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Quadratic sighash remains in BCH/Segwit digest algorithms.

Mark Lundeberg 2018 Oct 17

Abstract: Both BCH post-forkday signatures and the BIP143 Segwit signatures are ostensibly designed to remove the 'quadratic hashing problem', however as I will show, they are still vulnerable for long scripts. Back-of-the-envelope calculations show that it will become a serious concern if the existing script limits are relaxed.


  • Every OP_CHECKSIG requires hashing a potentially large amount of data, limited only by the size of scriptCode. The precise length is 159 + len(scriptCode) for scriptCodes longer than 255 bytes.
  • Since many OP_CHECKSIG calls are possible within a given script, this means transactions can be made where the required hashing time is quadratic in the length of script. (though, see the non-push opcode limit below)

"Pay To Identity" — a proposed use of OP_CHECKDATASIG

Dr. Mark B. Lundeberg, 2018 September 6 bitcoincash:qqy9myvyt7qffgye5a2mn2vn8ry95qm6asy40ptgx2

A mechanism where a Bitcoin Cash payment is made to a personally identifying string (real name, email address, social media handle, etc.) instead of directly to a cryptographic key. The payment can only be claimed by the recipient if they generate a public key and get it certified by a trusted identity verifier. This certification signature is confirmed in script via the new opcode OP_CHECKDATASIG.


  • Pay anyone, right now -- recipient doesn't need to have any cryptographic keys nor do they even need a phone/computer. (They only need these to claim the funds later.)

Using PGP signatures with bitcoin script OP_CHECKDATASIG

Dr. Mark B. Lundeberg, 2018 August 30 bitcoincash:qqy9myvyt7qffgye5a2mn2vn8ry95qm6asy40ptgx2

Since version 2.1, GnuPG is able to use the very same secp256k1 elliptic curve signature algorithm (ECDSA) as used in bitcoin. Quite soon Bitcoin Cash will add a new script opcode OP_CHECKDATASIG that is able to check signatures not just on the containing transaction, but also on arbitrary data. For fun, let's try to intersect the two signature systems and see what can be done!



View gist:5391a8ed45327fc847edf302565b1b09
### Keybase proof
I hereby claim:
* I am markblundeberg on github.
* I am marklundeberg ( on keybase.
* I have a public key ASDQpnjba7VyKnEj28AwOYk3TzhbWeUP-KJbFs3XesNWlgo
To claim this, I am signing this object:

Buy your coffee with InstaConf: nearly trustless zero-confirmation guarantees

A proposal by Dr. Mark B Lundeberg, 2018 Feb 21 bitcoincash:qqy9myvyt7qffgye5a2mn2vn8ry95qm6asy40ptgx2

This is a proposal for reducing the risk of accepting unconfirmed (zero-conf) transactions in Bitcoin-like cryptocurrencies. Accepting such transactions is typically safe, however there is always the risk of [double-spending](


Advisory: secret size attack on cross-chain hash lock smart contracts

Dr. Mark B Lundeberg, 2018 Feb 15 bitcoincash:qqy9myvyt7qffgye5a2mn2vn8ry95qm6asy40ptgx2

This security advisory notes a vulnerability in the common construction of cross-chain smart contracts (contracts between distinct cryptocurrencies) through hash locking. I focus on the primary use case in [atomic