the presence of air to form a humus-like material."
],
"compression": [
"Reduction in the volume of a substance due to pressure.\\n(Source: MGH)",
"A condition in which the volume of fuel and air in an engine cylinder is reduced as a result of increased pressure by a piston.",
"The system of forces that tend to decrease the volume of or shorten rocks.",
"Any of several techniques that reduce the number of bits required to represent information in data transmission or storage."
],
"compressor": [
"A device that produces pressure."
],
"European Communities": [
"The collective body that resulted in 1967 from the merger of the administrative networks of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), and the European Economic Community (EEC). The singular term has also been widely used.\\n(Source: ABDN)"
],
"concrete": [
"A mixture of aggregate, water, and a binder, usually Portland cement; it hardens to stonelike condition when dry.",
"To build using concrete; to cover with cement.",
"Not abstract.",
"Particular, perceivable, real."
],
"conductivity": [
"The ratio of the electric current density to the electric field in a material."
],
"congress": [
"A formal meeting, often consisting of representatives of various organizations, that is assembled to promote, discuss or make arrangements regarding a particular subject or some matter of common interest."
],
"conifer": [
"An order of conebearing plants which includes nearly all the present day Gymnospermae. Most are tall evergreen trees with needle-like (e.g., pines), linear (e.g. firs) or scale-like (e.g., cedars) leaves. They are characteristic of temperate zones and the main forest trees of colder regions. They provide timber, resins, tars, turpentine and pulp for paper.\\n(Source: ALL)"
],
"conservation": [
"The protection of a natural resource, usually by planned management, to prevent its depletion or destruction."
],
"constitutional law": [
"That branch of the public law of a nation or state which treats of the organization, powers and frame of government, the distribution of political and governmental authorities and functions, the fundamental principles which are to regulate the relations of government and citizen and which prescribes generally the plan and method according to which the public affairs of the nation or state are to be administered.",
"A law in a country's constitution."
],
"construction work": [
"The construction, rehabilitation, alteration, conversion, extension, demolition or repair of buildings, highways, or other changes or improvement to real property, including facilities providing utility services."
],
"consultation": [
"Any meeting or inquiry of concerned persons or advisors for the purpose of deliberation, discussion or decision on some matter or action.\\n(Source: BLD)"
],
"consumer group": [
"A collection of persons united to address concerns regarding the purchase and use of specific commodities or services.\\n(Source: RHW)"
],
"consumer protection": [
"Information disseminated or measures and programs established to prevent and reduce damage, injury or loss to users of specific commodities and services.\\n(Source: RHW)"
],
"consumption": [
"Spending for survival or enjoyment in contrast to providing for future use or production.",
"A common and deadly infectious disease that is caused by mycobacteria, primarily Mycobacterium tuberculosis."
],
"container": [
"A large case that can be transported by truck and than easily loaded on a ship."
],
"contaminated soil": [
"Soil which because of its previous or current use has substances under, on or in it which, depending upon their concentration and/or quantity, may represent a direct potential or indirect hazard to man or to the environment.\\n(Source: GRAHAW)"
],
"contamination": [
"Introduction into or onto water, air, soil or other media of microorganisms, chemicals, toxic substances, wastes, wastewater or other pollutants in a concentration that makes the medium unfit for its next intended use."
],
"continental shelf": [
"The gently sloping seabed of the shallow water nearest to a continent, covering about 45 miles from the shore and deepening over the sloping sea floor to an average depth of 400 ft."
],
"contour farming": [
"The performing of cultivations along lines connecting points of equal elevation so reducing the loss of top soil by erosion, increasing the capacity of the soil to retain water and reducing the pollution of water by soil."
],
"contract": [
"An agreement between two or more persons which creates an obligation to do or not to do a particular thing. Its essential are competent parties, subject matter, a legal consideration, mutuality of agreement, and mutuality of obligation.",
"An agreement with which a person or a company are engaged towards another person or company to deliver a good or a service in exchange for a predetermined payment.",
"To reduce in width or extent.",
"To acquire or catch (a disease, something noxious, bad condition)."
],
"contract cleaner": [
"A commercial service provider, usually bound by a written agreement, responsible for the removal of dirt, litter or other unsightly materials from any property.\\n(Source: RHW)"
],
"controlled burning": [
"The planned use of carefully controlled fire to accomplish predetermined management goals. The burn is set under a combination of weather, fuel moisture, soil moisture, and fuel arrangement conditions that allow the management objectives to be attained, and yet confine the fire to the planned area.\\n(Source: DUNSTE)"
],
"controlling authority": [
"The power of a person or an organized assemblage of persons to manage, direct, superintend, restrict, regulate, govern, administer or oversee.\\n(Source: BLD)"
],
"convention": [
"International agreement on a specific topic.",
"The preferred method of accomplishing a task.",
"A large formal assembly."
],
"conventional energy": [
"Power provided by traditional means such as coal, wood, gas, etc., as opposed to alternative energy sources such as solar power, tidal power, wind power, etc."
],
"cooling": [
"A decrease in temperature.",
"A mechanism for keeping something cool.",
"Causing cold or cooling."
],
"cooling oil": [
"Oil used as a cooling agent, either with forced circulation or with natural circulation."
],
"cooling tower": [
"A device that aids in heat removal from water used as a coolant in electric power generating plants."
],
"cooling water": [
"Water used to make something less hot, such as the irradiated elements from a nuclear reactor or the engine of a machine."
],
"copper": [
"Chemical element with symbol Cu and atomic number 29; one of the most important nonferrous metals; a ductile and malleable metal found in various ores and used in industry, engineering, and the arts in both pure and alloyed form."
],
"coppice": [
"A growth of small trees that are repeatedly cut down at short intervals; the new shoots are produced by the old stumps."
],
"coral": [
"The skeleton of certain solitary and colonial anthozoan coelenterates; composed chiefly of calcium carbonate."
],
"coral reef": [
"Underwater structures built up from the skeletons of reef-building coral a small primitive marine animal, and other marine animals and algae over thousands of years."
],
"core meltdown": [
"Accidental overheating of the core of a nuclear reactor resulting in the core melting and radiation escaping."
],
"cork": [
"The thick light porous outer bark of the cork oak, used widely as an insulator and for stoppers for bottles, casks, etc.",
"Conical or cylindrical-shaped plug that is pushed in the bottleneck of a (wine) bottle to stop it up."
],
"corridor": [
"A narrow hall or passage with rooms leading off it."
],
"corrosion": [
"A process in which a solid, especially a metal, is eaten away and changed by a chemical action."
],
"corrosion inhibitor": [
"A chemical agent which slows down or prohibits a corrosion reaction."
],
"cosmetic industry": [
"Industry for the production of substances for improving the appearance of the body."
],
"cosmic radiation": [
"Radiations consisting of atomic nuclei, especially protons, of very high energy that reach the earth from outer space. Some cosmic radiations are very energetic and are able to penetrate a mile or more into the Earth."
],
"cost-benefit analysis": [
"The attempt to assess, compare and frequently justify the total price or loss represented by a certain activity or expenditure with the advantage or service it provides."
],
"cost increase": [
"The augmentation or rise in the amount of money incurred or asked for in the exchange of goods and services."
],
"cost recovery basis": [
"A standard used to provide reimbursement to individuals or organizations for any incurred expense or provided service."
],
"cost": [
"In economics, the value of the factors of production used by a firm in producing or distributing goods and services or engaging in both activities.\\n(Source: GREENW)",
"The amount of money paid per unit for a good or service.",
"To be priced at.",
"To require to lose, suffer, or sacrifice."
],
"cotton": [
"Fiber obtained from plants of the genus Gossypium, used in making fabrics, cordage, and padding and for producing artificial fibers and cellulose.",
"A shrub of the genus Gossypium known for the soft fibers that protect its seeds."
],
"county": [
"An area comprising more than one city and whose boundaries have been designed according to some biological, political, administrative, economic, demographic criteria.",
"The land under the jurisdiction of a count."
],
"court of justice": [
"A tribunal having jurisdiction of appeal and review, including the ability to overturn decisions of lower courts or courts of first instance.\\n(Source: BLD)"
],
"covering": [
"Structure or material that covers an edifice.",
"Something put around something else, usually in order to give it another look or to protect it from its environment."
