Skip to content

Instantly share code, notes, and snippets.

@kyrsideris
Last active November 30, 2022 04:03
  • Star 3 You must be signed in to star a gist
  • Fork 1 You must be signed in to fork a gist
Star You must be signed in to star a gist
Save kyrsideris/78c8c0ca73a72a92f009dcb540f0e1df to your computer and use it in GitHub Desktop.
Apache Spark SQL's `SaveMode`s when writing to Apache Cassandra

Experimentation on Spark's SaveMode

Experiment on the effect of different SaveMode and Cassandra starting from a populated table

Summary

If the cassandra table that spark targets exists then

Versions: Spark 2.2.0, Cassandra 3.10, spark-cassandra-connector 2.0.6

Step 1: Setup table and values

$ cqlsh localhost -u cassandra -p cassandra -e "
DROP KEYSPACE IF EXISTS test_savemodes ;
CREATE KEYSPACE test_savemodes WITH REPLICATION = { 'class' : 'SimpleStrategy', 'replication_factor' : 1 };
USE test_savemodes;
CREATE TABLE people ( name text, surname text, children int, PRIMARY KEY (name, surname) );
INSERT INTO test_savemodes.people (name, surname, children) VALUES ( 'John', 'Patel', 2 );
INSERT INTO test_savemodes.people (name, surname, children) VALUES ( 'Galina', 'Xin', 1 );
INSERT INTO test_savemodes.people (name, surname) VALUES ( 'Eleni', 'Garcia' );
INSERT INTO test_savemodes.people (name, surname) VALUES ( 'Ode', 'Weber' );
SELECT * FROM test_savemodes.people;"

 name   | surname | children
--------+---------+----------
 Galina |     Xin |        1
  Eleni |  Garcia |     null
   John |   Patel |        2
    Ode |   Weber |     null

(4 rows)

Step 2: Use SaveModes.Append

$ $SPARK_HOME/bin/spark-shell --packages com.datastax.spark:spark-cassandra-connector_2.11:2.0.6 \
--conf "spark.cassandra.connection.host=127.0.0.1" \
--conf "spark.cassandra.auth.username=cassandra" \
--conf "spark.cassandra.auth.password=cassandra" << EOF

case class Person(name: String, surname: String, children: Int)
val newNames = spark.sparkContext.parallelize(Seq(Person("Eleni", "Garcia", 1), Person("Galina", "Xin", 2), Person("Carlo", "Tran", 1))).toDS
newNames.write.format("org.apache.spark.sql.cassandra").options(Map("table" -> "people", "keyspace" -> "test_savemodes")).
mode(org.apache.spark.sql.SaveMode.Append).save
EOF

cqlsh localhost -u cassandra -p cassandra -e "SELECT * FROM test_savemodes.people;"

 name   | surname | children
--------+---------+----------
 Galina |     Xin |        2
  Eleni |  Garcia |        1
   John |   Patel |        2
  Carlo |    Tran |        1
    Ode |   Weber |     null

(5 rows)

Step 3: Use SaveModes.Overwrite

Repeat Step 1 again and then:

$ $SPARK_HOME/bin/spark-shell --packages com.datastax.spark:spark-cassandra-connector_2.11:2.0.6 \
--conf "spark.cassandra.connection.host=127.0.0.1" \
--conf "spark.cassandra.auth.username=cassandra" \
--conf "spark.cassandra.auth.password=cassandra" << EOF

case class Person(name: String, surname: String, children: Int)
val newNames = spark.sparkContext.parallelize(Seq(Person("Eleni", "Garcia", 1), Person("Galina", "Xin", 2), Person("Carlo", "Tran", 1))).toDS
newNames.write.format("org.apache.spark.sql.cassandra").options(Map("table" -> "people", "keyspace" -> "test_savemodes")).
mode(org.apache.spark.sql.SaveMode.Overwrite).save
EOF

cqlsh localhost -u cassandra -p cassandra -e "SELECT * FROM test_savemodes.people;"

