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@koyedele koyedele/data_alignment.c
Last active Feb 23, 2017

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A simple program that shows the effect of word alignment on the performance of programs.
/**
* File: data_alignment.c
* This is a collection of simple functions that attempt to read
* from a 5MB file in varying sizes and with different buffer
* alignments.
*
* The munge* functions are derived from Jonathan Rentzsch's article
* https://www.ibm.com/developerworks/library/pa-dalign/
*
* This work is inspired by the same article referenced above.
* Before running the examples, create a data file by running:
*
* base64 /dev/urandom | head -c 5000000 > datafile
*
* This will create a 5MB file with random textual data in it.
* However, a file with any size can be used.
*
* The results of a sample run can be viewed at
* https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/17tfu_kl4w5Ad8Sqpdh4nl5GEenH8VF6vZY0lh7MDxhI/edit?usp=sharing
* The test was run on a Macbook Pro with a quad-core 2.8 GHz Intel Core i7 processor and 16GB of RAM.
*/
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdint.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <time.h>
#include <math.h>
#define USAGE_ERROR 1
#define INPUT_FILE_ERROR 2
#define MEM_ERROR 3
#define FILE_READ_ERROR 4
#define NUM_MUNGE_FXNS 4
#define NUM_TRIES_PER_RUN 10
#define NUM_INCREMENTS 128
//
// `size` is the amount of data we want to process, in this case 5MB
// `*data` is a pointer to the buffer we want to read.
// We're going to stagger the alignment to the data buffer by incrementing
// the pointer to the buffer and running each test again.
//
static void munge8(void *data, uint32_t size)
{
uint8_t *data8 = (uint8_t *) data;
uint8_t *data8End = data8 + size;
while (data8 != data8End)
{
*data8 = -*data8;
data8++;
}
}
static void munge16(void *data, uint32_t size)
{
uint16_t *data16 = (uint16_t *) data;
uint16_t *data16End = data16 + (size >> 1); /* divide size by 2 */
uint8_t *data8 = (uint8_t *) data16End;
/* strip away upper 31 bits */
uint8_t *data8End = data8 + (size & 0x00000001);
while (data16 != data16End)
{
*data16 = -*data16;
data16++;
}
while (data8 != data8End)
{
*data8 = -*data8;
data8++;
}
}
static void munge32(void *data, uint32_t size)
{
uint32_t *data32 = (uint32_t*) data;
uint32_t *data32End = data32 + (size >> 2); /* Divide size by 4. */
uint8_t *data8 = (uint8_t*) data32End;
uint8_t *data8End = data8 + (size & 0x00000003); /* Strip upper 30 bits. */
while(data32 != data32End)
{
*data32 = -*data32;
data32++;
}
while(data8 != data8End)
{
*data8 = -*data8;
data8++;
}
}
static void munge64(void *data, uint32_t size)
{
double *data64 = (double*) data;
double *data64End = data64 + (size >> 3); /* Divide size by 8. */
uint8_t *data8 = (uint8_t*) data64End;
/* Strip upper 29 bits. */
uint8_t *data8End = data8 + (size & 0x00000007);
while(data64 != data64End)
{
*data64 = -*data64;
data64++;
}
while(data8 != data8End)
{
*data8 = -*data8;
data8++;
}
}
static float run(void(*mungeFxn)(void *, uint32_t), void *data, uint32_t size)
{
clock_t start;
clock_t stop;
float duration;
start = clock();
mungeFxn(data, size);
stop = clock();
duration = (float)(stop - start)/CLOCKS_PER_SEC;
return duration;
}
static float calculateAverage(float *runtimes, int len)
{
float sum = 0;
for (int i = 0; i < len; i++) {
sum += runtimes[i];
}
float average = sum/len;
//fprintf(stderr, "Sum: %f; len: %d, Average: %f ms\n", sum, len, average);
return average;
}
static float performRuns(void(*func)(void *, uint32_t), char *buffer, long bufSize)
{
float runtimes[NUM_TRIES_PER_RUN];
float duration;
for (int i = 0; i < NUM_TRIES_PER_RUN; i++) {
duration= run(func, buffer, (uint32_t)bufSize);
runtimes[i] = duration;
}
duration = calculateAverage(runtimes, NUM_TRIES_PER_RUN);
return duration;
}
static float *incrementPointerAndRun(void(*func)(void *, uint32_t), char *buffer, long bufSize)
{
float *result = (float *) malloc(sizeof(float) * NUM_INCREMENTS);
for (size_t j = 0; j < NUM_INCREMENTS; j++) {
result[j] = performRuns(func, buffer++, bufSize--);
}
return result;
}
static void runAll(char *buffer, long bufSize, float **result)
{
void(*func[])(void *, uint32_t) = {&munge8, &munge16, &munge32, &munge64};
int len = sizeof(func)/sizeof(func[0]);
for (int i = 0; i < len; i++) {
result[i] = incrementPointerAndRun(func[i], buffer, bufSize);
}
}
static void getFileDataAndSize(FILE *file, char **buffer, long *fileSize)
{
size_t lengthRead;
// obtain file size
fseek(file , 0 , SEEK_END);
*fileSize = ftell(file);
rewind(file);
// allocate memory to contain whole file
*buffer = (char *) malloc(sizeof(char) * *fileSize);
if (*buffer == NULL)
{
fprintf(stderr, "Memory error\n");
exit(MEM_ERROR);
}
// copy file into buffer
lengthRead = fread(*buffer, 1, *fileSize, file);
if (lengthRead != *fileSize)
{
fprintf(stderr, "File read error\n");
exit(FILE_READ_ERROR);
}
}
static void printResults(float **result)
{
for (size_t i = 0; i < NUM_MUNGE_FXNS; i++) {
fprintf(stderr, "munge%lu: ", (size_t)pow(2, (3 + i)));
float *row = result[i];
for (size_t j = 0; j < NUM_INCREMENTS; j++) {
fprintf(stderr, "%f | ", row[j]);
}
fprintf(stderr, "\n");
}
}
int main(int argc, char const *argv[])
{
if (argc < 2)
{
fprintf(stderr, "Usage: data_alignment <10MB file>\n");
exit(USAGE_ERROR);
}
const char *filename = argv[1];
FILE *file = fopen(filename, "r");
if (!file)
{
fprintf(stderr, "Unable to open file: '%s'\n", filename);
exit(INPUT_FILE_ERROR);
}
char *buffer;
long fileSize;
getFileDataAndSize(file, &buffer, &fileSize);
#ifdef TESTRUN
for (size_t i = 0; i < fileSize; i++) {
fprintf(stderr, "%c", buffer[i]);
}
fprintf(stderr, "\n");
#endif
float **result = (float **)malloc(sizeof(float *) * NUM_MUNGE_FXNS);
if (result == NULL)
{
fprintf(stderr, "Memory error\n");
exit(MEM_ERROR);
}
runAll(buffer, fileSize, result);
printResults(result);
// clean up
if (buffer)
{
free(buffer);
}
if (result)
{
for (size_t i = 0; i < NUM_MUNGE_FXNS; i++) {
free(result[i]);
}
free(result);
}
fclose(file);
return 0;
}
@hn-nguyen

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commented Feb 23, 2017

Hi,
I think the performance between the functions munge8, munge16, munge32, and munge64 are different because their loops are different. The number of loops in mung8 is mostly 8x of the ones in mung64.

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