],
"craft": [
"An occupation or trade requiring manual dexterity or skilled artistry.",
"The skilled practice of a practical occupation."
],
"credit assistance": [
"The help and support from banks and other financial institutions in providing money or goods without requiring present payment.\\n(Source: ISEP / OED)"
],
"criminality": [
"A violation of the law, punishable by the State in criminal proceedings."
],
"criminal law": [
"That body of the law that deals with conduct considered so harmful to society as a whole that it is prohibited by statute, prosecuted and punished by the government.\\n(Source: DUHA)"
],
"critical level": [
"The concentration limit beyond which a substance can cause dangerous effects to living organisms.\\n(Source: RRDA)"
],
"critical load": [
"The maximum load that a given system can tolerate before failing.\\n(Source: GRAHAWa)"
],
"crocodile": [
"Any large tropical reptile of the family Crocodylidae: order Crocodylia. They have a broad head, tapering snout, massive jaws, and a thick outer covering of bony plates.\\n(Source: CED)"
],
"crop rotation": [
"An agricultural technique in which, season after season, each field is sown with crop plants in a regular rotation, each crop being repeated at intervals of several years."
],
"crop waste": [
"Any unusable portion of plant matter left in a field after harvest.\\n(Source: CNI)"
],
"crossing place": [
"A place, often shown by markings, lights, or poles, where a street, railway, etc. may be crossed."
],
"crude oil": [
"A comparatively volatile liquid bitumen composed principally of hydrocarbon, with traces of sulphur, nitrogen or oxygen compounds; can be removed from the earth in a liquid state."
],
"crustacean": [
"A subphylum of arthropod animals having jointed feet and mandibles, two pairs of antennae, and segmented, chitin-encased bodies."
],
"cryptogam": [
"A large group of plants, comprising the Thallophyta, Bryophyta and Pteridophyta, the last of which are cryptogams."
],
"crystallography": [
"The branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals and their internal arrangement."
],
"cultivated plant": [
"Plants specially bred or improved by cultivation."
],
"cultivation": [
"The practice of growing and nurturing plants outside of their wild habitat (i.e., in gardens, nurseries, arboreta)."
],
"cultivation method": [
"Any procedure or approach used to prepare land or soil for the growth of new crops, or to promote or improve the growth of existing crops."
],
"cultural facility": [
"Any building or structure used for programs or activities involving the arts or other endeavors that encourage refinement or development of the mind.\\n(Source: WCD / OED)"
],
"cultural heritage": [
"The inherited body of beliefs, customs, artistic activity and knowledge that has been transmitted by ancestors.\\n(Source: RHW)"
],
"curriculum": [
"The aggregate of courses of study provided in a particular school, college, university, adult education program, technical institution or some other educational program."
],
"customs": [
"Duties charged upon commodities on their importation into, or exportation out of, a country.",
"The head office dealing with tariffs."
],
"cyanate": [
"A salt or ester of cyanic acid containing the radical OCN."
],
"cyanide": [
"Any of a group of compounds containing the CN group and derived from hydrogen cyanide, HCN."
],
"cyclone": [
"A storm characterized by the converging and rising giratory movement of the wind around a zone of low pressure (the eye) towards which it is violently pulled from a zone of high pressure."
],
"cytology": [
"A branch of the biological sciences which deals with the structure, behaviour, growth, and reproduction of cells and the functions and chemistry of cell components."
],
"cytotoxicity": [
"The degree to which an agent is toxic to cells."
],
"dairy farm": [
"A commercial establishment for processing or selling milk and milk products."
],
"dairy industry": [
"Production of food made from milk or milk products."
],
"dairy product": [
"Food which is derived from milk and contains mostly milk."
],
"dam": [
"Structure constructed across a watercourse or stream channel."
],
"damage": [
"An injury or harm impairing the function or condition of a person or thing.\\n(Source: CED)",
"To put a thing in bad condition by making it suffer some damage.",
"To mar the surface or appearance of."
],
"dangerous goods": [
"Goods or products that are full of hazards or risks when used, transported, etc."
],
"data analysis": [
"The evaluation of digital data, i.e. data represented by a sequence of code characters.\\n(Source: MGH)"
],
"data carrier": [
"A medium on which data can be recorded, and which is usually easily transportable, such as cards, tape, paper, or disks."
],
"data exchange": [
"A reciprocal transfer of individual facts, statistics or items of information between two or more parties for the purpose of enhancing knowledge of the participants."
],
"data processing": [
"Any operation or combination of operations on data, including everything that happens to data from the time they are observed or collected to the time they are destroyed.\\n(Source: MGH)"
],
"data protection": [
"Policies, procedures or devices designed to maintain the integrity or security of information."
],
"dating": [
"An estimation of the age of an artifact, biological vestige, linguistic usage, etc."
],
"decay product": [
"An isotope formed by the radioactive decay of some other isotope. This newly formed isotope possesses physical and chemical properties that are different from those of its parent isotope, and may also be radioactive."
],
"DDT": [
"A persistent organochlorine insecticide, also known as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, that was introduced in the 1940s and used widely because of its persistence (meaning repeated applications were unnecessary), its low toxicity to mammals and its simplicity and cheapness of manufacture. It became dispersed all over the world and, with other organochlorines, had a disruptive effect on species high in food chains, especially on the breeding success of certain predatory birds. DDT is very stable, relatively insoluble in water, but highly soluble in fats. Health effects on humans are not clear, but it is less toxic than related compounds. It is poisonous to other vertebrates, especially fish, and is stored in the fatty tissue of animals as sublethal amounts of the less toxic DDE. Because of its effects on wildlife its use in most countries is now forbidden or strictly limited.\\n(Source: MGH / ALL)"
],
"debt": [
"Something owed to someone else.",
"Passive balance that corresponds to the difference between all proceeds and all expenditures, the current ones and the ones registered on the capital account, excluding the financial operations."
],
"deciduous forest": [
"The temperate forests comprised of trees that seasonally shed their leaves, located in the east of the USA, in Western Europe from the Alps to Scandinavia, and in the eastern Asia. The trees of deciduous forests usually produce nuts and winged seeds.\\n(Source: WRIGHT)"
],
"deciduous tree": [
"Any tree losing its leaves in autumn and growing new ones in the spring.\\n(Source: CAMB)"
],
"decision": [
"A selection of something from a collection of options or alternatives.",
"An opinion and judgment formed or emitted about something.",
"Firmness of conviction."
],
"decomposition": [
"The reduction of the body of a formerly living organism into simpler forms of matter.",
"The process by which a complex problem or system is broken down into parts that are easier to conceive, understand, program, and maintain."
],
"decontamination": [
"The removing or neutralizing of chemical, biological, or radiological contamination from a person, object, or area."
],
"decree": [
"A declaration of the court announcing the legal consequences of the facts found.",
"Administrative, legislative or juridical act being issued by a executive organ being made of general or specific juridical prescriptions.",
"To decide with authority.",
"To issue a decree.",
"High level administrative act usually issued by the head of State or, in some countries, the chief of the government."
],
"deep sea": [
"Region of open ocean beyond the continental shelf."
],
"deep sea fishing": [
"Fishing in the deepest parts of the sea."
],
"deer": [
"The common name for 41 species of even-toed ungulates that compose the family Cervidae in the order Artiodactyla; males have antlers."
],
"defoliation": [
"The drop of foliage from plants caused by herbicides such as Agent Orange, diuron, triazines, all of which interfere with photosynthesis."
],
"deforestation": [
"The removal of forest and undergrowth to increase the surface of arable land or to use the timber for construction or industrial purposes."
],
"degradability": [
"The capacity of being decomposed chemically or biologically."
],
"degradation": [
"The act of abasing.",
"A lowering from one's standing or rank in office or society."
],
"degreasing": [
"The removal of grease."
],
"de-inking": [
"Series of processes by which various types of printing inks are removed from paper fibre pulp during the pre-processing and recycling of recovered paper products."
],
"delinquency": [
"Set of crimes.",
"Failure to make payments on time."
