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Algae - Carbon Capture, Biofuel, etc.
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<!--Xholon Workbook MIT License, Copyright (C) Ken Webb, Fri Aug 04 2023 12:24:30 GMT-0400 (GMT-04:00)-->
Title: Algae - Carbon Capture, Biofuel, etc.
InternalName: 13fb1be7346ebd423ede0719d2cf8bce
My Notes
3 August 2023
### TODO
- do Xholon model of Brilliant Planet tech
(0) search: carbon capture algae
Brilliant Planet plans cheap, gigaton-scale carbon capture using algae
By Loz Blain
April 26, 2022
Direct air carbon capture is currently far too costly – but this London company says it can do it at enormous scale for a tenth the price,
using engineered algal blooms in ponds located near desert coastlines.
Oh, and it'll de-acidify the ocean, too.
"carbon removal, with integrity"
Brilliant Planet uses algae to REMOVE CO2 from the atmosphere.
We produce algae and convert it into stable biomass.
We then bury that biomass, where it remains stable for thousands of years.
This removes CO₂ permanently from the atmosphere.
In the process we also deacidify vast amounts of seawater, strengthening the local coastal ecosystem.
At Brilliant Planet, we're pioneering the future of climate solutions by harnessing the power of marine microalgae.
Our ground-breaking approach taps into these microscopic powerhouses to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere,
confronting the urgent challenge of climate change.
But, how exactly does this work?
In this section, we'll take a deep dive into our innovative method, breaking down the steps involved in our process.
From nurturing microalgae to their role in carbon sequestration,
we'll guide you through our science-based approach to high-quality carbon removal.
- KSW: intriguing
- they have small plants in Morocco and Oman
- has details
### CARBON FLOW (KSW: this is what I want to implement a model of)
Marine algae have the scale to make a meaningful difference: seasonal ocean blooms can transform thousands of square kilometres in a matter of days.
Beneficial coastal algal blooms feed almost all fisheries on our planet and already contribute 20% to photosynthesis-based global atmospheric CO2 reduction,
every year, more than all forests combined.
By replicating these beneficial blooms year-round, prime in hot coastal deserts,
they can significantly contribute to ‘new’ plant-based carbon fixation and storage without displacing existing agricultural land or ecosystem resources,
at the gigaton scale.
Similar to trees, when the algae grow, they use photosynthesis to convert CO2 into biomass, which is then stored locked in the biomass for millennial storage.
Our approach combines the affordability of nature-based systems with the durability and measurability of engineered systems.
By harnessing expansive deserts and unused seawater, we are given an extraordinary opportunity to draw down carbon from our atmosphere.
We use deep upwelled seawater that is pumped through a series of open, land-based ponds.
Each day the algae double in biomass and move forward into the next, larger, pond where new seawater is added.
At the end of the process, we then filter out the algae, to rapidly solar dry it and store them it underground at the same site.
Brilliant Planet cultivates locally sourced, wildtype, unmodified phytoplankton.
Our algae are isolated from the beach in front of each site.
Because the algae are local, they are resilient and readily accommodate natural environmental fluctuations,
local pathogens and the composition of the intake seawater.
Using wildtype strains allows us to cultivate the algae in open environments without posing a risk to the local environment.
### Step 1 - Lab
An algal starter monoculture is grown in the lab, which gives us the ability to control environmental conditions
and kick-start the ‘Bloom’ phase – a state in which they grow exponentially and divide more than once per day.
Beneficial coastal algae blooms are responsible for 20% of the global carbon cycle and in terms of productivity
makes them 10-50x more efficient at CO2 fixation than terrestrial plants per unit area.
### Step 2 - Greenhouse
After 10 days in the lab, the blooming algae are transferred into a greenhouse
This allows the organisms to acclimate to ambient desert conditions, so the cells can achieve maximum growth rate and density,
while still growing in a controlled environment.
### Step 3 - Outdoor ponds
After the greenhouse we move the organisms into outdoor ponds, where they spend the remaining five days growing rapidly in the large outdoor production ponds.
Due to the exponential growth, nearly 90% of the algae biomass is produced in these last 2 days.
