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Created Jun 2, 2010
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Author: Jabari Zakiya, Original: 2009-12-25
Revision-2: 2009-12-31
Revision-3: 2010-6-2
Revision-4: 2010-12-15
Revision-5: 2011-5-11
Revision-6: 2011-5-15
Module 'Roots' provides two methods 'root' and 'roots'
which will find all the nth roots of real and complex
numerical values.
Install process:
Place module file 'roots.rb' into 'lib' directory of ruby
version. Then from irb session, or a source code file, do:
require 'roots'
require '/path_to/roots.rb'
Use syntax: val.root(n,{k})
root(n,k=0) n is root 1/n exponent, integer > 0
k is nth ccw root 1..n , integer >=0
If k not given default root returned, which are:
for +val => real root |val**(1.0/n)|
for -val => real root -|val**(1.0/n)| when n is odd
for -val => first ccw complex root when n is even
9.root(2); -32.root(5,3); (-100.43).root 6,6
Use syntax: val.roots(n,{opt})
roots(n,opt=0) n is root 1/n exponent, integer > 0
opt, optional string input, are:
0 : default (no input), return array of n ccw roots
'c'|'C': complex, return array of complex roots
'e'|'E': even, return array even numbered roots
'o'|'O': odd , return array odd numbered roots
'i'|'I': imag, return array of imaginary roots
'r'|'R': real, return array of real roots
An empty array is returned for an opt with no members.
9348134943.roots(9); -89.roots(4,'real'); 2.2.roots 3,'Im'
For Ruby 1.9.x can also use symbol as option: 384.roots 4,:r
Can ask: How many complex roots of x: x.roots(n,'c').size
What's the 3rd 5th root of (4+9i): Complex(4,9).root(5,3)
Mathematical Foundations
For complex number (x+iy) = a*e^(i*arg) = a*[cos(arg) + i*sin(arg)]
The root values of a number are:
1) root(n) = (x + iy)^(1/n)
2) root(n) = (a*e^(i*arg))^(1/n)
3) root(n,k) = (a*e^i*(arg + 2kPI))^(1/n)
4) root(n,k) = a^(1/n)*(e^i*(arg + 2kPI))^(1/n)
5) root(n,k) = |a^(1/n)|*e^i*(arg + 2kPI)/n
6) root(n,k) = |a^(1/n)|*(cos(arg/n+2kPI/n) + i*sin(arg/n+2kPI/n))
define mag = |a^(1/n)|, theta = arg/n, and delta = 2PI/n
7) root(n,k)= mag*[cos(theta + k*delta) + i*sin(theta + k*delta)], k=0..n-1
Thus, there are n distinct roots (values):
Ruby currently gives incorrect values for x|y axis angles.
cos PI/2 => 6.12303176911189e-17
sin PI => 1.22460635382238e-16
cos 3*PI/2 => -1.83690953073357e-16
sin 2*PI => -2.44921970764475e-16
These all should be 0.0, which causes incorrect root values there.
I 'fix' these errors by setting aliases of sin|cos to 0.0 if the
absolute value of the other function equals 1.0 so they produce
the correct root values.
# file roots.rb
module Roots
require 'complex'
include Math
def root(n,k=0) # return kth (1..n) value of root n or default for k=0
raise "Root n not an integer > 0" unless n.kind_of?(Integer) && n>0
raise "Index k not an integer >= 0" unless k.kind_of?(Integer) && k>=0
return self if n == 1 || self == 0
mag = abs**n**-1 ; theta = arg/n ; delta = 2*PI/n
return rootn(mag,theta,delta,k>1 ? k-1:0) if kind_of?(Complex)
return rootn(mag,theta,delta,k-1) if k>0 # kth root of n for any real
return mag if self > 0 # pos real default
return -mag if n&1 == 1 # neg real default, n odd
return rootn(mag,theta) # neg real default, n even, 1st ccw root
def roots(n,opt=0) # return array of root n values, [] if no value
raise "Root n not an integer > 0" unless n.kind_of?(Integer) && n>0
raise "Invalid option" unless opt == 0 || opt =~ /^(c|e|i|o|r|C|E|I|O|R)/
return [self] if n == 1 || self == 0
mag = abs**n**-1 ; theta = arg/n ; delta = 2*PI/n
roots = []
case opt
when /^(o|O)/ # odd roots 1,3,5...
0.step(n-1,2) {|k| roots << rootn(mag,theta,delta,k)}
when /^(e|E)/ # even roots 2,4,6...
1.step(n-1,2) {|k| roots << rootn(mag,theta,delta,k)}
when /^(r|R)/ # real roots Complex(x,0) = (x+i0)
n.times {|k| x=rootn(mag,theta,delta,k); roots << x if x.imag == 0}
when /^(i|I)/ # imaginry roots Complex(0,y) = (0+iy)
n.times {|k| x=rootn(mag,theta,delta,k); roots << x if x.real == 0}
when /^(c|C)/ # complex roots Complex(x,y) = (x+iy)
n.times {|k| x=rootn(mag,theta,delta,k); roots << x if x.arg*2 % PI != 0}
else # all n roots
n.times {|k| roots << rootn(mag,theta,delta,k)}
return roots
private # not accessible as methods in mixin class
# Alias sin|cos to fix C lib errors to get 0.0 values for X|Y axis angles.
def sine(x); cos(x).abs == 1 ? 0 : sin(x) end
def cosine(x); sin(x).abs == 1 ? 0 : cos(x) end
def rootn(mag,theta,delta=0,k=0) # root k of n of real|complex
angle_n = theta + k*delta
# Mixin 'root' and 'roots' as methods for all number classes..
class Numeric; include Roots end
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jzakiya commented Dec 16, 2010

Module 'Roots' provides two methods 'root' and 'roots' which will find all the nth roots of class Numeric numbers (fixnum, bignum, floats, rational, complex, etc).

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ghost commented Sep 23, 2013

Can you add 1-3 Usage Examples please?

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