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Last active March 1, 2023 10:08
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A simple/simplistic implementation of AES in pure Python 3
# My AES implementation
# By Daniel Miller
# Ported to python 3 by @lovasoa
def xor(s1, s2):
return bytes(a ^ b for a, b in zip(s1, s2))
class AES(object):
Gmul = {}
def __init__(self, key):
The key expansion routine, as part of the overall AES algorithm,
takes an input key (denoted key below) of
4*Nk bytes, or Nk 32-bit words.
Nk has value either 4, 6, or 8.
The output is an expanded key (denoted w below) of 4*Nb*(Nr+1) bytes,
where Nb is always 4 and Nr is the number of rounds in the algorithm,
Nr equal 10 in case Nk is 4,
Nr equal 12 in case Nk is 6, and
Nr equal 14 in case Nk is 8.
assert len(key)*8 in {128, 192, 256}, "invalid key length"
self.nb = 4
self.nk = len(key) // 4 = {4: 10, 6: 12, 8: 14}[self.nk]
self.state = bytearray()
self.key = key
if not AES.Gmul:
for f in (0x02, 0x03, 0x0e, 0x0b, 0x0d, 0x09):
AES.Gmul[f] = bytes(AES.gmul(f, x) for x in range(0, 0x100))
Rcon = (0x8d, 0x01, 0x02, 0x04, 0x08, 0x10, 0x20, 0x40, 0x80, 0x1b, 0x36, 0x6c, 0xd8, 0xab, 0x4d, 0x9a)
Sbox = (
0x63, 0x7C, 0x77, 0x7B, 0xF2, 0x6B, 0x6F, 0xC5, 0x30, 0x01, 0x67, 0x2B, 0xFE, 0xD7, 0xAB, 0x76,
0xCA, 0x82, 0xC9, 0x7D, 0xFA, 0x59, 0x47, 0xF0, 0xAD, 0xD4, 0xA2, 0xAF, 0x9C, 0xA4, 0x72, 0xC0,
0xB7, 0xFD, 0x93, 0x26, 0x36, 0x3F, 0xF7, 0xCC, 0x34, 0xA5, 0xE5, 0xF1, 0x71, 0xD8, 0x31, 0x15,
0x04, 0xC7, 0x23, 0xC3, 0x18, 0x96, 0x05, 0x9A, 0x07, 0x12, 0x80, 0xE2, 0xEB, 0x27, 0xB2, 0x75,
0x09, 0x83, 0x2C, 0x1A, 0x1B, 0x6E, 0x5A, 0xA0, 0x52, 0x3B, 0xD6, 0xB3, 0x29, 0xE3, 0x2F, 0x84,
0x53, 0xD1, 0x00, 0xED, 0x20, 0xFC, 0xB1, 0x5B, 0x6A, 0xCB, 0xBE, 0x39, 0x4A, 0x4C, 0x58, 0xCF,
0xD0, 0xEF, 0xAA, 0xFB, 0x43, 0x4D, 0x33, 0x85, 0x45, 0xF9, 0x02, 0x7F, 0x50, 0x3C, 0x9F, 0xA8,
0x51, 0xA3, 0x40, 0x8F, 0x92, 0x9D, 0x38, 0xF5, 0xBC, 0xB6, 0xDA, 0x21, 0x10, 0xFF, 0xF3, 0xD2,
0xCD, 0x0C, 0x13, 0xEC, 0x5F, 0x97, 0x44, 0x17, 0xC4, 0xA7, 0x7E, 0x3D, 0x64, 0x5D, 0x19, 0x73,
0x60, 0x81, 0x4F, 0xDC, 0x22, 0x2A, 0x90, 0x88, 0x46, 0xEE, 0xB8, 0x14, 0xDE, 0x5E, 0x0B, 0xDB,
0xE0, 0x32, 0x3A, 0x0A, 0x49, 0x06, 0x24, 0x5C, 0xC2, 0xD3, 0xAC, 0x62, 0x91, 0x95, 0xE4, 0x79,
0xE7, 0xC8, 0x37, 0x6D, 0x8D, 0xD5, 0x4E, 0xA9, 0x6C, 0x56, 0xF4, 0xEA, 0x65, 0x7A, 0xAE, 0x08,
0xBA, 0x78, 0x25, 0x2E, 0x1C, 0xA6, 0xB4, 0xC6, 0xE8, 0xDD, 0x74, 0x1F, 0x4B, 0xBD, 0x8B, 0x8A,
0x70, 0x3E, 0xB5, 0x66, 0x48, 0x03, 0xF6, 0x0E, 0x61, 0x35, 0x57, 0xB9, 0x86, 0xC1, 0x1D, 0x9E,
0xE1, 0xF8, 0x98, 0x11, 0x69, 0xD9, 0x8E, 0x94, 0x9B, 0x1E, 0x87, 0xE9, 0xCE, 0x55, 0x28, 0xDF,
0x8C, 0xA1, 0x89, 0x0D, 0xBF, 0xE6, 0x42, 0x68, 0x41, 0x99, 0x2D, 0x0F, 0xB0, 0x54, 0xBB, 0x16
Sbox_inv = (
0x52, 0x09, 0x6A, 0xD5, 0x30, 0x36, 0xA5, 0x38, 0xBF, 0x40, 0xA3, 0x9E, 0x81, 0xF3, 0xD7, 0xFB,
