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RxJS 5 Operators By Example

#RxJS 5 Operators By Example

UPDATE: I have moved the contents of this gist plus more to https://github.com/btroncone/learn-rxjs and http://www.learnrxjs.io. For expanded examples, explanations, and resources, please check out this new location!

A complete list of RxJS 5 operators with easy to understand explanations and runnable examples.

Chinese Version by: @DrakeLeung

Table of Contents

buffer

#####signature: buffer<T>(closingNotifier: Observable<any>): Observable<T[]> The gist: Collect output values until something happens then hand them over. Repeat...

(demo | official docs)

//Create an observable that emits a value every second
const myInterval = Rx.Observable.interval(1000);
//Create an observable that emits every time document is clicked
const bufferBy = Rx.Observable.fromEvent(document, 'click');
/*
Collect all values emitted by our interval observable until we click document. This will cause the bufferBy Observable to emit a value, satisfying the buffer. Pass us all collected values since last buffer as an array.
*/
const myBufferedInterval = myInterval.buffer(bufferBy);
//Print values to console
//ex. output: [1,2,3] ... [4,5,6,7,8]
const subscribe = myBufferedInterval.subscribe(val => console.log(' Buffered Values:', val));

bufferCount

#####signature: bufferCount<T>(bufferSize: number, startBufferEvery: number = null): Observable<T[]> The gist: Collect output values until specified number is fulfilled then hand them over. Repeat...

(demo | official docs)

//Create an observable that emits a value every second
const myInterval = Rx.Observable.interval(1000);
//After three values are emitted, pass on as an array of buffered values
const bufferThree = myInterval.bufferCount(3);
//Print values to console
//ex. output [0,1,2]...[3,4,5]
const subscribe = bufferThree.subscribe(val => console.log('Buffered Values:', val));

/*
bufferCount also takes second argument, when to start the next buffer
for instance, if we have a bufferCount of 3 but second argument (startBufferEvery) of 1:
1st interval value:
buffer 1: [0]
2nd interval value:
buffer 1: [0,1]
buffer 2: [1]
3rd interval value:
buffer 1: [0,1,2] Buffer of 3, emit buffer
buffer 2: [1,2]
buffer 3: [2]
4th interval value:
buffer 2: [1,2,3] Buffer of 3, emit buffer
buffer 3: [2, 3]
buffer 4: [3]
*/
const bufferEveryOne = myInterval.bufferCount(3,1);
//Print values to console
const secondSubscribe = bufferEveryOne.subscribe(val => console.log('Start Buffer Every 1:', val))

bufferTime

#####signature: bufferTime(bufferTimeSpan: number, bufferCreationInterval: number, scheduler: Scheduler): Observable<T[]> The gist: Collect output values until specified time has passed then hand them over. Repeat...

(demo | official docs)

//Create an observable that emits a value every 500ms
const myInterval = Rx.Observable.interval(500);
//After 2 seconds have passed, emit buffered values as an array
const bufferTime = myInterval.bufferTime(2000);
//Print values to console
//ex. output [0,1,2]...[3,4,5,6]
const subscribe = bufferTime.subscribe(val => console.log('Buffered with Time:', val));

/*
bufferTime also takes second argument, when to start the next buffer (time in ms)
for instance, if we have a bufferTime of 2 seconds but second argument (bufferCreationInterval) of 1 second:
ex. output: [0,1,2]...[1,2,3,4,5]...[3,4,5,6,7]
*/
const bufferTimeTwo = myInterval.bufferTime(2000,1000);
//Print values to console
const secondSubscribe = bufferTimeTwo.subscribe(val => console.log('Start Buffer Every 1s:', val));

bufferToggle

#####signature: bufferToggle(openings: Observable<O>, closingSelector: Function): Observable<T[]> The gist: Toggle buffer on to catch emitted values from source, toggle buffer off to emit buffered values...

(demo | official docs)

//emit value every second
const sourceInterval = Rx.Observable.interval(1000);
//start first buffer after 5s, and every 5s after
const startInterval = Rx.Observable.interval(5000);
//emit value after 3s, closing corresponding buffer
const closingInterval = val => {
	console.log(`Value ${val} emitted, starting buffer! Closing in 3s!`)
	return Rx.Observable.interval(3000);
}
//every 5s a new buffer will start, collecting emitted values for 3s then emitting buffered values
const bufferToggleInterval = sourceInterval.bufferToggle(startInterval, closingInterval);
//log to console
//ex. emitted buffers [4,5,6]...[9,10,11]
const subscribe = bufferToggleInterval.subscribe(val => console.log('Emitted Buffer:', val));

bufferWhen

#####signature: bufferWhen(closingSelector: function): Observable<T[]> The gist: Buffer all values until closing selector emits, emit buffered values, repeat...

(demo | official docs)

//emit value every 1 second
const oneSecondInterval = Rx.Observable.interval(1000);
//return an observable that emits value every 5 seconds
const fiveSecondInterval = () => Rx.Observable.interval(5000);
//every five seconds, emit buffered values
const bufferWhenExample = oneSecondInterval.bufferWhen(fiveSecondInterval);
//log values
//ex. output: [0,1,2,3]...[4,5,6,7,8]
const subscribe = bufferWhenExample.subscribe(val => console.log('Emitted Buffer: ', val));

combineAll

#####signature: combineAll(project: function): Observable The gist: Output latest values from inner observables when outer observable completes...

(demo | official docs)

//emit after five seconds then complete
const fiveSecondTimer = Rx.Observable.timer(5000);
//once timer (outer observable) fires and completes, latest emitted values from inner observables will be output, in this case there is a single value
const example = fiveSecondTimer.mapTo(Rx.Observable.of('Hello', 'World'));
const combined = example.combineAll();
//ex output: ["Hello"]...["World"]
const subscribe = combined.subscribe(val => console.log('Values from inner observable:', val));

//combineAll also takes a projection function that receives emitted values
const fiveSecondTimer = Rx.Observable.timer(5000);
const example = fiveSecondTimer.mapTo(Rx.Observable.of('Hello', 'Goodbye'));
const combined = example.combineAll(val => `${val} Friend!`);
//ex output: "Hello Friend!"..."Goodbye Friend!"
const subscribeProjected = combined.subscribe(val => console.log('Values Using Projection:', val));

combineLatest

#####signature: combineLatest(observables: ...Observable, project: function): Observable The gist: Given a group of observables, when one emits also emit latest values from each...

