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v4l2 capture example
/*
* V4L2 video capture example
*
* This program can be used and distributed without restrictions.
*
* This program is provided with the V4L2 API
* see http://linuxtv.org/docs.php for more information
*/
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <assert.h>
#include <getopt.h> /* getopt_long() */
#include <fcntl.h> /* low-level i/o */
#include <unistd.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/time.h>
#include <sys/mman.h>
#include <sys/ioctl.h>
#include <linux/videodev2.h>
#define CLEAR(x) memset(&(x), 0, sizeof(x))
#ifndef V4L2_PIX_FMT_H264
#define V4L2_PIX_FMT_H264 v4l2_fourcc('H', '2', '6', '4') /* H264 with start codes */
#endif
enum io_method {
IO_METHOD_READ,
IO_METHOD_MMAP,
IO_METHOD_USERPTR,
};
struct buffer {
void *start;
size_t length;
};
static char *dev_name;
static enum io_method io = IO_METHOD_MMAP;
static int fd = -1;
struct buffer *buffers;
static unsigned int n_buffers;
static int out_buf;
static int force_format;
static int frame_count = 200;
static int frame_number = 0;
static void errno_exit(const char *s)
{
fprintf(stderr, "%s error %d, %s\n", s, errno, strerror(errno));
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}
static int xioctl(int fh, int request, void *arg)
{
int r;
do {
r = ioctl(fh, request, arg);
} while (-1 == r && EINTR == errno);
return r;
}
static void process_image(const void *p, int size)
{
frame_number++;
char filename[15];
sprintf(filename, "frame-%d.raw", frame_number);
FILE *fp=fopen(filename,"wb");
if (out_buf)
fwrite(p, size, 1, fp);
fflush(fp);
fclose(fp);
}
static int read_frame(void)
{
struct v4l2_buffer buf;
unsigned int i;
switch (io) {
case IO_METHOD_READ:
if (-1 == read(fd, buffers[0].start, buffers[0].length)) {
switch (errno) {
case EAGAIN:
return 0;
case EIO:
/* Could ignore EIO, see spec. */
/* fall through */
default:
errno_exit("read");
}
}
process_image(buffers[0].start, buffers[0].length);
break;
case IO_METHOD_MMAP:
CLEAR(buf);
buf.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
buf.memory = V4L2_MEMORY_MMAP;
if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_DQBUF, &buf)) {
switch (errno) {
case EAGAIN:
return 0;
case EIO:
/* Could ignore EIO, see spec. */
/* fall through */
default:
errno_exit("VIDIOC_DQBUF");
}
}
assert(buf.index < n_buffers);
process_image(buffers[buf.index].start, buf.bytesused);
if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_QBUF, &buf))
errno_exit("VIDIOC_QBUF");
break;
case IO_METHOD_USERPTR:
CLEAR(buf);
buf.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
buf.memory = V4L2_MEMORY_USERPTR;
if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_DQBUF, &buf)) {
switch (errno) {
case EAGAIN:
return 0;
case EIO:
/* Could ignore EIO, see spec. */
/* fall through */
default:
errno_exit("VIDIOC_DQBUF");
}
}
for (i = 0; i < n_buffers; ++i)
if (buf.m.userptr == (unsigned long)buffers[i].start
&& buf.length == buffers[i].length)
break;
assert(i < n_buffers);
process_image((void *)buf.m.userptr, buf.bytesused);
if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_QBUF, &buf))
errno_exit("VIDIOC_QBUF");
break;
}
return 1;
}
static void mainloop(void)
{
unsigned int count;
count = frame_count;
while (count-- > 0) {
for (;;) {
fd_set fds;
struct timeval tv;
int r;
FD_ZERO(&fds);
FD_SET(fd, &fds);
/* Timeout. */
tv.tv_sec = 2;
tv.tv_usec = 0;
r = select(fd + 1, &fds, NULL, NULL, &tv);
if (-1 == r) {
if (EINTR == errno)
continue;
errno_exit("select");
}
if (0 == r) {
fprintf(stderr, "select timeout\n");
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}
if (read_frame())