### Step 4 - Harvesting
The last pond is filtered out of the water by letting it flow over special screens that let the water through but retain the algae,
forming a thick, algal slurry (think green smoothie) that is sent for drying.
The seawater returns to the shallow ocean surface, is de-acidified and ready to promote biodiversity restoration.
### Step 5 - Drying
We pump the biomass slurry produced at harvest up a drying tower, which sprays the mixture into the hot, dry desert air.
This is a new drying method, where we mist the algal slurry similar to a snow-blower at a ski resort creating a fine powder.
The particles rapidly dry as they float back to the ground.
### Step 6 - Storage
The dried algae is collected, weighed, and put into specially lined landfill sites located above future sea level projections and away from watersheds.
These locations are chosen to reduce the risk of water seeping in, and we use advanced tools to monitor the conditions inside these landfills.
We are also careful to monitor for the formation of any unexpected gases or emissions at all stages.
These biolandfills, are designed to slowly remove any leftover moisture from the algae and salt mixture,
and we keep a close watch on conditions like temperature, oxygen levels, and moisture inside.
Storing carbon in this way has several benefits:
1) the storage sites are co-located with our biomass production, so the transport of material is insignificant;
2) we follow well-established regulations set by the local authorities and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to responsibly manage these landfill sites;
3) The biomass is available for straightforward physical verification, making it easy to demonstrate
that the carbon-rich biomass is durable and has not leaked or degraded.
### Step 7 - Seawater discharge
Half of the CO2 removed by system is taken directly from the atmosphere above the ponds.
The rest is taken from the bicarbonate in the seawater that is used in the ponds.
Our process does not change the seawater's alkalinity or chemistry.
When the seawater is released back to the ocean, it quickly restores its bicarbonate pool, removing the second half of the CO2 from the atmosphere.
85% of this rebalancing takes place with four days, and we confirm it through direct measurements and computer modelling.
Monitoring our carbon removal is easy: every 600kg of algae we bury represents one ton of CO2 removed from the atmosphere.
MIT Climate & Sustainability Consortium
A new kind of academia-industry collaboration
Working together to vastly accelerate the implementation of large-scale, real-world solutions, across sectors,
to help meet global climate and sustainability challenges.
Helping to lay the groundwork for one critical aspect of MIT’s continued and intensified commitment to climate:
helping large companies usher in, adapt to, and prosper in a decarbonized world.
- KSW: this is a multi-department effort aimed at getting industry memberships
- the technology content lives elsewhere; where ?
(4) _
Recommendations for the Advancement of Combined Algal Biofuel and Carbon Capture Technology
Arya Sasne
- KSW: has some good references
Video: Building a Network to Develop Scalable Solutions in Carbon Capture & Storage
July 12, 2023, Glen Junor
The MCSC’s work in its carbon capture & storage focus area has brought together, and leveraged, a vast network of MIT faculty and researchers.
These faculty members and their teams are collaborating with MCSC member companies that are eager to help scale promising lab breakthroughs.
Hear more from Glen Junor, whose leadership propelled this work forward, and view the work of the many people involved.
Video by In Short Media.
Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Sequestration (CCUS)
- at 1:18. it shows the Arya Sasne paper
Brilliant Planet, Series A, 2022
Brilliant Planet is unlocking the power of algae as an affordable method of permanently and quantifiably sequestering carbon at the gigaton scale.
Read the Post
Union Square Ventures
817 Broadway, 14th Floor
New York, NY 10003
Of the world’s 2,000 largest public companies, at least 21% now have net-zero commitments.
For most of these companies, even with significant emissions reduction, carbon offsetting will be essential to achieving their goals.
In fact, all of the 1.5c IPCC scenarios feature annual carbon removal at the gigaton level — somewhere between 8 to 13 gigatons per year.
If removing 8-13 gigatons annually was not challenging enough, the varying quality of carbon removal options makes it even harder.
Most of today’s carbon removal solutions, whether nature-based or technological,
have drawbacks and trade-offs related to measurement, additionality, price, and permanence.
In our view, responsible companies will seek more high-quality carbon removal technologies
that are additional, durable, scalable, verifiable, and socially beneficial.
This is exactly what Brilliant Planet offers.
Brilliant Planet has developed a unique microalgae production process that can sequester CO2 at a fraction of the cost of comparable systems.