(demo | official docs)

//timerOne emits first value at 1s, then once every 4s
const timerOne = Rx.Observable.timer(1000, 4000);
//timerTwo emits first value at 2s, then once every 4s
const timerTwo = Rx.Observable.timer(2000, 4000)
//timerThree emits first value at 3s, then once every 4s
const timerThree = Rx.Observable.timer(3000, 4000)

//when one timer emits, emit the latest values from each timer as an array
const combined = Rx.Observable
.combineLatest(
    timerOne,
    timerTwo,
    timerThree
);

const subscribe = combined.subscribe(latestValues => {
	//grab latest emitted values for timers one, two, and three
	const [timerValOne, timerValTwo, timerValThree] = latestValues;
  /*
  	Example:
    timerOne first tick: 'Timer One Latest: 1, Timer Two Latest:0, Timer Three Latest: 0
    timerTwo first tick: 'Timer One Latest: 1, Timer Two Latest:1, Timer Three Latest: 0
    timerThree first tick: 'Timer One Latest: 1, Timer Two Latest:1, Timer Three Latest: 1
  */
  console.log(
    `Timer One Latest: ${timerValOne}, 
     Timer Two Latest: ${timerValTwo}, 
     Timer Three Latest: ${timerValThree}`
   );
});

//combineLatest also takes an optional projection function
const combinedProject = Rx.Observable
.combineLatest(
    timerOne,
    timerTwo,
    timerThree,
    (one, two, three) => {
      return `Timer One (Proj) Latest: ${one}, 
              Timer Two (Proj) Latest: ${two}, 
              Timer Three (Proj) Latest: ${three}`
    }
);
//log values
const subscribe = combinedProject.subscribe(latestValuesProject => console.log(latestValuesProject));

concat

#####signature: concat(observables: ...*): Observable The gist: Like the line at an ATM, the next transaction (subscription) won't start until the previous completes...

(demo | official docs)

//emits 1,2,3
const sourceOne = Rx.Observable.of(1,2,3);
//emits 4,5,6
const sourceTwo = Rx.Observable.of(4,5,6);
//emit values from sourceOne, when complete, subscribe to sourceTwo
const concatSource = sourceOne.concat(sourceTwo);
//output: 1,2,3,4,5,6
const subscribe = concatSource.subscribe(val => console.log('Example 1: Basic concat:', val));

//delay 3 seconds then emit
const delayedSourceOne = sourceOne.delay(3000);
//sourceTwo waits on sourceOne to complete before subscribing
const concatDelayedSource = delayedSourceOne.concat(sourceTwo);
//output: 1,2,3,4,5,6
const subscribeDelayed = concatDelayedSource.subscribe(val => console.log('Example 2: Delayed source one:', val));

//when sourceOne never completes, the subsequent observables never run
const sourceOneNeverComplete = Rx.Observable
  .concat(
  	Rx.Observable.interval(1000),
  	Rx.Observable.of('This','Never','Runs')  
  )
  //for logging clarity
  .delay(5000)
//outputs: 1,2,3,4....
const subscribeNeverComplete = sourceOneNeverComplete.subscribe(val => console.log('Example 3: Source one never completes, second observable never runs:', val));

concatAll

#####signature: concatAll(): Observable The gist: Concat for nested observables (observable of observables), subscribe to each when previous completes and merge emitted values...

(demo | official docs)

//emit a value every 2 seconds
const sourceOne = Rx.Observable.interval(2000);
const example = sourceOne
  //for demonstration, add 10 to and return as observable
  .map(val => Rx.Observable.of(val + 10))
  //merge values from inner observable
  .concatAll();
//output: 'Example with Basic Observable 0', 'Example with Basic Observable 2'...
const subscribe = example.subscribe(val => console.log('Example with Basic Observable:', val));

//create and resolve basic promise
const samplePromise = val => new Promise(resolve => resolve(val));
const exampleTwo = sourceOne
  .map(val => samplePromise(val))
  //merge values from resolved promise
  .concatAll();
//output: 'Example with Promise 0', 'Example with Promise 1'...
const subscribeTwo = exampleTwo.subscribe(val => console.log('Example with Promise:', val));

concatMap

#####signature: concatMap(project: function, resultSelector: function): Observable The gist: Map values from source to inner observable, subscribe and emit inner observable values in order...

You could also: map -> concatAll

(demo | official docs)

//emit 'Hello' and 'Goodbye'
const source = Rx.Observable.of('Hello', 'Goodbye');
// map value from source into inner observable, when complete emit result and move to next
const exampleOne = source.concatMap(val => Rx.Observable.of(`${val} World!`));
//output: 'Example One: 'Hello World', Example One: 'Goodbye World'
const subscribe = exampleOne
  .subscribe(val => console.log('Example One:', val));

//example with promise
const examplePromise = val => new Promise(resolve => resolve(`${val} World!`));
// map value from source into inner observable, when complete emit result and move to next
const exampleTwo = source.concatMap(val => examplePromise(val))
//output: 'Example w/ Promise: 'Hello World', Example w/ Promise: 'Goodbye World'
const subscribeTwo = exampleTwo
  //delay for logging clarity
  .delay(1000)
  .subscribe(val => console.log('Example w/ Promise:', val));

//result of first param passed to second param selector function before being  returned
const exampleWithSelector = source.concatMap(val => examplePromise(val), result => `${result} w/ selector!`);
//output: 'Example w/ Selector: 'Hello w/ Selector', Example w/ Selector: 'Goodbye w/ Selector'
const subscribeThree = exampleWithSelector
  //delay for logging clarity
  .delay(2000)
  .subscribe(val => console.log('Example w/ Selector:', val));

concatMapTo

#####signature: concatMapTo(observable: Observable, resultSelector: function): Observable The gist: When source emits, always subscribe to the same observable, merging together results when complete...