java.lang.UnsupportedOperationException: You are attempting to use overwrite mode which will truncate
this table prior to inserting data. If you would merely like
to change data already in the table use the "Append" mode.
To actually truncate please pass in true value to the option
"confirm.truncate" when saving.
  at org.apache.spark.sql.cassandra.CassandraSourceRelation.insert(CassandraSourceRelation.scala:64)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.cassandra.DefaultSource.createRelation(DefaultSource.scala:87)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.datasources.DataSource.write(DataSource.scala:472)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.datasources.SaveIntoDataSourceCommand.run(SaveIntoDataSourceCommand.scala:48)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.command.ExecutedCommandExec.sideEffectResult$lzycompute(commands.scala:58)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.command.ExecutedCommandExec.sideEffectResult(commands.scala:56)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.command.ExecutedCommandExec.doExecute(commands.scala:74)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.SparkPlan$$anonfun$execute$1.apply(SparkPlan.scala:117)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.SparkPlan$$anonfun$execute$1.apply(SparkPlan.scala:117)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.SparkPlan$$anonfun$executeQuery$1.apply(SparkPlan.scala:138)
  at org.apache.spark.rdd.RDDOperationScope$.withScope(RDDOperationScope.scala:151)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.SparkPlan.executeQuery(SparkPlan.scala:135)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.SparkPlan.execute(SparkPlan.scala:116)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.QueryExecution.toRdd$lzycompute(QueryExecution.scala:92)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.QueryExecution.toRdd(QueryExecution.scala:92)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.DataFrameWriter.runCommand(DataFrameWriter.scala:610)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.DataFrameWriter.save(DataFrameWriter.scala:233)
  ... 49 elided

Retry using "confirm.truncate" -> "true" in options:

$ $SPARK_HOME/bin/spark-shell --packages com.datastax.spark:spark-cassandra-connector_2.11:2.0.6 \
--conf "spark.cassandra.connection.host=127.0.0.1" \
--conf "spark.cassandra.auth.username=cassandra" \
--conf "spark.cassandra.auth.password=cassandra" << EOF

case class Person(name: String, surname: String, children: Int)
val newNames = spark.sparkContext.parallelize(Seq(Person("Eleni", "Garcia", 1), Person("Galina", "Xin", 2), Person("Carlo", "Tran", 1))).toDS
newNames.write.format("org.apache.spark.sql.cassandra").options(Map("table" -> "people", "keyspace" -> "test_savemodes", "confirm.truncate" -> "true")).
mode(org.apache.spark.sql.SaveMode.Overwrite).save
EOF
cqlsh localhost -u cassandra -p cassandra -e "SELECT * FROM test_savemodes.people;"


 name   | surname | children
--------+---------+----------
 Galina |     Xin |        2
  Eleni |  Garcia |        1
  Carlo |    Tran |        1

(3 rows)

Step 4: Use SaveModes.Ignore

Repeat Step 1 again and then:

$ $SPARK_HOME/bin/spark-shell --packages com.datastax.spark:spark-cassandra-connector_2.11:2.0.6 \
--conf "spark.cassandra.connection.host=127.0.0.1" \
--conf "spark.cassandra.auth.username=cassandra" \
--conf "spark.cassandra.auth.password=cassandra" << EOF

case class Person(name: String, surname: String, children: Int)
val newNames = spark.sparkContext.parallelize(Seq(Person("Eleni", "Garcia", 1), Person("Galina", "Xin", 2), Person("Carlo", "Tran", 1))).toDS
newNames.write.format("org.apache.spark.sql.cassandra").options(Map("table" -> "people", "keyspace" -> "test_savemodes")).
mode(org.apache.spark.sql.SaveMode.Ignore).save
EOF
cqlsh localhost -u cassandra -p cassandra -e "SELECT * FROM test_savemodes.people;"

 name   | surname | children
--------+---------+----------
 Galina |     Xin |        1
  Eleni |  Garcia |     null
   John |   Patel |        2
    Ode |   Weber |     null

(4 rows)

Step 5: Use SaveModes.ErrorIfExists

Repeat Step 1 again and then:

$SPARK_HOME/bin/spark-shell --packages com.datastax.spark:spark-cassandra-connector_2.11:2.0.6 \
--conf "spark.cassandra.connection.host=127.0.0.1" \
--conf "spark.cassandra.auth.username=cassandra" \
--conf "spark.cassandra.auth.password=cassandra" << EOF

case class Person(name: String, surname: String, children: Int)
val newNames = spark.sparkContext.parallelize(Seq(Person("Eleni", "Garcia", 1), Person("Galina", "Xin", 2), Person("Carlo", "Tran", 1))).toDS
newNames.write.format("org.apache.spark.sql.cassandra").options(Map("table" -> "people", "keyspace" -> "test_savemodes")).
mode(org.apache.spark.sql.SaveMode.ErrorIfExists).save
EOF
cqlsh localhost -u cassandra -p cassandra -e "SELECT * FROM test_savemodes.people;"