],
"delta": [
"A delta is a vast, fan-shaped creation of land, or low-lying plain, formed from successive layers of sediment washed from uplands to the mouth of some rivers, such as the Nile, the Mississippi and the Ganges. The nutrient-rich sediment is deposited by rivers at the point where, or before which, the river flows into the sea. Deltas are formed when rivers supply and deposit sediments more quickly that they can be removed by waves of ocean currents. The importance of deltas was first discovered by prehistoric man, who was attracted to them because of their abundant animal and plant life. Connecting waterways through the deltas later provided natural routes for navigation and trade, and opened up access to the interior. Deltas are highly fertile and often highly populated areas. They would be under serious threat of flooding from any sea-level rise.\\n(Source: WRIGHT)"
],
"demand": [
"The desire, ability and willingness of an individual to purchase a good or service.",
"To desire a service or physical goods, often without returning the favor in kind."
],
"democracy": [
"A system of governance in which ultimate authority power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their freely elected agents."
],
"demographic evolution": [
"The gradual pattern of change in the growth of human populations in a particular region or country, from a rapid increase in the birth and death rates to a leveling off in the growth rate due to reduced fertility and other factors.\\n(Source: DOE / ANT)"
],
"demography": [
"The statistical study of human vital statistics and population dynamics (natality, mortality, age, profession etc).",
"A statistic characterizing human populations or segments of human populations broken down by age or sex or income etc."
],
"dendrochronology": [
"The science of dating the age of a tree by studying annual growth rings."
],
"dendrometry": [
"The measuring of the diameter of standing trees from the ground with a dendrometer that can also be used to measure tree heights."
],
"denitrification": [
"The loss of nitrogen from soil by biological or chemical means."
],
"deposition": [
"The process by which polluting material is precipitated from the atmosphere and accumulates in ecosystems."
],
"deregulation": [
"The removal or relaxation of government control over the economic activities of some commercial entity, industry or economic sector."
],
"dermapteran": [
"Any of various insects of the order Dermaptera."
],
"desalination": [
"Removal of salt, as from water or soil.",
"Removal of salt and other minerals from water."
],
"desalination plant": [
"Plant for the extraction of fresh water from saltwater by the removal of salts, usually by distilling."
],
"desert": [
"A wide, open, comparatively barren tract of land with few forms of life and little rainfall.",
"Left behind by the owner or keeper.",
"To leave someone who needs or counts on you."
],
"desertification": [
"The development of desert conditions as a result of human activity or climatic changes."
],
"desert locust": [
"One of about a dozen species of short-horned grasshoppers (Acridoidea) that are known to change their behavior and form swarms of adults or bands of hoppers (wingless nymphs). The swarms that form can be dense and highly mobile. (Source: FAO)"
],
"desorption": [
"The process of removing a sorbed substance by the reverse of adsorption or absorption."
],
"detection": [
"The act or process of discovering evidence or proof of governmental, legal or ethical violations.\\n(Source: RHW)",
"Act of detecting something with a detector."
],
"detector": [
"A mechanical, electrical, or chemical device that automatically identifies and records or registers a stimulus, such as an environmental change in pressure or temperature, an electrical signal, or radiation from a radioactive material."
],
"detergent": [
"A surface-active agent used for removing dirt and grease from a variety of surfaces and materials.",
"A substance used when cleaning."
],
"determination method": [
"Method employed in the assessment or in the evaluation of a quantity, a quality, a fact, an event, etc.\\n(Source: ZINZANa)"
],
"deterrent": [
"Any measure, implement or policy designed to discourage or restrain the actions or advance of another agent, organization or state.\\n(Source: RHW)",
"Tending to deter."
],
"detoxification": [
"The act or process of removing a poison or the toxic properties of a substance in the body."
],
"developed country": [
"A nation possessing a relatively high degree of industrialization, infrastructure and other capital investment, sophisticated technology, widespread literacy and advanced living standards among its populations as a whole."
],
"developing country": [
"A country whose people are beginning to utilize available resources in order to bring about a sustained increase in per capita production of goods and services."
],
"development aid": [
"Economic assistance or other types of support provided to developing countries to promote or encourage advancement in living standards, institutions, infrastructure, agricultural practices and other aspects of an economy, and to resolve problems typically associated with developing countries."
],
"development area": [
"Area which has been given special help from a government to encourage business and factories to be set up there."
],
"development planning": [
"The act or process of formulating a course of action that promotes the economic advancement of a region or people, particularly in countries known to have low levels of economic productivity and technological sophistication.\\n(Source: OED / WBG)"
],
"development plan": [
"The statement of local planning policies that each local planning authority is required by statute to maintain, and which can only be made or altered by following the procedures prescribed for that purpose, which include obligations to consult widely and to hold a public local inquiry into objections. The development plan includes: 1) the structure plan for the area (normally prepared by the country council); 2) an area-wide development plan for each district council area.\\n(Source: GRAHAW)"
],
"dialysis": [
"A process of selective diffusion through a membrane; usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not.",
"A method to clean the blood of patients with renal failure."
],
"diatom": [
"Unicellular algae, some of which are colonial, green or brownish in colour (but all contain chlorophyll) and with siliceous and often highly sculptured cell walls."
],
"dictionary": [
"A reference book containing an explanatory alphabetical list of words, identifying usually, the phonetic, grammatical, and semantic value of each word, often with etymology, citations, and usage guidance and other information."
],
"didactics": [
"The art or science of teaching."
],
"diesel engine": [
"An internal combustion engine operating on a thermodynamic cycle in which the ratio of compression of the air charge is sufficiently high to ignite the fuel subsequently injected into the combustion chamber."
],
"diesel fuel": [
"Heavy oil residue used as fuel for certain types of diesel engines."
],
"differentiation": [
"The development of cells so that they are capable of performing specialized functions in the organs and tissues of the organisms to which they belong.",
"In mathematics, the process of finding a derivative."
],
"diffusion": [
"The spontaneous movement and scattering of particles (atoms and molecules), of liquid, gases, and solids.\\n(Source: MGH)"
],
"digested sludge": [
"Sludge or thickened mixture of sewage solids with water that has been decomposed by anaerobic bacteria."
],
"digital land model": [
"A representation of a surface's topography stored in a numerical format. Each pixel has been assigned coordinates and an altitude.\\n(Source: CCRS)"
],
"diluted acid": [
"A less concentrated acid."
],
"dioxin": [
"A heterocyclic and aromatic molecule, where two carbon atoms have been substituted by oxygen atoms."
],
"direct discharger": [
"Factory and industrial concern which does not discharge their sewage into public sewers, but directly into a waterway."
],
"directive": [
"The second rank of administrative acts (inferior to regulations, superior to decisions) made by the council or commission of the European Communities on order to carry out their tasks in accordance with the Treaties. They must be addressed to states, not individuals, but many create rights for individuals or allow the directive to be pleaded before municipal court."
],
"disabled person": [
"Person lacking one or more physical power, such as the ability to walk or to coordinate one's movements, as from the effects of a disease or accident, or through mental impairment."
],
"disaster": [
"The result of a vast ecological breakdown in the relations between man and his environment, a serious and sudden event (or slow, as in drought) on such a scale that the stricken community needs extraordinary efforts to cope with it, often with outside help or international aid.",
"An event that results in large-scale damage and loss of human life, caused by natural forces, technical failure or human error."
],
"disaster preparedness": [
"The aggregate of measures to be taken in view of disasters, consisting of plans and action programmes designed to minimize loss of life and damage, to organize and facilitate effective rescue and relief, and to rehabilitate after disaster. Preparedness requires the necessary legislation and means to cope with disaster or similar emergency situations. It is also concerned with forecasting and warning, the education and training of the public, organization and management, including plans, training of personnel, the stockpiling of supplies and ensuring the needed funds and other resources.\\n(Source: GUNN)"
],
"disaster relief": [
"Money, food or other assistance provided for those surviving a sudden, calamitous event causing loss of life, damage or hardship."
],
"discharge regime": [
"The rate of flow of a river at a particular moment in time, related to its volume and its velocity.\\n(Source: WHIT)"
],
"disease": [
"A definite pathological process having a characteristic set of signs and symptoms which are detrimental to the well-being of the individual."
],
"disinfectant": [
"An agent, such as heat, radiation, or a chemical, that disinfects by destroying, neutralizing, or inhibiting the growth of disease-carrying microorganisms.\\n(Source: AMHER)"
],
"disinfection": [
"The complex of physical, chemical or mechanical operations undertaken to destroy pathogenic germs."
],
"dispatch note": [
"Document accompanying something being transported (including living beings) and usually required at certain specific steps."
