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PBKDF2 for Older Versions of PHP - Based on @defuse's Code
<?php
/*
* Password Hashing with PBKDF2 (http://crackstation.net/hashing-security.htm).
* Copyright (c) 2013, Taylor Hornby
* All rights reserved.
*
* Modified to Work with Older Versions of PHP
* Copyright (c) 2014, Kijin Sung
* All rights reserved.
*
* Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
* modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
*
* 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice,
* this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
*
* 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice,
* this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation
* and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
*
* THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS"
* AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
* IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
* ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE
* LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR
* CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF
* SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
* INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
* CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE)
* ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
* POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
*/
// These constants may be changed without breaking existing hashes.
define('PBKDF2_COMPAT_HASH_ALGORITHM', 'SHA256');
define('PBKDF2_COMPAT_ITERATIONS', 12000);
define('PBKDF2_COMPAT_SALT_BYTES', 24);
define('PBKDF2_COMPAT_HASH_BYTES', 24);
// Calculates a hash from the given password.
function create_hash($password, $force_compat = false)
{
// Generate the salt.
if (function_exists('mcrypt_create_iv')) {
$salt = base64_encode(mcrypt_create_iv(PBKDF2_COMPAT_SALT_BYTES, MCRYPT_DEV_URANDOM));
} elseif (file_exists('/dev/urandom') && $fp = @fopen('/dev/urandom', 'r')) {
$salt = base64_encode(fread($fp, PBKDF2_COMPAT_SALT_BYTES));
} else {
$salt = '';
for ($i = 0; $i < PBKDF2_COMPAT_SALT_BYTES; $i += 2) {
$salt .= pack('S', mt_rand(0, 65535));
}
$salt = base64_encode(substr($salt, 0, PBKDF2_COMPAT_SALT_BYTES));
}
// Determine the best supported algorithm and iteration count.
$algo = strtolower(PBKDF2_COMPAT_HASH_ALGORITHM);
$iterations = PBKDF2_COMPAT_ITERATIONS;
if ($force_compat || !function_exists('hash_algos') || !in_array($algo, hash_algos())) {
$algo = false; // This flag will be detected by pbkdf2_default()
$iterations = round($iterations / 5); // PHP 4 is very slow. Don't cause too much server load.
}
// Return format: algorithm:iterations:salt:hash
$pbkdf2 = pbkdf2_default($algo, $password, $salt, $iterations, PBKDF2_COMPAT_HASH_BYTES);
$prefix = $algo ? $algo : 'sha1';
return $prefix . ':' . $iterations . ':' . $salt . ':' . base64_encode($pbkdf2);
}
// Checks whether a password matches a previously calculated hash
function validate_password($password, $hash)
{
// Split the hash into 4 parts.
$params = explode(':', $hash);
if (count($params) < 4) return false;
// Recalculate the hash and compare it with the original.
$pbkdf2 = base64_decode($params[3]);
$pbkdf2_check = pbkdf2_default($params[0], $password, $params[2], (int)$params[1], strlen($pbkdf2));
return slow_equals($pbkdf2, $pbkdf2_check);
}
// Checks whether a hash needs upgrading.
function needs_upgrade($hash)
{
// Get the current algorithm and iteration count.
$params = explode(':', $hash);
if (count($params) < 4) return true;
$algo = $params[0];
$iterations = (int)$params[1];
// Compare the current hash with the best supported options.
if (!function_exists('hash_algos') || !in_array($algo, hash_algos())) {
return false;
} elseif ($algo === strtolower(PBKDF2_COMPAT_HASH_ALGORITHM) && $iterations >= PBKDF2_COMPAT_ITERATIONS) {
return false;
} else {
return true;
}
}
// Compares two strings $a and $b in length-constant time.
function slow_equals($a, $b)
{
$diff = strlen($a) ^ strlen($b);
for($i = 0; $i < strlen($a) && $i < strlen($b); $i++) {
$diff |= ord($a[$i]) ^ ord($b[$i]);
}
return $diff === 0;
}
// PBKDF2 key derivation function as defined by RSA's PKCS #5: https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2898.txt
// Test vectors can be found here: https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc6070.txt
// This implementation of PBKDF2 was originally created by https://defuse.ca
// With improvements by http://www.variations-of-shadow.com
function pbkdf2_default($algo, $password, $salt, $count, $key_length)
{
// Sanity check.
if ($count <= 0 || $key_length <= 0) {
trigger_error('PBKDF2 ERROR: Invalid parameters.', E_USER_ERROR);
}
// Check if we should use the fallback function.
if (!$algo) return pbkdf2_fallback($password, $salt, $count, $key_length);
// Check if the selected algorithm is available.
$algo = strtolower($algo);
if (!function_exists('hash_algos') || !in_array($algo, hash_algos())) {
if ($algo === 'sha1') {
return pbkdf2_fallback($password, $salt, $count, $key_length);
} else {
trigger_error('PBKDF2 ERROR: Hash algorithm not supported.', E_USER_ERROR);
}
}
// Use built-in function if available.
if (function_exists('hash_pbkdf2')) {
return hash_pbkdf2($algo, $password, $salt, $count, $key_length, true);
}
// Count the blocks.
$hash_length = strlen(hash($algo, '', true));
$block_count = ceil($key_length / $hash_length);
// Hash it!
$output = '';
for ($i = 1; $i <= $block_count; $i++) {
$last = $salt . pack('N', $i); // $i encoded as 4 bytes, big endian.
$last = $xorsum = hash_hmac($algo, $last, $password, true); // first iteration.
for ($j = 1; $j < $count; $j++) { // The other $count - 1 iterations.
$xorsum ^= ($last = hash_hmac($algo, $last, $password, true));
}
$output .= $xorsum;
}
// Truncate and return.
return substr($output, 0, $key_length);
}
// Fallback function using sha1() and a pure-PHP implementation of HMAC.
// The result is identical to the default function when used with SHA-1.
// But it is approximately 1.6x slower than the hash_hmac() function of PHP 5.1.2+,
// And approximately 2.3x slower than the hash_pbkdf2() function of PHP 5.5+.
function pbkdf2_fallback($password, $salt, $count, $key_length)
{
// Count the blocks.
$hash_length = 20;
$block_count = ceil($key_length / $hash_length);
// Prepare the HMAC key and padding.
if (strlen($password) > 64) {
$password = str_pad(sha1($password, true), 64, chr(0));
} else {
$password = str_pad($password, 64, chr(0));
}
$opad = str_repeat(chr(0x5C), 64) ^ $password;
$ipad = str_repeat(chr(0x36), 64) ^ $password;
// Hash it!
$output = '';
for ($i = 1; $i <= $block_count; $i++) {
$last = $salt . pack('N', $i);
$xorsum = $last = pack('H*', sha1($opad . pack('H*', sha1($ipad . $last))));
for ($j = 1; $j < $count; $j++) {
$last = pack('H*', sha1($opad . pack('H*', sha1($ipad . $last))));
$xorsum ^= $last;
}
$output .= $xorsum;
}
// Truncate and return.
return substr($output, 0, $key_length);
}
@kijin