(demo | official docs)

//emit value every 2 seconds
const interval = Rx.Observable.interval(2000);
const message = Rx.Observable.of('Second(s) elapsed!');
//when interval emits, subscribe to message until complete, merge for result
const example = interval.concatMapTo(message, (time, msg) => `${time} ${msg}`);
//log values
//output: '0 Second(s) elapsed', '1 Second(s) elapsed'
const subscribe = example.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

//emit value every second for 5 seconds
const basicTimer = Rx.Observable.interval(1000).take(5);
/* 
  ***Be Careful***: In situations like this where the source emits at a faster pace
  than the inner observable completes, memory issues can arise.
  (interval emits every 1 second, basicTimer completes every 5)
*/
//basicTimer will complete after 5 seconds, emitting 0,1,2,3,4
const exampleTwo = interval
	.concatMapTo(basicTimer, 
  	(firstInterval, secondInterval) => `${firstInterval} ${secondInterval}`
   );
/*
  output: 0 0
          0 1
          0 2
          0 3
          0 4
          1 0
          1 1
          continued...
          
*/
const subscribeTwo = exampleTwo.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

count

#####signature: count(predicate: function): Observable The gist: Count values emitted from source until complete, optionally base count on predicate...

(demo | official docs)

//emit 1,2,3 then complete
const threeItems = Rx.Observable.of(1,2,3);
//when threeItems completes, return count of items emitted
const exampleOne = threeItems.count();
//output: 'Count from Example One: 3'
const subscribe = exampleOne.subscribe(val => console.log(`Count from Example One: ${val}`));

//count of basic array
const myArray = [1,2,3,4,5];
const myObsArray = Rx.Observable.from(myArray);
const exampleTwo = myObsArray.count();
//output: 'Count of Basic Array: 5'
const subscribeTwo = exampleTwo.subscribe(val => console.log(`Count of Basic Array: ${val}`));

//count emitted items from source that satisfy predicate expression
const evensCount = myObsArray.count(val => val % 2 === 0);
//output: 'Count of Even Numbers: 2'
const subscribeThree = evensCount.subscribe(val => console.log(`Count of Even Numbers: ${val}`));

debounce

#####signature: debounce(durationSelector: function): Observable The gist: Throw away all emitted values that take less then the specified time (based on selector function) between output...

(demo | official docs)

//emit four strings
const example = Rx.Observable.of('WAIT','ONE','SECOND','Last will display');
/*
    Only emit values after a second has passed between the last emission, 
    throw away all other values
*/
const debouncedExample = example.debounce(() => Rx.Observable.timer(1000));
/*
    In this example, all values but the last will be omitted
    output: 'Last will display'
*/
const subscribe = debouncedExample.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

//emit value every 1 second, ex. 0...1...2
const interval = Rx.Observable.interval(1000);
//raise the debounce time by 200ms each second
const debouncedInterval = interval.debounce(val => Rx.Observable.timer(val * 200))
/*
  After 5 seconds, debounce time will be greater than interval time,
  all future values will be thrown away
  output: 0...1...2...3...4......(debounce time over 1s, no values emitted)
*/
const subscribeTwo = debouncedInterval.subscribe(val => console.log(`Example Two: ${val}`));

debounceTime

#####signature: debounceTime(dueTime: number, scheduler: Scheduler): Observable The gist: Throw away all emitted values that take less then the specified time between output...

(demo | official docs)

const input = document.getElementById('example');

//for every keyup, map to current input value
const example = Rx.Observable
  .fromEvent(input, 'keyup')
  .map(i => i.currentTarget.value);

//wait .5s between keyups to emit current value
//throw away all other values
const debouncedInput = example.debounceTime(500);

//log values
const subscribe = debouncedInput.subscribe(val => {
  console.log(`Debounced Input: ${val}`);
});

defaultIfEmpty

#####signature: defaultIfEmpty(defaultValue: any): Observable The gist: When observable is empty use given default, or null...

(demo | official docs)

const empty = Rx.Observable.of();
//emit 'Observable.of() Empty!' when empty, else any values from source
const exampleOne = empty.defaultIfEmpty('Observable.of() Empty!');
//output: 'Observable.of() Empty!'
const subscribe = exampleOne.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

//empty observable
const emptyTwo = Rx.Observable.empty();
//emit 'Observable.empty()!' when empty, else any values from source
const exampleTwo = emptyTwo.defaultIfEmpty('Observable.empty()!');
//output: 'Observable.empty()!'
const subscribe = exampleTwo.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

delay

#####signature: delay(delay: number | Date, scheduler: Scheduler): Observable The gist: Delay output by specified time...

(demo | official docs)

//emit one item
const example = Rx.Observable.of(null);
//delay output of each by an extra second
const message = Rx.Observable.merge(
    example.mapTo('Hello'),
    example.mapTo('World!').delay(1000),
    example.mapTo('Goodbye').delay(2000),
    example.mapTo('World!').delay(3000)
  );
//output: 'Hello'...'World!'...'Goodbye'...'World!'
const subscribe = message.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

delayWhen

#####signature: delayWhen(selector: Function, sequence: Observable): Observable The gist: Delay output by specified time, determined by provided function...

(demo | official docs)

//emit value every second
const message = Rx.Observable.interval(1000);
//emit value after five seconds
const delayForFiveSeconds = () => Rx.Observable.timer(5000);
//after 5 seconds, start emitting delayed interval values
const delayWhenExample = message.delayWhen(delayForFiveSeconds);
//log values, delayed for 5 seconds
//ex. output: 5s....1...2...3
const subscribe = delayWhenExample.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

dematerialize

#####signature: dematerialize(): Observable The gist: Turn notification objects into notification values...