],
"dispersion": [
"A distribution of finely divided particles in a medium.\\n(Source: MGH)"
],
"displaced person": [
"A person who, for different reasons or circumstances, has been compelled to leave his or her home."
],
"disposal of warfare materials": [
"Disposal of the material remnants of war, which can seriously impede development and cause injuries and the loss of lives and property."
],
"dissolution": [
"Dissolving of a material.",
"Excessive indulgence in sensual pleasures."
],
"dissolved organic carbon": [
"The fraction of total organic carbon (all carbon atoms covalently bonded in organic molecules) in water that passes through a 0.45 micron pore-diameter filter.\\n(Source: WQA)"
],
"distillation": [
"The process of producing a gas or vapour from a liquid by heating the liquid in a vessel and collecting and condensing the vapours into liquids."
],
"distilling industry": [
"A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of commercial enterprises is engaged in the manufacture and marketing of alcoholic beverages made by a distillation process of vaporization and condensation, such as vodka, rum, whiskey and other related beverages.\\n(Source: RHW / SIC)"
],
"distribution": [
"The sum of the commercial and service activities that transfer the produced goods to the consumer.",
"In statistics, the relative arrangements of the elements of a statistical population based on some criterion, as frequency, time, or location.",
"The process by which commodities get to final consumers, including storing, selling, shipping, and advertising.",
"In Linux, a collection of software making up the Linux operating system. The software is usually compiled by either a company or organization. It is designed to be easy to install, administer, and use by virtue of it being an integrated whole. Examples include Ubuntu, SUSE Linux, Red Hat, and Debian."
],
"district heating": [
"The supply of heat, either in the form of steam or hot water, from a central source to a group of buildings."
],
"disused military site": [
"Military site where all activity has ceased."
],
"ditch": [
"A long, narrow excavation artificially dug in the ground; especially an open and usually unpaved waterway, channel, or trench for conveying water for drainage or irrigation, and usually smaller than a canal. Some ditches may be natural watercourses."
],
"DNA": [
"The principal material of inheritance. It is found in chromosomes and consists of molecules that are long unbranched chains made up of many nucleotides. Each nucleotide is a combination of phosphoric acid, the monosaccharide deoxyribose and one of four nitrogenous bases: thymine, cytosine, adenine or guanine. The number of possible arrangements of nucleotides along the DNA chain is immense. Usually two DNA strands are linked together in parallel by specific base-pairing and are helically coiled. Replication of DNA molecules is accomplished by separation of the two strands, followed by the building up of matching strands by means of base-pairing, using the two halves as templates. By a mechanism involving RNA, the structure of DNA is translated into the structure of proteins during their synthesis from amino acids.\\n(Source: ALL)"
],
"document": [
"Material of any kind, regardless of physical form, which furnishes information, evidence or ideas, including items such as contracts, bills of sale, letters, audio and video recordings, and machine readable data files.",
"To record in documents.",
"To support or supply with references."
],
"documentation": [
"The process of accumulating, classifying and disseminating information, often to support the claim or data given in a book or article.\\n(Source: OED)"
],
"dog": [
"A common four-legged animal, especially kept by people as a pet or to hunt or guard things.",
"A dull, unattractive girl or woman.",
"An iron for holding wood in a fireplace."
],
"domestic appliance": [
"A machine or device, especially an electrical one used domestically."
],
"domesticated animal": [
"Wild animal which has been trained to live near a house and not be frightened of human beings.\\n(Source: PHC)"
],
"domestic trade": [
"Trade wholly carried on at home; as distinguished from foreign commerce.\\n(Source: WESTS)"
],
"domestic waste": [
"Waste generated by residential households and comprised of any material no longer wanted or needed.\\n(Source: EED)"
],
"dosage": [
"The amount of a substance required to produce an effect.\\n(Source: CONFER)"
],
"dose": [
"The amount of test substance administered. Dose is expressed as weight of test substance (g, mg) per unit weight of test animal (e.g., mg/kg), or as weight of food or drinking water.\\n(Source: LEE)",
"A powerful hallucinogenic drug manufactured from lysergic acid."
],
"dose-effect relationship": [
"The relation between the quantity of a given substance and a measurable or observable effect."
],
"dragonfly": [
"Any of the insects composing six families of the suborder Anisoptera and having four large, membranous wings and compound eyes that provide keen vision."
],
"drainage": [
"1) Removal of groundwater or surface water, or of water from structures, by gravity or pumping.\\n2) The discharge of water from a soil by percolation (the process by which surface water moves downwards through cracks, joints and pores in soil and rocks).\\n(Source: MGH / WHIT)"
],
"dredged material": [
"Unconsolidated material removed from rivers, streams, and shallow seas with machines such as the bucket-ladder dredge, dragline dredge, or suction dredge."
],
"drilling": [
"The act of boring holes in the earth for finding water or oil, for geologic surveys, etc."
],
"drinking water": [
"Water that is suitable to drink, does not present health hazards and whose quality is regulated by legislation."
],
"drinking water treatment": [
"The Directive on the Quality of Surface Water Intended for Drinking Water defines three categories of water treatment (A1, A2, A3) from simple physical treatment and disinfection to intensive physical and chemical treatment. The treatment to be used depends on the quality of the water abstracted. The Directive uses imperative values for parameters known to have an adverse effect on health and also guide values for those which are less adverse. There is also a directive which complements the \"surface water abstraction\" Directive by indicating the methods of measurement and the frequency of sampling and analysis required.\\n(Source: PORT)"
],
"drought": [
"A period of abnormally dry weather sufficiently prolonged so that the lack of water causes a serious hydrologic imbalance (such as crop damage, water supply shortage) in the affected area."
],
"drought control": [
"Measures taken to prevent, mitigate or eliminate damage caused to the ecosystem, especially crops, by a sustained period of dry weather."
],
"dry cleaning": [
"The cleaning of fabrics with a solvent other than water."
],
"dry farming": [
"A system of extensive agriculture allowing the production of crops without irrigation in areas of limited rainfall."
],
"drying": [
"The process of partially or totally removing water or other liquids from a solid."
],
"drying out": [
"Removal of water from any substance."
],
"dual economy": [
"An economy based upon two separate/distinct economic systems which co-exist in the same geographical space. Dualism is characteristic of many developing countries in which some parts of a country resemble advanced economies while other parts resemble traditional economies, i.e. there are circuits of production and exchange.\\n(Source: GOOD)"
],
"dune": [
"A low mound, ridge, bank, or hill of loose, windblown granular material (generally sand, sometimes volcanic ash), either bare or covered with vegetation, capable of movement from place but always retaining its characteristic shape."
],
"duration of sunshine": [
"Period of the day during which the sun is shining."
],
"dust": [
"Any kind of solid material divided in particles of very small size.",
"To remove solid material divided in particles of very small size to clean something.",
"Dust or fine dirt to be found on the ground, on floors, on streets and ways."
],
"dust removal": [
"The removal of dust from air by ventilation or exhaust systems."
],
"dwelling": [
"Any enclosed space wholly or partially used or intended to be used for living, sleeping, cooking, and eating.",
"The abode of a human being, their place of residence."
],
"dye": [
"A substance used to modify the color of something.",
"To modify the color of something by applying dye."
],
"dyke": [
"An artificial wall, embankment, ridge, or mound, usually of earth or rock fill, built around a relatively flat, low-lying area to protect it from flooding."
],
"dyke reinforcement": [
"The addition of material to strengthen the structure of the dykes."
],
"early warning system": [
"Any series of procedures and devices designed to detect sudden or potential threats to persons, property or the environment at the first sign of danger."
],
"earthquake": [
"The violent shaking of the ground produced by deep seismic waves, originating from the epicentre."
],
"earth science": [
"The science that deals with the earth or any part thereof; includes the disciplines of geology, geography, oceanography and meteorology, among others."
],
"Earth-Sun relationship": [
"The Earth depends on the sun for its existence as a planet hospitable to life, and solar energy is the major factor determining the climate. Hence, conditions on the sun and conditions on Earth are inextricably linked. Although the sun's rays may appear unchanging, its radiation does vary. Many scientists suspect that sunspot activity has a greater influence on climatic change than variations attributed to the greenhouse effect.\\n(Source: WRIGHT)"
],
"earthworm": [
"Any of numerous oligochaete worms of the suborder Lumbricina which burrow in the soil and help aerate and break up the ground."