0x7C, 0xE3, 0x39, 0x82, 0x9B, 0x2F, 0xFF, 0x87, 0x34, 0x8E, 0x43, 0x44, 0xC4, 0xDE, 0xE9, 0xCB,
0x54, 0x7B, 0x94, 0x32, 0xA6, 0xC2, 0x23, 0x3D, 0xEE, 0x4C, 0x95, 0x0B, 0x42, 0xFA, 0xC3, 0x4E,
0x08, 0x2E, 0xA1, 0x66, 0x28, 0xD9, 0x24, 0xB2, 0x76, 0x5B, 0xA2, 0x49, 0x6D, 0x8B, 0xD1, 0x25,
0x72, 0xF8, 0xF6, 0x64, 0x86, 0x68, 0x98, 0x16, 0xD4, 0xA4, 0x5C, 0xCC, 0x5D, 0x65, 0xB6, 0x92,
0x6C, 0x70, 0x48, 0x50, 0xFD, 0xED, 0xB9, 0xDA, 0x5E, 0x15, 0x46, 0x57, 0xA7, 0x8D, 0x9D, 0x84,
0x90, 0xD8, 0xAB, 0x00, 0x8C, 0xBC, 0xD3, 0x0A, 0xF7, 0xE4, 0x58, 0x05, 0xB8, 0xB3, 0x45, 0x06,
0xD0, 0x2C, 0x1E, 0x8F, 0xCA, 0x3F, 0x0F, 0x02, 0xC1, 0xAF, 0xBD, 0x03, 0x01, 0x13, 0x8A, 0x6B,
0x3A, 0x91, 0x11, 0x41, 0x4F, 0x67, 0xDC, 0xEA, 0x97, 0xF2, 0xCF, 0xCE, 0xF0, 0xB4, 0xE6, 0x73,
0x96, 0xAC, 0x74, 0x22, 0xE7, 0xAD, 0x35, 0x85, 0xE2, 0xF9, 0x37, 0xE8, 0x1C, 0x75, 0xDF, 0x6E,
0x47, 0xF1, 0x1A, 0x71, 0x1D, 0x29, 0xC5, 0x89, 0x6F, 0xB7, 0x62, 0x0E, 0xAA, 0x18, 0xBE, 0x1B,
0xFC, 0x56, 0x3E, 0x4B, 0xC6, 0xD2, 0x79, 0x20, 0x9A, 0xDB, 0xC0, 0xFE, 0x78, 0xCD, 0x5A, 0xF4,
0x1F, 0xDD, 0xA8, 0x33, 0x88, 0x07, 0xC7, 0x31, 0xB1, 0x12, 0x10, 0x59, 0x27, 0x80, 0xEC, 0x5F,
0x60, 0x51, 0x7F, 0xA9, 0x19, 0xB5, 0x4A, 0x0D, 0x2D, 0xE5, 0x7A, 0x9F, 0x93, 0xC9, 0x9C, 0xEF,
0xA0, 0xE0, 0x3B, 0x4D, 0xAE, 0x2A, 0xF5, 0xB0, 0xC8, 0xEB, 0xBB, 0x3C, 0x83, 0x53, 0x99, 0x61,
0x17, 0x2B, 0x04, 0x7E, 0xBA, 0x77, 0xD6, 0x26, 0xE1, 0x69, 0x14, 0x63, 0x55, 0x21, 0x0C, 0x7D
def rot_word(word):
return word[1:] + word[:1]
def sub_word(word):
return (AES.Sbox[b] for b in word)
def key_schedule(self):
expanded = bytearray()
for i in range(self.nk, self.nb * ( + 1)):
t = expanded[(i - 1) * 4:i * 4]
if i % self.nk == 0:
t = xor(AES.sub_word(AES.rot_word(t)), (AES.Rcon[i // self.nk], 0, 0, 0))
elif self.nk > 6 and i % self.nk == 4:
t = AES.sub_word(t)
expanded.extend(xor(t, expanded[(i - self.nk) * 4:(i - self.nk + 1) * 4]))
return expanded
def add_round_key(self, rkey):
for i, b in enumerate(rkey):
self.state[i] ^= b
def sub_bytes(self):
for i, b in enumerate(self.state):
self.state[i] = AES.Sbox[b]
def inv_sub_bytes(self):
for i, b in enumerate(self.state):
self.state[i] = AES.Sbox_inv[b]
def shift_rows(self):
rows = []
for r in range(4):
rows[r] = rows[r][r:] + rows[r][:r]
self.state = [r[c] for c in range(4) for r in rows]
def inv_shift_rows(self):
rows = []
for r in range(4):
rows[r] = rows[r][4 - r:] + rows[r][:4 - r]
self.state = [r[c] for c in range(4) for r in rows]
def gmul(a, b):
p = 0
for c in range(8):
if b & 1:
p ^= a
a <<= 1
if a & 0x100:
a ^= 0x11b
b >>= 1
return p
def mix_columns(self):
ss = []
for c in range(4):
col = self.state[c * 4:(c + 1) * 4]
AES.Gmul[0x02][col[0]] ^ AES.Gmul[0x03][col[1]] ^ col[2] ^ col[3],
col[0] ^ AES.Gmul[0x02][col[1]] ^ AES.Gmul[0x03][col[2]] ^ col[3],
col[0] ^ col[1] ^ AES.Gmul[0x02][col[2]] ^ AES.Gmul[0x03][col[3]],