(demo | official docs)

//emit next and error notifications
const source = Rx.Observable
  .from([
    Rx.Notification.createNext('SUCCESS!'),
    Rx.Notification.createError('ERROR!')   
  ])
  //turn notification objects into notification values
  .dematerialize();

//output: 'NEXT VALUE: SUCCESS' 'ERROR VALUE: 'ERROR!'
const subscription = source.subscribe({
  next: val => console.log(`NEXT VALUE: ${val}`),
  error: val => console.log(`ERROR VALUE: ${val}`)
});

distinctUntilChanged

#####signature: distinctUntilChanged(compare: function): Observable The gist: Only emit when the next value is different then the last...

(demo | official docs)

//only output distinct values, based on the last emitted value
const myArrayWithDuplicatesInARow = Rx.Observable
  .from([1,1,2,2,3,1,2,3]);
  
const distinctSub = myArrayWithDuplicatesInARow
	.distinctUntilChanged()
  	//output: 1,2,3,1,2,3
	.subscribe(val => console.log('DISTINCT SUB:', val));
  
const nonDistinctSub = myArrayWithDuplicatesInARow
	//output: 1,1,2,2,3,1,2,3
	.subscribe(val => console.log('NON DISTINCT SUB:', val));

const sampleObject = {name: 'Test'};

const myArrayWithDuplicateObjects = Rx.Observable.from([sampleObject, sampleObject, sampleObject]);
//only out distinct objects, based on last emitted value
const nonDistinctObjects = myArrayWithDuplicateObjects
  .distinctUntilChanged()
  //output: 'DISTINCT OBJECTS: {name: 'Test'}
  .subscribe(val => console.log('DISTINCT OBJECTS:', val));

do

#####signature: do(nextOrObserver: function, error: function, complete: function): Observable The gist: Transparently perform actions, such as logging...

(demo | official docs)

const source = Rx.Observable.of(1,2,3,4,5);
//transparently log values from source with 'do'
const example = source
  .do(val => console.log(`BEFORE MAP: ${val}`))
  .map(val => val + 10)
  .do(val => console.log(`AFTER MAP: ${val}`));
//'do' does not transform values
//output: 11...12...13...14...15
const subscribe = example.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

every

#####signature: every(predicate: function, thisArg: any): Observable The gist: Does every emitted item pass a condition?...

(demo | official docs)

//emit 5 values
const source = Rx.Observable.of(1,2,3,4,5);
const example = source
  //is every value even?
  .every(val => val % 2 === 0)
//output: false
const subscribe = example.subscribe(val => console.log(val));
//emit 5 values
const allEvens = Rx.Observable.of(2,4,6,8,10);
const exampleTwo = allEvens
  //is every value even?
  .every(val => val % 2 === 0);
//output: true
const subscribeTwo = exampleTwo.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

expand

#####signature: expand(project: function, concurrent: number, scheduler: Scheduler): Observable The gist: Recursively call provided function...

(demo | official docs)

//emit 2
const source = Rx.Observable.of(2);
const example = source
  //recursively call supplied function
  .expand(val => {
       //2,3,4,5,6
       console.log(`Passed value: ${val}`);
       //3,4,5,6
       return Rx.Observable.of(1 + val);
    })
  //call 5 times
  .take(5);
/*
	"RESULT: 2"
	"Passed value: 2"
	"RESULT: 3"
	"Passed value: 3"
	"RESULT: 4"
	"Passed value: 4"
	"RESULT: 5"
	"Passed value: 5"
	"RESULT: 6"
	"Passed value: 6"
*/
//output: 2,3,4,5,6
const subscribe = example.subscribe(val => console.log(`RESULT: ${val}`));

filter

#####signature: filter(select: Function, thisArg: any): Observable The gist: Only return values that pass the provided condition...

(demo | official docs)

//emit (1,2,3,4,5)
const source = Rx.Observable.from([1,2,3,4,5]);
//filter out non-even numbers
const example = source.filter(num => num % 2 === 0);
//output: "Even number: 2", "Even number: 4"
const subscribe = example.subscribe(val => console.log(`Even number: ${val}`));

//emit ({name: 'Joe', age: 31}, {name: 'Bob', age:25})
const sourceTwo = Rx.Observable.from([{name: 'Joe', age: 31}, {name: 'Bob', age:25}]);
//filter out people with age under 30
const exampleTwo = sourceTwo.filter(person => person.age >= 30);
//output: "Over 30: Joe"
const subscribeTwo = exampleTwo.subscribe(val => console.log(`Over 30: ${val.name}`));

//emit every second
const sourceThree = Rx.Observable.interval(1000);
//filter out all values until interval is greater than 5
const exampleThree = sourceThree.filter(num => num > 5);
/*
  "Number greater than 5: 6"
  "Number greater than 5: 7"
  "Number greater than 5: 8"
  "Number greater than 5: 9"
*/
const subscribeThree = exampleThree.subscribe(val => console.log(`Number greater than 5: ${val}`));

first

#####signature: first(predicate: function, select: function) The gist: Emit the first value, or the first to pass condition...

(demo | official docs)

const source = Rx.Observable.from([1,2,3,4,5]);
//no arguments, emit first value
const example = source.first();
//output: "First value: 1"
const subscribe = example.subscribe(val => console.log(`First value: ${val}`));

//emit first item to pass test
const exampleTwo = source.first(num => num === 5);
//output: "First to pass test: 5"
const subscribeTwo = exampleTwo.subscribe(val => console.log(`First to pass test: ${val}`));

//using optional projection function
const exampleThree = source.first(num => num % 2 === 0, 
                                    (result, index) => `First even: ${result} is at index: ${index}`);
//output: "First even: 2 at index: 1"
const subscribeThree = exampleThree.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

groupBy

#####signature: groupBy(keySelector: Function, elementSelector: Function): Observable The gist: Group into observables by given value...