],
"earwig": [
"Any of various insects of the order Dermaptera, which typically have an elongated body with small leathery forewings, semicircular membranous hindwings, and curved forceps at the tip of the abdomen."
],
"East Africa": [
"A geographic region of the African continent that includes Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Ethiopia and Somalia, and also Mt. Kilimanjaro and Lake Victoria."
],
"Eastern Asia": [
"A geographic region of the Asian continent bordered by the Pacific Ocean in the east that includes China, Japan, Korea, Macao, Taiwan and Siberia."
],
"Eastern Europe": [
"A geographic region of the European continent west of Asia and east of Germany and the Adriatic Sea, traditionally consisting of countries that were formerly part of the Soviet Union, such as Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Croatia and Bulgaria."
],
"East-West trade": [
"Trade between countries and companies of the Western hemisphere with those of the Eastern hemisphere (usually referring to former Communist countries of Eastern Europe)."
],
"EC Council of Ministers": [
"The organ of the EU that is primarily concerned with the formulation of policy and the adoption of Community legislation."
],
"EC ecolabel": [
"The European Community (EC) initiative to encourage the promotion of environmentally friendly products."
],
"echinoderm": [
"Marine coelomate animals distinguished from all others by an internal skeleton composed of calcite plates, and a water-vascular system to serve the needs of locomotion, respiration, nutrition or perception.",
"A phylum of marine animals found at all ocean depths. The phylum appeared near the start of the Cambrian period, and contains about 7,000 living species,"
],
"ecological adaptation": [
"Change in an organism so that it is better able to survive or reproduce, thereby contributing to its fitness."
],
"ecological balance": [
"The condition of equilibrium among the components of a natural community such that their relative numbers remain fairly constant and their ecosystem is stable. Gradual readjustments to the composition of a balanced community take place continually in response to natural ecological succession and to alterations in climatic and other influences.\\n(Source: ALL)"
],
"ecological niche": [
"The space occupied by a species, which includes both the physical space as well as the functional role of the species."
],
"ecology": [
"The study of the interrelationships between living organisms and their environment."
],
"trophic ecology": [
"The study of the feeding relationships of organisms in communities and ecosystems. Trophic links between populations represent flows of organisms, organic energy and nutrients. Trophic transfers are important in population dynamics, biogeochemistry, and ecosystem energetics.\\n(Source: PARCOR)"
],
"economic analysis": [
"The quantitative and qualitative identification, study, and evaluation of the nature of an economy or a system of organization or operation."
],
"economic development": [
"The state of nations and the historical processes of change experienced by them, the extent to which the resources of a nation are brought into productive use."
],
"economic growth": [
"An increase over successive periods in the productivity and wealth of a household, country or region, as measured by one of several possible variables, such as the gross domestic product."
],
"economic instrument": [
"Any tool or method used by an organization to achieve general developmental goals in the production of, or in the regulation of, material resources."
],
"economic policy": [
"A definite course of action adopted and pursued by a government, political party or enterprise pertaining to the production, distribution and use of income, wealth and commodities."
],
"economics": [
"The social study of the production, distribution, and consumption of wealth."
],
"economic system": [
"Organized sets of procedures used within or between communities to govern the production and distribution of goods and services."
],
"economic theory": [
"The study of relationships in the economy."
],
"economic viability": [
"Capability of developing and surviving as a relatively independent social, economic or political unit."
],
"economic zoning": [
"A land-use planning design or control where specific types of businesses or private sector investment are encouraged within designated boundaries.\\n(Source: ALL / EEN)"
],
"economy": [
"The system of activities and administration through which a society uses its resources to produce wealth."
],
"ecophysiology": [
"The study of biophysical, biochemical and physiological processes used by animals to cope with factors of their physical environment, or employed during ecological interactions with other organisms."
],
"ecosystem": [
"A community of organisms and their physical environment interacting as an ecological unit.\\n(Source: LBC)"
],
"ecotourism": [
"Excursions to relatively untouched lands, which for the tourist promise the chance to observe unusual wildlife and indigenous inhabitants."
],
"ecotoxicity": [
"Quality of some substances or preparations which present or may present immediate or delayed risks for one or more sectors of the environment.\\n(Source: GRAHAW)"
],
"ecotoxicology": [
"The science dealing with the adverse effects of chemical, physical agents, and natural products on populations and communities of plants, animals and human beings."
],
"ecotype": [
"Species that has special characteristics which allow it to live in a certain habitat."
],
"edaphology": [
"The study of the relationships between soil and organisms, including the use made of land by mankind."
],
"edible fat": [
"A blend of a partially hydrogenated vegetable fat and natural butterfat."
],
"education": [
"The act or process of imparting or acquiring knowledge or skills."
],
"educational institution": [
"An organization or establishment devoted to the act or process of imparting or acquiring knowledge or skills.\\n(Source: RHW)"
],
"educational planning": [
"The process of making arrangements or preparations to facilitate the training, instruction or study that leads to the acquisition of skills or knowledge, or the development of reasoning and judgment.\\n(Source: RHW)"
],
"education policy": [
"A course of action adopted and pursued by government or some other organization, which promotes or determines the goals, methods and programs to be used for training, instruction or study that leads to the acquisition of skills or knowledge, or the development of reasoning and judgment.\\n(Source: RHW)"
],
"educational system": [
"Any formulated, regular or special organization of instruction, training or knowledge disclosure, especially the institutional structures supporting that endeavor.\\n(Source: ISEP / OED)"
],
"effect": [
"The result or outcome of a cause. Effects include: a) direct effects, which are caused by the action and occur at the same time and place, b) indirect effects, which are caused by the action and are later in time or farther removed in distance, that are still reasonably foreseeable.\\n(Source: LANDY)",
"Images or sound added to enhance the experience of viewing a movie or listening to music.",
"The result or outcome of a cause.",
"Consequence or result of a deed.",
"Condition that which follows something on which it depends.",
"[With verbal nouns, forming phrases approximately equivalent to the source verb]"
],
"efficiency criterion": [
"Parameter or rule for assessing the competency in performance of production relative to the input of resources."
],
"efficiency level": [
"The ratio of output to input, usually given as a percentage."
],
"effluent": [
"Liquid waste or sewage discharged into a river or the sea."
],
"egg": [
"An approximately spherical or ellipsoidal body produced by birds, snakes, insects and other animals housing the embryo during its development.",
"Egg (either fertilized or not) from domesticated birds, most commonly hens, seen as food.",
"The female gamete of an animal or plant, capable of fusing with a male gamete to produce a zygote.",
"The contents of one or more (hen's usually) eggs as a culinary ingredient, etc.",
"Something shaped like an egg, such as an Easter egg or a chocolate egg.",
"A swelling on one's head, usually large or noticeable, associated with an injury.",
"A person of Caucasian (Western) ancestry, who has a strong desire to learn about and immerse him- or herself in East Asian culture, and/or such a person who is perceived as behaving as if he or she were Asian.",
"In terms such as good egg, bad egg, tough egg etc., a person, fellow.",
"A foolish or obnoxious person."
],
"elasticity": [
"Ability of a material to return to original dimensions after deformation."
],
"electrical engineering": [
"Engineering that deals with practical applications of electricity."
],
"electrical industry": [
"The generation, transmission, distribution and sale of electric power to the general public."
],
"electricity": [
"A general term used for all phenomena caused by electric charge whether static or in motion."
],
"electricity consumption": [
"Amount of electricity consumed by an apparatus."
],
"electricity generation": [
"The act or process of transforming other forms of energy into electric energy."
],
"electric line": [
"Wires conducting electric power from one location to another."
],
"electric power": [
"The rate at which electric energy is consumed or delivered by an electric device or system, equal to the product of the current and the voltage drop."
],
"electric power plant": [
"A stationary plant containing apparatus for large-scale conversion of some form of energy (such as hydraulic, steam, chemical, or nuclear energy) into electrical energy."
],
"electric vehicle": [
"Vehicle driven by an electric motor and characterized by being silent and less polluting."
],
"electrokinetics": [
"The study of the motion of electric charges, especially of steady currents in electric circuits, and of the motion of electrified particles in electric or magnetic fields.\\n(Source: MGH)"
],
"electrolysis": [
"The production of a chemical reaction by passing an electric current through an electrolyte. In electrolysis, positive ions migrate to the cathode and negative ions to the anode."