break;
/* EAGAIN - continue select loop. */
}
}
}
static void stop_capturing(void)
{
enum v4l2_buf_type type;
switch (io) {
case IO_METHOD_READ:
/* Nothing to do. */
break;
case IO_METHOD_MMAP:
case IO_METHOD_USERPTR:
type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_STREAMOFF, &type))
errno_exit("VIDIOC_STREAMOFF");
break;
}
}
static void start_capturing(void)
{
unsigned int i;
enum v4l2_buf_type type;
switch (io) {
case IO_METHOD_READ:
/* Nothing to do. */
break;
case IO_METHOD_MMAP:
for (i = 0; i < n_buffers; ++i) {
struct v4l2_buffer buf;
CLEAR(buf);
buf.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
buf.memory = V4L2_MEMORY_MMAP;
buf.index = i;
if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_QBUF, &buf))
errno_exit("VIDIOC_QBUF");
}
type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_STREAMON, &type))
errno_exit("VIDIOC_STREAMON");
break;
case IO_METHOD_USERPTR:
for (i = 0; i < n_buffers; ++i) {
struct v4l2_buffer buf;
CLEAR(buf);
buf.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
buf.memory = V4L2_MEMORY_USERPTR;
buf.index = i;
buf.m.userptr = (unsigned long)buffers[i].start;
buf.length = buffers[i].length;
if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_QBUF, &buf))
errno_exit("VIDIOC_QBUF");
}
type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_STREAMON, &type))
errno_exit("VIDIOC_STREAMON");
break;
}
}
static void uninit_device(void)
{
unsigned int i;
switch (io) {
case IO_METHOD_READ:
free(buffers[0].start);
break;
case IO_METHOD_MMAP:
for (i = 0; i < n_buffers; ++i)
if (-1 == munmap(buffers[i].start, buffers[i].length))
errno_exit("munmap");
break;
case IO_METHOD_USERPTR:
for (i = 0; i < n_buffers; ++i)
free(buffers[i].start);
break;
}
free(buffers);
}
static void init_read(unsigned int buffer_size)
{
buffers = calloc(1, sizeof(*buffers));
if (!buffers) {
fprintf(stderr, "Out of memory\n");
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}
buffers[0].length = buffer_size;
buffers[0].start = malloc(buffer_size);
if (!buffers[0].start) {
fprintf(stderr, "Out of memory\n");
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}
}
static void init_mmap(void)
{
struct v4l2_requestbuffers req;
CLEAR(req);
req.count = 4;
req.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
req.memory = V4L2_MEMORY_MMAP;
if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_REQBUFS, &req)) {
if (EINVAL == errno) {
fprintf(stderr, "%s does not support "
"memory mapping\n", dev_name);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
} else {
errno_exit("VIDIOC_REQBUFS");
}
}
if (req.count < 2) {
fprintf(stderr, "Insufficient buffer memory on %s\n",
dev_name);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}
buffers = calloc(req.count, sizeof(*buffers));
if (!buffers) {
fprintf(stderr, "Out of memory\n");
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}
for (n_buffers = 0; n_buffers < req.count; ++n_buffers) {
struct v4l2_buffer buf;
CLEAR(buf);
buf.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
buf.memory = V4L2_MEMORY_MMAP;
buf.index = n_buffers;
if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_QUERYBUF, &buf))
errno_exit("VIDIOC_QUERYBUF");
buffers[n_buffers].length = buf.length;
buffers[n_buffers].start =
mmap(NULL /* start anywhere */,
buf.length,
PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE /* required */,
MAP_SHARED /* recommended */,
fd, buf.m.offset);
if (MAP_FAILED == buffers[n_buffers].start)
errno_exit("mmap");
}
}
static void init_userp(unsigned int buffer_size)
{
struct v4l2_requestbuffers req;
CLEAR(req);
req.count = 4;
req.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