(demo | official docs)

const people = [{name: 'Sue', age:25},{name: 'Joe', age: 30},{name: 'Frank', age: 25}, {name: 'Sarah', age: 35}];
//emit each person
const source = Rx.Observable.from(people);
//group by age
const example = source
  .groupBy(person => person.age)
  //return as array of each group
  .flatMap(group => group.reduce((acc, curr) => [...acc, ...curr], []))
/*
  output:
  [{age: 25, name: "Sue"},{age: 25, name: "Frank"}]
  [{age: 30, name: "Joe"}]
  [{age: 35, name: "Sarah"}]
*/
const subscribe = example.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

ignoreElements

#####signature: ignoreElements(): Observable The gist: Ignore everything but complete and error...

(demo | official docs)

//emit value every 100ms
const source = Rx.Observable.interval(100);
//ignore everything but complete
const example = source
  .take(5)
  .ignoreElements();
//output: "COMPLETE!"
const subscribe = example.subscribe(
  val => console.log(`NEXT: ${val}`),
  val => console.log(`ERROR: ${val}`),
  () => console.log('COMPLETE!')
);
//ignore everything but error
const error = source
  .flatMap(val => {
    if(val === 4){
      return Rx.Observable.throw(`ERROR AT ${val}`);
    }
    return Rx.Observable.of(val);
  })
  .ignoreElements();
//output: "ERROR: ERROR AT 4"
const subscribeTwo = error.subscribe(
  val => console.log(`NEXT: ${val}`),
  val => console.log(`ERROR: ${val}`),
  () => console.log('SECOND COMPLETE!')
);

last

#####signature: last(predicate: function): Observable The gist: Emit last item or last to pass test...

(demo | official docs)

const source = Rx.Observable.from([1,2,3,4,5]);
//no arguments, emit last value
const example = source.last();
//output: "Last value: 5"
const subscribe = example.subscribe(val => console.log(`Last value: ${val}`));

//emit last even number
const exampleTwo = source.last(num => num % 2 === 0);
//output: "Last to pass test: 4"
const subscribeTwo = exampleTwo.subscribe(val => console.log(`Last to pass test: ${val}`));

let

#####signature: let(function): Observable The gist: let me have the whole observable...

(demo | official docs)

const myArray = [1,2,3,4,5];
const myObservableArray = Rx.Observable.fromArray(myArray);
//demonstrating the difference between let and other operators
const test = myObservableArray
  .map(val => val + 1)
  //this fails, let behaves differently than most operators
  //val in this case is an observable
  //.let(val => val + 2)
  .subscribe(val => console.log('VALUE FROM ARRAY: ', val));
  
const letTest = myObservableArray
  .map(val => val + 1)
  //'let' me have the entire observable
  .let(obs => obs.map(val => val + 2))
  .subscribe(val => console.log('VALUE FROM ARRAY WITH let: ', val));

//let provides flexibility to add multiple operators to source observable then return
const letTestThree = myObservableArray
   .map(val => val + 1)
   .let(obs => obs
      .map(val => val + 2)
      //also, just return evens
      .filter(val => val % 2 === 0)
    )
  .subscribe(val => console.log('let WITH MULTIPLE OPERATORS: ', val));

//pass in your own function to add operators to observable
const obsArrayPlusYourOperators = (yourAppliedOperators) => {
  return myObservableArray
    .map(val => val + 1)
    .let(yourAppliedOperators)
 };
const addTenThenTwenty = obs => obs.map(val => val + 10).map(val => val + 20);
const letTestFour = obsArrayPlusYourOperators(addTenThenTwenty)
	.subscribe(val => console.log('let FROM FUNCTION:', val));

map

#####signature: map(project: Function, thisArg: any): Observable The gist: Apply projection to each element...

(demo | official docs)

//emit (1,2,3,4,5)
const source = Rx.Observable.from([1,2,3,4,5]);
//add 10 to each value
const example = source.map(val => val + 10);
//output: 11,12,13,14,15
const subscribe = example.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

//emit ({name: 'Joe', age: 30}, {name: 'Frank', age: 20},{name: 'Ryan', age: 50})
const sourceTwo = Rx.Observable.from([{name: 'Joe', age: 30}, {name: 'Frank', age: 20},{name: 'Ryan', age: 50}]);
//grab each persons name
const exampleTwo = sourceTwo.map(person => person.name);
//output: "Joe","Frank","Ryan"
const subscribe = exampleTwo.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

mapTo

#####signature: mapTo(value: any): Observable The gist: Map to a constant value every time...

(demo | official docs)

//emit value every two seconds
const source = Rx.Observable.interval(2000);
//map all emissions to one value
const example = source.mapTo('HELLO WORLD!');
//output: 'HELLO WORLD!'...'HELLO WORLD!'...'HELLO WORLD!'...
const subscribe = example.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

//emit every click on document
const clickSource = Rx.Observable.fromEvent(document, 'click');
//map all emissions to one value
const exampleTwo = clickSource.mapTo('GOODBYE WORLD!');
//output: (click)'GOODBYE WORLD!'...
const subscribeTwo = exampleTwo.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

merge

#####signature: merge(input: Observable): Observable The gist: Squish outputs from multiple observables into a single source...

(demo | official docs)

//emit every 2.5 seconds
const first = Rx.Observable.interval(2500);
//emit every 2 seconds
const second = Rx.Observable.interval(2000);
//emit every 1.5 seconds
const third = Rx.Observable.interval(1500);
//emit every 1 second
const fourth = Rx.Observable.interval(1000);

//emit outputs from one observable
const example = Rx.Observable.merge(
  first.mapTo('FIRST!'),
  second.mapTo('SECOND!'),
  third.mapTo('THIRD'),
  fourth.mapTo('FOURTH')
);
//output: "FOURTH", "THIRD", "SECOND!", "FOURTH", "FIRST!", "THIRD", "FOURTH"
const subscribe = example.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

//used as instance method
const exampleTwo = first.merge(fourth);
//output: 0,1,0,2....
const subscribeTwo = exampleTwo.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

mergeMap

#####signature: mergeMap(project: function: Observable, resultSelector: function: any, concurrent: number): Observable The gist: Map values from source to inner observable, flatten output...