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Owner

kijin commented May 22, 2014

This is a modification of https://github.com/defuse/password-hashing to make it compatible with PHP 4.4. It is also compatible with all newer versions of PHP.

If the hash_hmac() function is not available, it falls back to a pure-PHP implementation of HMAC-SHA1 so that even legacy apps can benefit from PBKDF2. (PBKDF2 can be used with any secure hashing algorithm, although it is typically used with HMAC-SHA256.) This, of course, is weaker than the default for newer systems, but it is still vastly superior to the few options that most legacy PHP apps are stuck with.

A few other changes:

  • This version does not depend on mcrypt to generate the salt. If mcrypt is not available, it will try to read directly from /dev/urandom and then fall back to multiple rounds of mt_rand().
  • This version increases the default iteration count to 12,000 for PHP 5 and 2,400 for PHP 4. The difference is due to the fact that PHP 4 is slower and often installed on older hardware. In any case, both are better than the typical default which is only 1,000 iterations.
  • This version includes a needs_upgrade() function that checks a hash against the current defaults and platform capabilities. This facilitates upgrading hashes when the legacy app is finally migrated to a more recent version of PHP, as all SHA1-based hashes will be flagged for upgrading.

All hashes generated by this library are compatible with those generated by the original library and vice versa. However, on PHP 4, only hashes generated using HMAC-SHA1 can be checked.

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