req.memory = V4L2_MEMORY_USERPTR;
if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_REQBUFS, &req)) {
if (EINVAL == errno) {
fprintf(stderr, "%s does not support "
"user pointer i/o\n", dev_name);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
} else {
errno_exit("VIDIOC_REQBUFS");
}
}
buffers = calloc(4, sizeof(*buffers));
if (!buffers) {
fprintf(stderr, "Out of memory\n");
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}
for (n_buffers = 0; n_buffers < 4; ++n_buffers) {
buffers[n_buffers].length = buffer_size;
buffers[n_buffers].start = malloc(buffer_size);
if (!buffers[n_buffers].start) {
fprintf(stderr, "Out of memory\n");
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}
}
}
static void init_device(void)
{
struct v4l2_capability cap;
struct v4l2_cropcap cropcap;
struct v4l2_crop crop;
struct v4l2_format fmt;
unsigned int min;
if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_QUERYCAP, &cap)) {
if (EINVAL == errno) {
fprintf(stderr, "%s is no V4L2 device\n",
dev_name);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
} else {
errno_exit("VIDIOC_QUERYCAP");
}
}
if (!(cap.capabilities & V4L2_CAP_VIDEO_CAPTURE)) {
fprintf(stderr, "%s is no video capture device\n",
dev_name);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}
switch (io) {
case IO_METHOD_READ:
if (!(cap.capabilities & V4L2_CAP_READWRITE)) {
fprintf(stderr, "%s does not support read i/o\n",
dev_name);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}
break;
case IO_METHOD_MMAP:
case IO_METHOD_USERPTR:
if (!(cap.capabilities & V4L2_CAP_STREAMING)) {
fprintf(stderr, "%s does not support streaming i/o\n",
dev_name);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}
break;
}
/* Select video input, video standard and tune here. */
CLEAR(cropcap);
cropcap.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
if (0 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_CROPCAP, &cropcap)) {
crop.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
crop.c = cropcap.defrect; /* reset to default */
if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_S_CROP, &crop)) {
switch (errno) {
case EINVAL:
/* Cropping not supported. */
break;
default:
/* Errors ignored. */
break;
}
}
} else {
/* Errors ignored. */
}
CLEAR(fmt);
fmt.type = V4L2_BUF_TYPE_VIDEO_CAPTURE;
if (force_format) {
fprintf(stderr, "Set H264\r\n");
fmt.fmt.pix.width = 640; //replace
fmt.fmt.pix.height = 480; //replace
fmt.fmt.pix.pixelformat = V4L2_PIX_FMT_H264; //replace
fmt.fmt.pix.field = V4L2_FIELD_ANY;
if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_S_FMT, &fmt))
errno_exit("VIDIOC_S_FMT");
/* Note VIDIOC_S_FMT may change width and height. */
} else {
/* Preserve original settings as set by v4l2-ctl for example */
if (-1 == xioctl(fd, VIDIOC_G_FMT, &fmt))
errno_exit("VIDIOC_G_FMT");
}
/* Buggy driver paranoia. */
min = fmt.fmt.pix.width * 2;
if (fmt.fmt.pix.bytesperline < min)
fmt.fmt.pix.bytesperline = min;
min = fmt.fmt.pix.bytesperline * fmt.fmt.pix.height;
if (fmt.fmt.pix.sizeimage < min)
fmt.fmt.pix.sizeimage = min;
switch (io) {
case IO_METHOD_READ:
init_read(fmt.fmt.pix.sizeimage);
break;
case IO_METHOD_MMAP:
init_mmap();
break;
case IO_METHOD_USERPTR:
init_userp(fmt.fmt.pix.sizeimage);
break;
}
}
static void close_device(void)
{
if (-1 == close(fd))
errno_exit("close");
fd = -1;
}
static void open_device(void)
{
struct stat st;
if (-1 == stat(dev_name, &st)) {
fprintf(stderr, "Cannot identify '%s': %d, %s\n",
dev_name, errno, strerror(errno));
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}
if (!S_ISCHR(st.st_mode)) {
fprintf(stderr, "%s is no device\n", dev_name);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}