You could also: map -> mergeAll

(demo | official docs)

//emit 'Hello'
const source = Rx.Observable.of('Hello');
//map to inner observable and flatten
const example = source.mergeMap(val => Rx.Observable.of(`${val} World!`));
//output: 'Hello World!'
const subscribe = example.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

//mergeMap also emits result of promise
const myPromise = val => new Promise(resolve => resolve(`${val} World From Promise!`));
//map to promise and emit result
const exampleTwo = source.mergeMap(val => myPromise(val));
//output: 'Hello World From Promise'
const subscribeTwo = exampleTwo.subscribe(val => console.log(val));
/*
  you can also supply a second argument which recieves the source value and emitted
  value of inner observable or promise
*/
const exampleThree = source
  .mergeMap(val => myPromise(val), 
    (valueFromSource, valueFromPromise) => {
      return `Source: ${valueFromSource}, Promise: ${valueFromPromise}`;
});
//output: "Source: Hello, Promise: Hello World From Promise!"
const subscribeThree = exampleThree.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

partition

#####signature: partition(predicate: function: boolean, thisArg: any): [Observable, Observable] The gist: Split one observable into two based on predicate...

(demo | official docs)

const source = Rx.Observable.from([1,2,3,4,5,6]);
//first value is true, second false
const [evens, odds] = source.partition(val => val % 2 === 0);
/*
  Output:
  "Even: 2"
  "Even: 4"
  "Even: 6"
  "Odd: 1"
  "Odd: 3"
  "Odd: 5"
*/
const subscribe = Rx.Observable.merge(
 evens
  .map(val => `Even: ${val}`),
 odds
  .map(val => `Odd: ${val}`)
).subscribe(val => console.log(val));
//if greater than 3 throw
const example = source
  .map(val => {
    if(val > 3){
      throw `${val} greater than 3!`
    }
    return {success: val};
  })
  .catch(val => Rx.Observable.of({error: val}));
//split on success or error
const [success, error] = example.partition(res => res.success)
/*
  Output:
  "Success! 1"
  "Success! 2"
  "Success! 3"
  "Error! 4 greater than 3!"
*/
const subscribeTwo = Rx.Observable.merge(
  success.map(val => `Success! ${val.success}`),
  error.map(val => `Error! ${val.error}`)
).subscribe(val => console.log(val));

pluck

#####signature: pluck(properties: ...args): Observable The gist: Pick out nested properties...

(demo | official docs)

const source = Rx.Observable.from([
  {name: 'Joe', age: 30},
  {name: 'Sarah', age:35}
]);
//grab names
const example = source.pluck('name');
//output: "Joe", "Sarah"
const subscribe = example.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

const sourceTwo = Rx.Observable.from([
  {name: 'Joe', age: 30, job: {title: 'Developer', language: 'JavaScript'}},
  //will return undefined when no job is found
  {name: 'Sarah', age:35}
]);
//grab title property under job
const exampleTwo = sourceTwo.pluck('job', 'title');
//output: "Developer" , undefined
const subscribeTwo = exampleTwo.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

publish

#####signature: publish() : ConnectableObservable The gist: Do nothing until connect is called, share source...

(demo | official docs)

//emit value every 1 second
const source = Rx.Observable.interval(1000);
const example = source
  //side effects will be executed once
  .do(() => console.log('Do Something!'))
  //do nothing until connect() is called
  .publish();

/*
  source will not emit values until connect() is called
  output: (after 5s) 
  "Do Something!"
  "Subscriber One: 0"
  "Subscriber Two: 0"
  "Do Something!"
  "Subscriber One: 1"
  "Subscriber Two: 1"
*/
const subscribe = example.subscribe(val => console.log(`Subscriber One: ${val}`));
const subscribeTwo = example.subscribe(val => console.log(`Subscriber Two: ${val}`));

//call connect after 5 seconds, causing source to begin emitting items
setTimeout(() => {
 example.connect(); 
},5000)

race

#####signature: race(): Observable The gist: Take the first observable to emit...

(demo | official docs)

//take the first observable to emit
const example = Rx.Observable.race(
  //emit every 1.5s
  Rx.Observable.interval(1500),
  //emit every 1s
  Rx.Observable.interval(1000).mapTo('1s won!'),
  //emit every 2s
  Rx.Observable.interval(2000),
  //emit every 2.5s
  Rx.Observable.interval(2500)
);
//output: "1s won!"..."1s won!"...etc
const subscribe = example.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

repeat

#####signature: repeat(scheduler: Scheduler, count: number): Observable The gist: Repeat source specified number of times...

(demo | official docs)

//emit "Repeat this!"
const source = Rx.Observable.of('Repeat this!');
//repeat items emitted from source 3 times
const example = source.repeat(3);
//output: "Repeat this!"..."Repeat this!"..."Repeat this!" 
const subscribe = example.subscribe(val => console.log(val));
//emit every second
const sourceTwo = Rx.Observable.interval(1000);
//take 5 values, repeat 2 times
const exampleTwo = sourceTwo.take(5).repeat(2);
//output: 0,1,2,3,4,5...0,1,2,3,4,5
const subscribeTwo = exampleTwo.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

retry

#####signature: retry(number: number): Observable The gist: Retry specified number of times on error...

(demo | official docs)

//emit value every 1s
const source = Rx.Observable.interval(1000);
const example = source
  .flatMap(val => {
    //throw error for demonstration
    if(val > 5){
      return Rx.Observable.throw('Error!');
    }
    return Rx.Observable.of(val);
  })
  //retry 2 times on error
  .retry(2);
/*
  output: 
  0..1..2..3..4..5..
  0..1..2..3..4..5..
  0..1..2..3..4..5..
  "Error!: Retried 2 times then quit!"
*/
const subscribe = example
  .subscribe({
     next: val => console.log(val),
     error: val => console.log(`${val}: Retried 2 times then quit!`)
});

retryWhen

#####signature: retryWhen(receives: notificationHandler, the: scheduler): Observable The gist: Retry with additional logic...