AES.Gmul[0x03][col[0]] ^ col[1] ^ col[2] ^ AES.Gmul[0x02][col[3]],
self.state = ss
def inv_mix_columns(self):
ss = []
for c in range(4):
col = self.state[c * 4:(c + 1) * 4]
AES.Gmul[0x0e][col[0]] ^ AES.Gmul[0x0b][col[1]] ^ AES.Gmul[0x0d][col[2]] ^ AES.Gmul[0x09][col[3]],
AES.Gmul[0x09][col[0]] ^ AES.Gmul[0x0e][col[1]] ^ AES.Gmul[0x0b][col[2]] ^ AES.Gmul[0x0d][col[3]],
AES.Gmul[0x0d][col[0]] ^ AES.Gmul[0x09][col[1]] ^ AES.Gmul[0x0e][col[2]] ^ AES.Gmul[0x0b][col[3]],
AES.Gmul[0x0b][col[0]] ^ AES.Gmul[0x0d][col[1]] ^ AES.Gmul[0x09][col[2]] ^ AES.Gmul[0x0e][col[3]],
self.state = ss
def cipher(self, block):
# print "round[ 0].input: {0}".format(block.encode('hex'))
n = self.nb * 4
self.state = bytearray(block)
keys = self.key_schedule()
# print "round[ 0].k_sch: {0}".format(keys[0:n].encode('hex'))
for r in range(1,
# print "round[{0}].start: {1}".format(r,self.state.encode('hex'))
# print "round[{0}].s_box: {1}".format(r,self.state.encode('hex'))
# print "round[{0}].s_row: {1}".format(r,self.state.encode('hex'))
# print "round[{0}].m_col: {1}".format(r,self.state.encode('hex'))
k = keys[r * n:(r + 1) * n]
# print "round[{0}].k_sch: {1}".format(r,k.encode('hex'))
self.add_round_key(keys[ * n:])
# print "output: {0}".format(self.state.encode('hex'))
return bytes(self.state)
def inv_cipher(self, block):
# print "round[ 0].iinput: {0}".format(block.encode('hex'))
n = self.nb * 4
self.state = bytearray(block)
keys = self.key_schedule()
k = keys[ * n:( + 1) * n]
# print "round[ 0].ik_sch: {0}".format(k.encode('hex'))
for r in range( - 1, 0, -1):
# print "round[{0}].istart: {1}".format(r,self.state.encode('hex'))
# print "round[{0}].is_row: {1}".format(r,self.state.encode('hex'))
# print "round[{0}].is_box: {1}".format(r,self.state.encode('hex'))
k = keys[r * n:(r + 1) * n]
# print "round[{0}].ik_sch: {1}".format(r,k.encode('hex'))
# print "round[{0}].ik_add: {1}".format(r,self.state.encode('hex'))
# print "round[{0}].im_col: {1}".format(r,self.state.encode('hex'))
# print "output: {0}".format(self.state.encode('hex'))
return bytes(self.state)
if __name__ == "__main__":
key = bytes.fromhex("2b7e151628aed2a6abf7158809cf4f3c")
check = (
("6bc1bee22e409f96e93d7e117393172a", "3ad77bb40d7a3660a89ecaf32466ef97"),
("ae2d8a571e03ac9c9eb76fac45af8e51", "f5d3d58503b9699de785895a96fdbaaf"),
("30c81c46a35ce411e5fbc1191a0a52ef", "43b1cd7f598ece23881b00e3ed030688"),
("f69f2445df4f9b17ad2b417be66c3710", "7b0c785e27e8ad3f8223207104725dd4"),
crypt = AES(key)
for clear_hex, encoded_hex in check:
clear_bytes = bytes.fromhex(clear_hex)
encoded_bytes = bytes.fromhex(encoded_hex)
t = crypt.cipher(clear_bytes)
if t == encoded_bytes:
print("{0} != {1}".format(t.hex(), encoded_hex))
t = crypt.inv_cipher(encoded_bytes)
if t == clear_bytes:
print("{0} != {1}".format(t.hex(), clear_hex))
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