],
"electronics": [
"Study, control, and application of the conduction of electricity through gases or vacuum or through semiconducting or conducting materials.",
"Electronic part of a device."
],
"electronic scrap": [
"Any material from electronic devices and systems, generated as a waste stream in a processing operation or discarded after service."
],
"electrosmog": [
"Pollution caused by electric and magnetic fields generated by power lines, electrical equipment, mobile and cordless phones, radar, electrical household appliances, microwave ovens, radios, computers, electric clocks, etc."
],
"chemical element": [
"A substance made up of atoms with the same atomic number; common examples are hydrogen, gold, and iron."
],
"emancipation": [
"The state of being free from social or political restraint or from the inhibition of moral or social conventions."
],
"embryo": [
"An early stage of development in multicellular organisms.",
"A minute rudimentary plant contained within a seed or an archegonium."
],
"embryogenesis": [
"The formation and development of an embryo from an egg."
],
"emergency relief": [
"Money, food or other assistance provided for those surviving a sudden and usually unexpected occurrence requiring immediate action, especially an incident of potential harm to human life, property or the environment."
],
"emergency shelter": [
"Shelter given to persons who are deprived of the essential necessities of life after a disaster."
],
"emission": [
"A discharge of particulate gaseous, or soluble waste material/pollution into the air from a polluting source."
],
"emission factor": [
"The relationship between the amount of pollutants produced to the amount of raw materials processed, or fuel consumed, in any polluting process."
],
"emission forecast": [
"The final step in a clean air plan is to predict future air quality to demonstrate that we can (if we can) meet the health standards by implementing the measures proposed in the plan. This is done by first projecting the emission inventory into the future, taking into account changes in population, housing, employment in specific business sectors, and vehicle miles traveled. These data are obtained from various sources and the resulting emissions are adjusted to account for regulations and control measures scheduled for implementation during the same time period. Additional adjustments are made to reflect large facilities that are expected to start up, modify, or shut down. The resulting inventory is an emission forecast, and is usually expressed in tons per day of particular pollutants for a given year. Additional steps may be required to determine how the forecasted quantities of air pollution will affect the overall air quality. One way to accomplish this is through computer modeling. A computer model simulates how pollutants disperse, react, and move in the air. The inputs to such a computer model are complex. They include weather patterns, terrain, and the chemical nature of air pollutants.\\n(Source: APCD)"
],
"emission situation": [
"The overall state regarding pollutant emission in a given area."
],
"emission standard": [
"The maximum amount of discharge legally allowed from a single source, mobile or stationary."
],
"employment": [
"Productive activity, service, trade, or craft for which one is regularly paid.",
"The work or occupation in which a person is employed.",
"Act through which a subordinated work contract starts."
],
"emulsification": [
"The process of dispersing one liquid in a second immiscible liquid."
],
"emulsion": [
"A stable dispersion of one liquid in a second immiscible liquid, such as milk (oil dispersed in water)."
],
"endocrine system": [
"The chemical coordinating system in animals, that is, the endocrine glands that produce hormones."
],
"endocrinology": [
"The study of the endocrine glands and the hormones that they synthesize and secrete.\\n(Source: MGH)"
],
"energy": [
"The capacity to do work; involving thermal energy (heat), radiant energy (light), kinetic energy (motion) or chemical energy; measured in joules.",
"A source of power, such as fuel and electrical energy, used for driving machines, providing light and heat, and powering electric devices."
],
"energy balance": [
"The energetic state of a system at any given time."
],
"energy conservation": [
"The reduction of energy consumption through efficient energy use."
],
"energy consumption": [
"Amount of energy consumed by a person or an apparatus."
],
"energy conversion": [
"The process of changing energy from one form to another."
],
"energy demand": [
"Amount of energy needed by a person or an apparatus."
],
"energy economics": [
"The production, distribution, and consumption of usable power such as fossil fuel, electricity, or solar radiation.\\n(Source: RHW)"
],
"energy management": [
"The administration or handling of power derived from sources such as fossil fuel, electricity and solar radiation."
],
"energy market": [
"The trade or traffic of energy sources treated as a commodity (such as fossil fuel, electricity, or solar radiation).\\n(Source: RHW)"
],
"energy policy": [
"A statement of a country's intentions in the energy sector."
],
"energy production": [
"Generation of energy in a coal fired power station, in an oil fired power station, in a nuclear power station, etc."
],
"energy recovery": [
"A form of resource recovery in which the organic fraction of waste is converted to some form of usable energy. Recovery may be achieved through the combustion of processed or raw refuse to produce steam through the pyrolysis of refuse to produce oil or gas; and through the anaerobic digestion of organic wastes to produce methane gas.\\n(Source: LANDY)"
],
"energy resource": [
"Potential supplies of energy which have not yet been used (such as coal lying in the ground, solar heat, wind power, geothermal power, etc.).\\n(Source: PHC)"
],
"energy saving": [
"A set of strategies for avoiding wasting energy."
],
"energy source": [
"Potential supplies of energy including fossil and nuclear fuels as well as solar, water, wind, tidal and geothermal power.\\n(Source: PHC)"
],
"energy technology": [
"Technology used to produce energy."
],
"enforcement": [
"The execution, carrying out or putting into effect an order, regulation, law or official decree."
],
"enriched uranium": [
"Uranium whose concentration of uranium-235, which is able to sustain a nuclear chain reaction, is increased by removing uranium-238.\\n(Source: ALL)"
],
"enrichment": [
"The process of increasing the abundance of a specified isotope in a mixture of isotopes. It is usually applied to an increase in the proportion of U-235, or the addition of Pu-239 to natural uranium for use in a nuclear reactor or weapon."
],
"environmental auditing": [
"An assessment of the nature and extent of any harm or detriment, or any possible harm or detriment, that may be inflicted on any aspect of the environment by any activity process, development programme, or any product, chemical, or waste substance. Audits may be designed to: verify or otherwise comply with environmental requirements; evaluate the effectiveness of existing environmental management systems; assess risks generally; or assist in planning for future improvements in environment protection and pollution control\\n(Source: GILP96)"
],
"environmental awareness": [
"The growth and development of awareness, understanding and consciousness toward the biophysical environment and its problems, including human interactions and effects."
],
"environmental chemistry": [
"Science dealing with the physical, chemical and biochemical processes that polluting substances undergo when introduced in the environment."
],
"environmental cost": [
"Expenses incurred as a result of some violation of ecological integrity either by an enterprise that implements a program to rectify the situation, or by society or the ecosystem as a whole when no person or enterprise is held liable."
],
"environmental crime": [
"An unlawful act against the environment, such as water contamination, hazardous waste disposal, air contamination, unpermitted installation of plants, oil spills, etc.\\n(Source: AZENPa)",
"An unlawful act against the environment, such as water contamination, hazardous waste disposal, air contamination, unpermitted installation of plants, oil spills, etc."
],
"environmental criminal law": [
"The aggregate of statutory enactments pertaining to actions or instances of ecological negligence deemed injurious to public welfare or government interests and legally prohibited."
],
"environmental damage": [
"Harm done to the environment, e.g. loss of wetlands, pollution of rivers, etc."
],
"environmental economics": [
"A subfield of economics concerned with environmental issues."
],
"environmental education": [
"The educational process that deals with the human interrelationships with the environment and that utilizes an interdisciplinary problem-solving approach with value clarification. Concerned with education progress of knowledge, understanding, attitudes, skills, and commitment for environmental problems and considerations. The need for environmental education is continuous, because each new generation needs to learn conservation for itself.\\n(Source: UNUN)"
],
"environmental ethics": [
"An ecological conscience or moral that reflects a commitment and responsibility toward the environment, including plants and animals as well as present and future generations of people. Oriented toward human societies living in harmony with the natural world on which they depend for survival and well being.\\n(Source: UNUN)"
],
"environmental history": [
"A systematic and chronological account of past events and conditions relating to the ecosystem, its natural resources or, more generally, the external factors surrounding and affecting human life.\\n(Source: TOE)"
],
"environmental impact": [
"Any alteration of environmental conditions or creation of a new set of environmental conditions, adverse or beneficial, caused or induced by the action or set of actions under consideration."
],
"environmental indicator": [
"A measurement, statistic or value that provides a proximate gauge or evidence of the effects of environmental management programs or of the state or condition of the environment."