(demo | official docs)

//emit value every 1s
const source = Rx.Observable.interval(1000);
const example = source
  .map(val => {
    if(val > 5){
     //error will be picked up by retryWhen
     throw val;
    }
    return val;
  })
  .retryWhen(errors => errors
               //log error message
               .do(val => console.log(`Value ${val} was too high!`))
               //restart in 5 seconds
               .delay(5000)
            );
/*
  output: 
  0
  1
  2
  3
  4
  5
  "Value 6 was too high!"
  --Wait 5 seconds then repeat
*/
const subscribe = example.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

sample

#####signature: sample(sampler: Observable): Observable The gist: Sample from source when supplied observable emits...

(demo | official docs)

//emit value every 1s
const source = Rx.Observable.interval(1000);
//sample last emitted value from source every 2s 
const example = source.sample(Rx.Observable.interval(2000));
//output: 2..4..6..8..
const subscribe = example.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

const sourceTwo = Rx.Observable.zip(
  //emit 'Joe', 'Frank' and 'Bob' in sequence
  Rx.Observable.from(['Joe', 'Frank', 'Bob']),
  //emit value every 2s
  Rx.Observable.interval(2000)
);
//sample last emitted value from source every 2.5s
const exampleTwo = sourceTwo.sample(Rx.Observable.interval(2500));
//output: ["Joe", 0]...["Frank", 1]...........
const subscribeTwo = exampleTwo.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

scan

#####signature: scan(accumulator: function, seed: any): Observable The gist: Reduce over time...

(demo | official docs)

const testSubject = new Rx.Subject();
//basic scan example, sum over time starting with zero
const basicScan = testSubject
  .startWith(0)
  .scan((acc, curr) => acc + curr);
//log accumulated values
const subscribe = basicScan.subscribe(val => console.log('Accumulated total:', val));
//next values into subject, adding to the current sum
testSubject.next(1); //1
testSubject.next(2); //3
testSubject.next(3); //6

const testSubjectTwo = new Rx.Subject();
//scan example building an object over time
const objectScan = testSubjectTwo.scan((acc, curr) => Object.assign({}, acc, curr), {});
//log accumulated values
const subscribe = objectScan.subscribe(val => console.log('Accumulated object:', val));
//next values into subject, adding properties to object
testSubjectTwo.next({name: 'Joe'}); // {name: 'Joe'}
testSubjectTwo.next({age: 30}); // {name: 'Joe', age: 30}
testSubjectTwo.next({favoriteLanguage: 'JavaScript'}); // {name: 'Joe', age: 30, favoriteLanguage: 'JavaScript'}

share

#####signature: share(): Observable The gist: Share observable among multiple subscribers...

(demo | official docs)

//emit value in 1s
const source = Rx.Observable.timer(1000);
//log side effect, emit result
const example = source
  .do(() => console.log('***SIDE EFFECT***'))
  .mapTo('***RESULT***');
/*
  ***NOT SHARED, SIDE EFFECT WILL BE EXECUTED TWICE***
  output: 
  "***SIDE EFFECT***"
  "***RESULT***"
  "***SIDE EFFECT***"
  "***RESULT***"
*/
const subscribe = example.subscribe(val => console.log(val));
const subscribeTwo = example.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

//share observable among subscribers
const sharedExample = example.share();
/*
  ***SHARED, SIDE EFFECT EXECUTED ONCE***
  output: 
  "***SIDE EFFECT***"
  "***RESULT***"
  "***RESULT***"
*/
const subscribeThree = sharedExample.subscribe(val => console.log(val));
const subscribeFour = sharedExample.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

single

#####signature: single(a: Function): Observable The gist: Emit single item that matches condition...

(demo | official docs)

//emit (1,2,3,4,5)
const source = Rx.Observable.from([1,2,3,4,5]);
//emit one item that matches predicate
const example = source.single(val => val === 4);
//output: 4
const subscribe = example.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

skip

#####signature: skip(the: Number): Observable The gist: Skip a specified number of emitted items...

(demo | official docs)

//emit every 1s
const source = Rx.Observable.interval(1000);
//skip the first 5 emitted values
const example = source.skip(5);
//output: 5...6...7...8........
const subscribe = example.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

skipUntil

#####signature: skipUntil(the: Observable): Observable The gist: Skip emitted items from source until inner observable emits...

(demo | official docs)

//emit every 1s
const source = Rx.Observable.interval(1000);
//skip emitted values from source until inner observable emits (6s)
const example = source.skipUntil(Rx.Observable.timer(6000));
//output: 5...6...7...8........
const subscribe = example.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

skipWhile

#####signature: skipWhile(predicate: Function): Observable The gist: Skip emitted items from source until provided expression is false...

(demo | official docs)

//emit every 1s
const source = Rx.Observable.interval(1000);
//skip emitted values from source while value is less than 5
const example = source.skipWhile(val => val < 5);
//output: 5...6...7...8........
const subscribe = example.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

startWith

#####signature: startWith(an: Values): Observable The gist: Emit specified item first...

(demo | official docs)

//emit (1,2,3)
const source = Rx.Observable.of(1,2,3);
//start with 0
const example =  source.startWith(0);
//output: 0,1,2,3
const subscribe = example.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

//emit ('World!', 'Goodbye', 'World!')
const sourceTwo = Rx.Observable.of('World!', 'Goodbye', 'World!');
//start with 'Hello', concat current string to previous
const exampleTwo = sourceTwo
  .startWith('Hello')
  .scan((acc, curr) => `${acc} ${curr}`);
/*
  output:
  "Hello"
  "Hello World!"
  "Hello World! Goodbye"
  "Hello World! Goodbye World!"
*/
const subscribeTwo = exampleTwo.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

switchMap

#####signature: switchMap(a: Observable): Observable The gist: When source emits, switch to and emit values emitted from latest inner observable

(demo | official docs)

//emit immediately, then every 5s
const source = Rx.Observable.timer(0, 5000);
//switch to new inner observable when source emits, emit items that are emitted
const example = source.switchMap(() => Rx.Observable.interval(500));
//output: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9...0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
const subscribe = example.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