java.lang.UnsupportedOperationException: 'SaveMode is set to ErrorIfExists and Table
test_savemodes.people already exists and contains data.
Perhaps you meant to set the DataFrame write mode to Append?
Example: df.write.format.options.mode(SaveMode.Append).save()" '
  at org.apache.spark.sql.cassandra.DefaultSource.createRelation(DefaultSource.scala:92)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.datasources.DataSource.write(DataSource.scala:472)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.datasources.SaveIntoDataSourceCommand.run(SaveIntoDataSourceCommand.scala:48)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.command.ExecutedCommandExec.sideEffectResult$lzycompute(commands.scala:58)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.command.ExecutedCommandExec.sideEffectResult(commands.scala:56)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.command.ExecutedCommandExec.doExecute(commands.scala:74)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.SparkPlan$$anonfun$execute$1.apply(SparkPlan.scala:117)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.SparkPlan$$anonfun$execute$1.apply(SparkPlan.scala:117)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.SparkPlan$$anonfun$executeQuery$1.apply(SparkPlan.scala:138)
  at org.apache.spark.rdd.RDDOperationScope$.withScope(RDDOperationScope.scala:151)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.SparkPlan.executeQuery(SparkPlan.scala:135)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.SparkPlan.execute(SparkPlan.scala:116)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.QueryExecution.toRdd$lzycompute(QueryExecution.scala:92)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.QueryExecution.toRdd(QueryExecution.scala:92)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.DataFrameWriter.runCommand(DataFrameWriter.scala:610)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.DataFrameWriter.save(DataFrameWriter.scala:233)
  ... 49 elided

Try without any SaveMode option:

$ $SPARK_HOME/bin/spark-shell --packages com.datastax.spark:spark-cassandra-connector_2.11:2.0.6 --conf "spark.cassandra.connection.host=127.0.0.1" --conf "spark.cassandra.auth.username=cassandra" --conf "spark.cassandra.auth.password=cassandra" << EOF

case class Person(name: String, surname: String, children: Int)
val newNames = spark.sparkContext.parallelize(Seq(Person("Eleni", "Garcia", 1), Person("Galina", "Xin", 2), Person("Carlo", "Tran", 1))).toDS
newNames.write.format("org.apache.spark.sql.cassandra").options(Map("table" -> "people", "keyspace" -> "test_savemodes")).save
EOF
cqlsh localhost -u cassandra -p cassandra -e "SELECT * FROM test_savemodes.people;"

java.lang.UnsupportedOperationException: 'SaveMode is set to ErrorIfExists and Table
test_savemodes.people already exists and contains data.
Perhaps you meant to set the DataFrame write mode to Append?
Example: df.write.format.options.mode(SaveMode.Append).save()" '
  at org.apache.spark.sql.cassandra.DefaultSource.createRelation(DefaultSource.scala:92)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.datasources.DataSource.write(DataSource.scala:472)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.datasources.SaveIntoDataSourceCommand.run(SaveIntoDataSourceCommand.scala:48)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.command.ExecutedCommandExec.sideEffectResult$lzycompute(commands.scala:58)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.command.ExecutedCommandExec.sideEffectResult(commands.scala:56)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.command.ExecutedCommandExec.doExecute(commands.scala:74)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.SparkPlan$$anonfun$execute$1.apply(SparkPlan.scala:117)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.SparkPlan$$anonfun$execute$1.apply(SparkPlan.scala:117)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.SparkPlan$$anonfun$executeQuery$1.apply(SparkPlan.scala:138)
  at org.apache.spark.rdd.RDDOperationScope$.withScope(RDDOperationScope.scala:151)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.SparkPlan.executeQuery(SparkPlan.scala:135)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.SparkPlan.execute(SparkPlan.scala:116)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.QueryExecution.toRdd$lzycompute(QueryExecution.scala:92)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.execution.QueryExecution.toRdd(QueryExecution.scala:92)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.DataFrameWriter.runCommand(DataFrameWriter.scala:610)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.DataFrameWriter.save(DataFrameWriter.scala:233)
  ... 48 elided
@amitdass-creator
Copy link

This is very useful . Do we have savemode with update capability .

Sign up for free to join this conversation on GitHub. Already have an account? Sign in to comment