],
"environmental informatics": [
"Science and techniques of data elaboration and of computer processing of information concerning ecosystems and ecology."
],
"environmental investment": [
"Securities held for the production of income in the form of interest and dividends with the aim of benefitting the environment.\\n(Source: ISEP / EFP)"
],
"environmental legislation": [
"Branch of law relating to pollution control; national parks, wildlife, fauna and flora, wilderness and biodiversity; environmental and occupational health; environmental planning; heritage conservation and a large number of international conventions relating to the environment.\\n(Source: GILP96)"
],
"environmental legislation on agriculture": [
"A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to regulate any aspect of farm and livestock production that poses a threat to ecological integrity and human health, especially the use of pesticides, fertilizers and land."
],
"environmental liability": [
"The penalty to be paid by an organization for the damage caused by pollution and restoration necessary as a result of that damage, whether by accidental spillages from tankers, industrial waste discharges into waterways or land, or deliberate or accidental release of radioactive materials."
],
"environmentally unfriendly firm": [
"Firm that dores not comply with environmental regulations for the disposal of noxious wastes generated during the production cycle."
],
"environmental medicine": [
"The art and science of the protection of good health, the promotion of aesthetic values, the prevention of disease and injury through the control of positive environmental factors, and the reduction of potential physical, biological, chemical, and radiological hazards."
],
"environmental policy": [
"Official statements of principles, intentions, values, and objective which are based on legislation and the governing authority of a state and which serve as a guide for the operations of governmental and private activities in environmental affairs."
],
"environmental pollution": [
"The introduction by man into the environment of substances or energy liable to cause hazards to human health, harm to living resources and ecological systems, damage to structure or amenity, or interference with legitimate uses of the environment.\\n(Source: GRAHAW)"
],
"environmental protection": [
"Measures and controls to prevent damage and degradation of the environment, including the sustainability of its living resources."
],
"environmental protection cost": [
"The amount of money incurred in the preservation, defense, or shelter of natural resources.\\n(Source: EFP / OED)"
],
"environmental psychology": [
"A branch of experimental psychology which studies the relationships between behavior and the environmental context in which it occurs."
],
"environmental quality": [
"Properties and characteristics of the environment, either generalized or local, as they impinge on human beings and other organisms. Environmental quality is a general term which can refer to: varied characteristics such as air and water purity or pollution, noise, access to open space, and the visual effects of buildings, and the potential effects which such characteristics may have on physical and mental health.\\n(Source: LANDY)"
],
"environmental report": [
"An account or statement, usually in writing, describing in detail events, situations or conditions pertaining to the ecosystem, its natural resources or any of the external factors surrounding and affecting human life.\\n(Source: TOE)"
],
"environmental research": [
"The study of the environment and its modifications caused by human activities."
],
"environmental risk assessment": [
"Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the risk posed to the environment by the actual or potential presence and/or use of specific pollutants.\\n(Source: OPPTIN)"
],
"environmental science": [
"The interdisciplinary study of environmental problems, within the framework of established physical and biological principles, i.e. oriented toward a scientific approach."
],
"environmental security": [
"Measures taken or policies instituted to protect and promote the safety of external conditions affecting the life, development and survival of an organism.\\n(Source: TOE)"
],
"environmental specimen bank": [
"Places in which selected specimens (fish, mussels, milk, soil sample and human tissue, etc.) are stored without being allowed to decompose."
],
"environmental subsidy": [
"Payment by a government to assist or improve performance regarding ecological maintenance or the protection, defense, or shelter of natural resources.\\n(Source: ODE)"
],
"environmental terminology": [
"The vocabulary of technical terms and usage appropriate to community, corporate, governmental and other groups concerned with protecting natural resources, preserving the integrity of the ecosystem and safeguarding human health.\\n(Source: ISEP / TOE)"
],
"environmental vandalism": [
"The egregious or blatant destruction of delicate ecosystems, especially in violation of environmental protection laws."
],
"environmental warfare": [
"The direct manipulation or destruction of ecological resources as either a political threat or for actual military advantage."
],
"environment": [
"The set of all natural systems, including the air, land, water, and living things other than humans.",
"The set of all natural and human-made surroundings that affect individuals, social groupings, and other life.",
"The complex of physical, chemical, and biotic factors that surround and act upon a specific organism or upon a specific group of organisms."
],
"enzyme": [
"Any of a group of catalytic proteins that are produced by living cells and that mediate and promote the chemical processes of life without themselves being altered or destroyed."
],
"epidemic": [
"A sudden increase in the incidence rate of a disease to a value above normal, affecting large numbers of people and spread over a wide area.",
"Spreading rapidly and extensively by infection and affecting many individuals in an area or a population at the same time."
],
"epidemiology": [
"The study of the occurrence and distribution of disease and injury specified by person, place, and time."
],
"equine": [
"An animal belonging to the family of Equidae."
],
"equipment": [
"Any collection of materials, supplies, instrumentality or apparatuses stored, furnished or provided for an undertaking, service or activity."
],
"equivalent dose": [
"A quantity used in radiation protection, expressing all radiation on a common scale for calculating the effective absorbed dose."
],
"ergonomics": [
"The study of human capability and psychology in relation to the working environment and the equipment operated by the worker."
],
"erosion": [
"The general process or the group of processes whereby the materials of Earth's crust are loosened, dissolved, or worn away and simultaneously moved from one place to another, by natural agencies, which include weathering, solution, corrosion, and transportation, but usually exclude mass wasting.\\n(Source: BJGEO)"
],
"erosion control": [
"Practices used during construction or other land disturbing activities to reduce or prevent soil erosion."
],
"estuarine biology": [
"The scientific study of the characteristic life processes of living organisms found in a semi-enclosed coastal body of water which has a free connection with the open sea and within which sea water is measurably diluted with freshwater.\\n(Source: WOR / MHE / APD)"
],
"estuarine oceanography": [
"The study of the physical, chemical, biological and geological characteristics of a semi-enclosed coastal body of water which has a free connection with the open sea and within which sea water is measurably diluted with fresh water.\\n(Source: MHE / APD)"
],
"estuary": [
"A river mouth or stream mouth is a part of a river where it flows into the sea, river, lake, reservoir or ocean.",
"Area at the mouth of a river where it broadens into the sea, and where fresh and sea water intermingle to produce brackish water. The estuarine environment is very rich in wildlife, particularly aquatic, but it is very vulnerable to damage as a result of the actions of humans.\\n(Source: WRIGHT)"
],
"etching substance": [
"Substance capable of wearing away the surface of a metal, glass, etc. by chemical action."
],
"ether": [
"A colorless liquid, slightly soluble in water; used as a reagent, intermediate, anesthetic, and solvent.\\n(Source: MGH)",
"A class of chemical compounds which contain an oxygen atom connected to two (substituted) alkyl groups."
],
"ethics": [
"The philosophical study of the moral value of human conduct and of the rules and principles that ought to govern it."
],
"ethnology": [
"The science that deals with the study of the origin, distribution, and relations of races or ethnic groups of mankind."
],
"ethology": [
"The study of animal behaviour in a natural context."
],
"EU Council": [
"The Council of the European Union is an institution which exercises legislative and decision-making powers. At the same time, it is the forum in which the representatives of the Governments of the 15 Member States can assert their interests and try to reach compromises. The Council ensures general coordination of the activities of the European Community, the main objective of which is the establishment of an internal market, i.e. an area without internal frontiers guaranteeing four freedoms of movement - for goods, persons, services and capital - to which should soon be added a single currency. In addition, the Council is responsible for intergovernmental cooperation, in common foreign and security policy (CFSP) and in the areas of justice and home affairs (JHA), including for example matters of immigration and asylum, combating terrorism and drugs and judicial cooperation.\\n(Source: UEEU)"
],
"Euratom": [
"A precursor to the European Community, the European Atomic Energy Community was founded in 1958 by the European Common Market to conduct research, develop nuclear energy, create a common market for nuclear fuels and supervise the nuclear industry so as to prevent abuse and protect health.\\n(Source: ERD)"
],
"Europe": [
"The second smallest continent, forming the Western extension of Eurasia: the border with Asia runs from the Urals to the Caspian and the Black Sea."