//emit every click
const sourceTwo = Rx.Observable.fromEvent(document, 'click');
//if another click comes within 3s, message will not be emitted
const exampleTwo = sourceTwo.switchMap(val => Rx.Observable.interval(3000).mapTo('Hello, I made it!'));
//(click)...3s...'Hello I made it!'...(click)...2s(click)...
const subscribeTwo = exampleTwo.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

window

#####signature: window(windowBoundaries: Observable): Observable The gist: Observable of values for window of time

(demo | official docs)

//emit immediately then every 1s
const source = Rx.Observable.timer(0, 1000);
const example = source
  .window(Rx.Observable.interval(3000))
const count = example.scan((acc, curr) => acc + 1, 0)          
/*
  "Window 1:"
  0
  1
  2
  "Window 2:"
  3
  4
  5
  ...
*/
const subscribe = count.subscribe(val => console.log(`Window ${val}:`));
const subscribeTwo = example.mergeAll().subscribe(val => console.log(val));

windowCount

#####signature: windowCount(windowSize: number, startWindowEvery: number): Observable The gist: Observable of values from source, emitted each time count is fulfilled

(demo | official docs)

//emit every 1s
const source = Rx.Observable.interval(1000);
const example = source
    //start new window every 4 emitted values
    .windowCount(4)
    .do(() => console.log('NEW WINDOW!'))

const subscribeTwo = example 
  //window emits nested observable
  .mergeAll()
/*
  output:
  "NEW WINDOW!"
  0
  1
  2
  3
  "NEW WINDOW!"
  4
  5
  6
  7 
*/
  .subscribe(val => console.log(val));

windowTime

#####signature: windowTime(windowTimeSpan: number, windowCreationInterval: number, scheduler: Scheduler): Observable The gist: Emit an observable of values collected from source every specified time span

(demo | official docs)

//emit immediately then every 1s
const source = Rx.Observable.timer(0,1000);
const example = source
    //start new window every 3s
    .windowTime(3000)
    .do(() => console.log('NEW WINDOW!'))

const subscribeTwo = example 
  //window emits nested observable
  .mergeAll()
/*
  output:
  "NEW WINDOW!"
  0
  1
  2
  "NEW WINDOW!"
  3
  4
  5
*/
  .subscribe(val => console.log(val));

windowToggle

#####signature: windowToggle(openings: Observable, closingSelector: function(value): Observable): Observable The gist: Collect and emit observable of values from source between opening and closing emission

(demo | official docs)

//emit immediately then every 1s
const source = Rx.Observable.timer(0,1000);
//toggle window on every 5
const toggle = Rx.Observable.interval(5000);
const example = source
    //turn window on every 5s
    .windowToggle(toggle, (val) => Rx.Observable.interval(val * 1000))
    .do(() => console.log('NEW WINDOW!'))

const subscribeTwo = example 
  //window emits nested observable
  .mergeAll()
/*
  output:
  "NEW WINDOW!"
  5
  "NEW WINDOW!"
  10
  11
  "NEW WINDOW!"
  15
  16
  "NEW WINDOW!"
  20
  21
  22
*/
  .subscribe(val => console.log(val));

windowWhen

#####signature: windowWhen(closingSelector: function(): Observable): Observable The gist: Close window at specified time frame emitting observable of collected values from source, repeat...

(demo | official docs)

//emit immediately then every 1s
const source = Rx.Observable.timer(0,1000);
const example = source
    //close window every 5s and emit observable of collected values from source
    .windowWhen((val) => Rx.Observable.interval(5000))
    .do(() => console.log('NEW WINDOW!'))

const subscribeTwo = example 
  //window emits nested observable
  .mergeAll()
/*
  output:
  "NEW WINDOW!"
  0
  1
  2
  3
  4
  "NEW WINDOW!"
  5
  6
  7
  8
  9
*/
  .subscribe(val => console.log(val));

withLatestFrom

#####signature: withLatestFrom(other: Observable, project: Function): Observable The gist: When source emits, also give last value emitted from another observable...

(demo | official docs)

//emit every 5s
const source = Rx.Observable.interval(5000);
//emit every 1s
const secondSource = Rx.Observable.interval(1000);
const example = source
  .withLatestFrom(secondSource)
  .map(([first, second]) => {
    return `First Source (5s): ${first} Second Source (1s): ${second}`;
  });
/*
  "First Source (5s): 0 Second Source (1s): 4"
  "First Source (5s): 1 Second Source (1s): 9"
  "First Source (5s): 2 Second Source (1s): 14"
  ...
*/
const subscribe = example.subscribe(val => console.log(val));
//withLatestFrom slower than source
const exampleTwo = secondSource
  //both sources must emit at least 1 value (5s) before emitting
  .withLatestFrom(source)
  .map(([first, second]) => {
    return `Source (1s): ${first} Latest From (5s): ${second}`;
  });
/*
  "Source (1s): 4 Latest From (5s): 0"
  "Source (1s): 5 Latest From (5s): 0"
  "Source (1s): 6 Latest From (5s): 0"
  ...
*/
const subscribeTwo = exampleTwo.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

zip

#####signature: zip(observables: *): Observable The gist: After all observables emit, emit values as an array...

(demo | official docs)

const sourceOne = Rx.Observable.of('Hello');
const sourceTwo = Rx.Observable.of('World!');
const sourceThree = Rx.Observable.of('Goodbye');
const sourceFour = Rx.Observable.of('World!');
//wait until all observables have emitted a value then emit all as an array
const example = Rx.Observable
  .zip(
    sourceOne,
    sourceTwo.delay(1000),
    sourceThree.delay(2000),
    sourceFour.delay(3000)
  );
//output: ["Hello", "World!", "Goodbye", "World!"]
const subscribe = example.subscribe(val => console.log(val));

//emit every 1s
const interval = Rx.Observable.interval(1000);
//when one observable completes no more values will be emitted
const exampleTwo = Rx.Observable
  .zip(
    interval,
    interval.take(2)
  );
//output: [0,0]...[1,1]
const subscribe = exampleTwo.subscribe(val => console.log(val));
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