Advances in the biological fixation of carbon dioxide by microalgae
Shuping Zhang, Zhenrong Liu
First published: 01 March 2021
Citations: 26
- includes a list of 160 references
Global warming caused by carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is one of the most important topics of concern in the fields of science, environment and global economy.
Carbon dioxide emissions have increased dramatically in recent years, and this trend is likely to continue with a projected increase
of both global energy consumption and CO2 emissions by 51% in 2050 compared with 2005.
To mitigate the negative impacts arising, a potential strategy to convert CO2 into renewable fuels or valuable chemicals can be applied.
Bio-CO2 emission reduction is receiving more and more attention as an environmentally friendly method.
Microalgae are attracting worldwide attention in this regard owing to their exceptional speed of growth, resistance to harsh environments and low production costs.
In this review, the biochemical principles of microalgae-CO2 fixation and the research progress of microalgae strains used for CO2 fixation are reviewed and discussed.
The latest progress in the co-development of a microalgae carbon sequestration industry and other industries are provided,
along with a survey of the progress in methods to improve microalgae-CO2 fixation.
Finally, the problems to be solved in the industry and its future directions of development are clarified.
© 2021 Society of Chemical Industry (SCI).
Biomass energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS)
- this is a previous Xholon workbook with a small amount of information (4 references), but no model
October 19, 2020
Tiny Algae and the Political Theater of Planting One Trillion Trees
To fight climate change, it’s time to start thinking big by thinking small.
Created by Benjamin Cooley
- this is a long and informative article
generated from ParametricPress/issue-02-article-template
Javascript, npm
Editor, Yee Keung Wong, The Open University of Hong Kong
Algae chapter
CO2 Capture for Industries by Algae
Written By Vetrivel Anguselvi, Reginald Ebhin Masto, Ashis Mukherjee and Pradeep Kumar Singh
Submitted: April 23rd, 2018 Reviewed: October 2nd, 2018 Published: May 29th, 2019
- the most studied? / best known? species of the genus Chlorella
Chlorella vulgaris is a species of green microalga in the division Chlorophyta.
It is mainly used as a dietary supplement or protein-rich food additive in Japan.
C. vulgaris is a green eukaryotic microalga in the genus Chlorella, which has been present on earth since the Precambrian period.
This unicellular alga was discovered in 1890 by Martinus Willem Beijerinck as the first microalga with a well-defined nucleus.
At the beginning of the 1990s, German scientists noticed the high protein content of C. vulgaris and began to consider it as a new food source.
Japan is currently the largest consumer of Chlorella,[3][5] both for nutritional and therapeutic purposes.
Carl Safi, Bachar Zebib, Othmane Merah, Pierre-Yves Pontalier, Carlos Vaca-Garcia.
Morphology, composition, production, processing and applications of Chlorella vulgaris: A review.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2014, 35, pp.265-278.
Economic and technical problems related to the reduction of petroleum resources require the
valorisation of renewable raw material. Recently, microalgae emerged as promising alternative feedstock
that represents an enormous biodiversity with multiple benefits exceeding the potential of conventional
agricultural feedstock. Thus, this comprehensive review article spots the light on one of the most
interesting microalga Chlorella vulgaris. It assembles the history and a thorough description of its
ultrastructure and composition a ccording to growth conditions.The harvesting techniques are presented
in relation to the nove! algo-refinery concept, with their technological advancements and potential
applications in the market.
Fig. 1. Schematic ultrastructure of C. vulgaris representing different organelles
- a long article on Photosynthesis
Today, the average rate of energy capture by photosynthesis globally is approximately 130 terawatts,
which is about eight times the current power consumption of human civilization.
Artificial photosynthesis is a chemical process that biomimics the natural process of photosynthesis
to convert sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates and oxygen.
The term artificial photosynthesis is commonly used to refer to any scheme for capturing and storing
the energy from sunlight in the chemical bonds of a fuel (a solar fuel).
Photocatalytic water splitting converts water into hydrogen and oxygen and is a major research topic of artificial photosynthesis.
Light-driven carbon dioxide reduction is another process studied that replicates natural carbon fixation.
(18) The World of the Cell. Becker, Reece, Poenie. third edition
this is a book that I own
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