],
"European Commission": [
"The European Union's administrative body, composed of twenty independent members appointed by the Member States for five-year terms and vested with powers of initiative, implementation, management and control according to the mandates established in EU Treaties or handed down by the EU Council."
],
"European Court of Justice": [
"The supreme court of The European Union which oversees the application of the\\nEU treaties, decides upon the validity and the meaning of Community legislation and determines whether any act or omission by the European Commission, the Council of Minister or any member state constitutes a breach of Community law."
],
"European Environment Agency": [
"The EEA is being set up to provide the European Community and its member states with objective, reliable and standardized information on the environment. It will assess the success of existing environmental policies and the data will be used to develop new policies for environmental protection measures. It will gather information covering the present, and foreseeable, state of the environment. The priority area are: air quality and emissions; water quality, pollutants and resources; soil quality, flora and fauna, and biotopes; land use and natural resources; waste management; noise pollution; chemicals; and protection of coastal areas. The Agency will also take into account the socio-economics dimension, cover transboundary and international matters, and avoid the duplication of the activities of other bodies.\\n(Source: WRIGHT)"
],
"European Environmental Council": [
"Council of European Union environment ministers that aims to preserve the quality of the environment, human health, the prudent and rational utilisation of natural resources and to promote measures at international level to deal with regional or worldwide environmental problems."
],
"European Parliament": [
"Formerly the \"Assembly\" of EEC. Comprises some 520 \"representatives of the peoples\" of European Community states, directly elected, and based in Strasbourg. Exercises advisory and supervisory powers; debates and passes resolutions and may veto admission of new member states.\\n(Source: CURZON)"
],
"European Union": [
"The 27 nations (Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czechia, Denmark, Estiona, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the UK) that have joined together to form an economic community with common monetary, political and social aspirations."
],
"eutrophication": [
"A process of pollution that occurs when a lake or stream becomes over-rich in plant nutrient and as a consequence becomes overgrown in algae and other aquatic plants."
],
"evaluation": [
"An assessment or a summary of a particular situation."
],
"evaporation": [
"Conversion from a liquid or solid state to a vapour."
],
"evapotranspiration": [
"Discharge of water from the earth's surface to the atmosphere by evaporation from lakes, streams and soil surfaces and by transpiration from plants."
],
"evolution": [
"The biological theory or process whereby species of plants and animals change with the passage of time so that their descendants differ from their ancestors, i.e. development from earlier forms by hereditary transmission of slight variations in successive generations.",
"A gradual process of development, formation, or growth, especially, one leading to a more advanced or complex form."
],
"exact science": [
"Mathematics and other sciences based on calculation."
],
"excavated hole": [
"A pit, cavity, or other uncovered cutting produced by excavation."
],
"executive order": [
"An order or regulation issued by the president or some administrative authority under his direction for the purpose of interpreting, implementing or giving administrative effect to a provision of the constitution or of some law or treaty."
],
"exhaust device": [
"A duct or pipe through which waste material is emitted; a combination of components which provides for enclosed flow of exhaust gas from engine parts to the atmosphere.\\n(Source: AMHER / LEE)"
],
"exhaust gas": [
"Offgas produced during combustion processes discharged directly or ultimately to the atmosphere."
],
"exotic species": [
"Plants, animals or microorganisms which are introduced by humans into areas where they are not native. Exotics are often associated with negative ecological consequences for native species and the ecosystems."
],
"expenditure": [
"Spending by consumers, investors, or government for goods or services."
],
"experiment": [
"A test under controlled conditions that is made to demonstrate a known truth, examine the validity of a hypothesis, or determine the efficacy of something previously untried.",
"To conduct an experiment or investigation.",
"To try something new, as in order to gain experience."
],
"expert system": [
"A computer configuration of hardware and software that simulates the judgment and behavior of a human or an organization with extensive knowledge in a particular field, often by giving answers, solutions or diagnoses.\\n(Source: RHW / WIC)"
],
"exploration": [
"A careful systematic search."
],
"explosion": [
"A violent, sudden release of energy resulting from powders or gases undergoing instantaneous ignition or from some other means of detonation, often accompanied by a force producing great amounts of heat, major structural damages, shock waves and flying shrapnel.\\n(Source: HMD)"
],
"explosive": [
"A substance, such as trinitrotoluene, or a mixture, such as gunpowder, that is characterized by chemical stability but may be made to undergo rapid chemical change without an outside source of oxygen, whereupon it produces a large quantity of energy generally accompanied by the evolution of hot gases.",
"With the capability to, or likely to, explode.",
"Liable to lead to sudden change or violence."
],
"export": [
"To send, take or carry an article of trade or commerce out of the country.",
"Any good or commodity, transported from one country to another country in a legitimate fashion, typically for use in trade."
],
"exposure": [
"The time for which a material is illuminated or irradiated."
],
"expropriation": [
"The act of depriving an owner of private property for public use."
],
"extensive cattle farming": [
"Farming system practiced in very large farms, characterized by low levels of inputs per unit area of land; in such situations the stocking rate, the number of livestock units per area, is low."
],
"externality": [
"Discrepancies between private costs and social costs or private advantages and social advantages; the basic concept of externality is interdependence without compensation."
],
"extraction": [
"Any process by which a pure metal is obtained from its ore.\\n(Source: UVAROV)"
],
"extractive industry": [
"Primary activities involved in the extraction of non-renewable resources.\\n(Source: GOOD)"
],
"fabric": [
"Any cloth made from yarn or fibres by weaving, knitting, felting, etc."
],
"factor market": [
"A market where services of the factors of production (not the actual factors of production) are bought and sold."
],
"fallout": [
"The descent of airborne solid or liquid particles to the ground, which occurs when the speed at which they fall due to gravity exceeds that of any upward motion of the air surrounding them."
],
"fallow area": [
"Land area normally used for crop production but left unsown for one or more growing seasons."
],
"fallow land": [
"Arable land not under rotation that is set at rest for a period of time ranging from one to five years before it is cultivated again, or land usually under permanent crops, meadows or pastures, which is not being used for that purpose for a period of at least one year. Arable land which is normally used for the cultivation of temporary crops but which is temporarily used for grazing is included."
],
"family": [
"A group comprising parents, offsprings and others closely related or associated with them.",
"A group of persons sharing a home or living space, who aggregate and share their incomes, as evidenced by the fact that they regularly take meals together.",
"A biological taxon, a group of animals or plants, part of an order and consisting of one or more genera.",
"Of or related to a family."
],
"family planning": [
"The control of the number of children in a family and of the intervals between them, especially by the use of contraceptives."
],
"famine": [
"A severe shortage of food, as through crop failure or over population. It may be due to poor harvests following drought, floods, earthquake, war, social conflict, etc."
],
"farm animal": [
"Animals reared in farms for working and producing food such as meat, eggs and milk."
],
"farm": [
"Any tract of land or building used for agricultural purposes, such as for raising crops and livestock."
],
"fauna": [
"The entire animal life of a given region, habitat or geological stratum."
],
"federal government": [
"A system in which a country or nation formed by a union or confederation of independent states is governed by a central authority or organization."
],
"federal law": [
"A binding rule or body of rules established by a government that has been constituted as a union of independent political units or states."
],
"fee": [
"A charge fixed by law for services of public officers or for use of a privilege under control of government."
],
"fen": [
"Waterlogged, spongy ground containing alkaline decaying vegetation, characterized by reeds, that may develop into peat. It sometimes occurs in the sinkholes of karst region."
],
"fermentation": [
"Any enzymatic transformation of organic substrates, especially carbohydrates, generally accompanied by the evolution of gas."
],
"fern": [
"Any of a large number of vascular plants composing the division Polypodiophyta, without flowers and fruits.\\n(Source: MGH)"
],
"fibre": [
"The portion of plant products that moves through the human digestive system without being digested."
],
"field": [
"A limited area of land with grass or crops growing on it, which is usually surrounded by fences or closely planted bushes when it is part of a farm.",
"A particular environment or walk of life.",
"A single aspect of each member of an entity in a database.",
"A land area free of woodland or human settlements.",
"The open country near or belonging to a city.",
"A region affected by a particular force.",
"An area that can be seen at a given time.",
"A place where a battle is fought.",
"A realm of practical, direct, or natural operation, contrasting with an office, classroom, or laboratory.",
"A number system w\u0131th functions that has the same properties relative to the operations of addition and multiplication used for real numbers.",