fd = open(dev_name, O_RDWR /* required */ | O_NONBLOCK, 0);
if (-1 == fd) {
fprintf(stderr, "Cannot open '%s': %d, %s\n",
dev_name, errno, strerror(errno));
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}
}
static void usage(FILE *fp, int argc, char **argv)
{
fprintf(fp,
"Usage: %s [options]\n\n"
"Version 1.3\n"
"Options:\n"
"-d | --device name Video device name [%s]\n"
"-h | --help Print this message\n"
"-m | --mmap Use memory mapped buffers [default]\n"
"-r | --read Use read() calls\n"
"-u | --userp Use application allocated buffers\n"
"-o | --output Outputs stream to stdout\n"
"-f | --format Force format to 640x480 YUYV\n"
"-c | --count Number of frames to grab [%i]\n"
"",
argv[0], dev_name, frame_count);
}
static const char short_options[] = "d:hmruofc:";
static const struct option
long_options[] = {
{ "device", required_argument, NULL, 'd' },
{ "help", no_argument, NULL, 'h' },
{ "mmap", no_argument, NULL, 'm' },
{ "read", no_argument, NULL, 'r' },
{ "userp", no_argument, NULL, 'u' },
{ "output", no_argument, NULL, 'o' },
{ "format", no_argument, NULL, 'f' },
{ "count", required_argument, NULL, 'c' },
{ 0, 0, 0, 0 }
};
int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
dev_name = "/dev/video0";
for (;;) {
int idx;
int c;
c = getopt_long(argc, argv,
short_options, long_options, &idx);
if (-1 == c)
break;
switch (c) {
case 0: /* getopt_long() flag */
break;
case 'd':
dev_name = optarg;
break;
case 'h':
usage(stdout, argc, argv);
exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
case 'm':
io = IO_METHOD_MMAP;
break;
case 'r':
io = IO_METHOD_READ;
break;
case 'u':
io = IO_METHOD_USERPTR;
break;
case 'o':
out_buf++;
break;
case 'f':
force_format++;
break;
case 'c':
errno = 0;
frame_count = strtol(optarg, NULL, 0);
if (errno)
errno_exit(optarg);
break;
default:
usage(stderr, argc, argv);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}
}
open_device();
init_device();
start_capturing();
mainloop();
stop_capturing();
uninit_device();
close_device();
fprintf(stderr, "\n");
return 0;
}
@tejapalaparthi
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tejapalaparthi commented May 4, 2015

When I was trying this code i am getting output like this


(program exited with code: 0)
Press return to continue

can anyone tell me how to solve this problem

@half2me
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half2me commented Jan 18, 2017

For me it says: VIDIOC_REQBUFS error 12, Cannot allocate memory

@TimSC
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TimSC commented May 25, 2017

out_buf isn't initialized?

@qianfan-Zhao
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qianfan-Zhao commented Aug 19, 2017

in my device, "select time out"

@sun-xm
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sun-xm commented Apr 25, 2019

In line 270, buf.m.userptr = (unsigned long)buffers[i].start, does it work in 64bit system as the 64bit address has been truncated to 32bit? Why?

Edit: ok question solved. "unsigned long" is 64-bit long in my 64-bit Linux but 32-bit long in my 64-bit Windows.

@Prakash010593
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Prakash010593 commented Apr 2, 2020

I am getting the output as:
Run Time Error: Cannot identify '/dev/video0': 2, No such file or directory

Anybody can tell me what to do?

@SebastianMartens
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SebastianMartens commented Apr 14, 2020

First, check your available video devices with v4l2-ctl tool in a terminal:
v4l2-ctl --list-devices
If the cam is connected you should have /dev/video0 or /dev/video1 etc. The use -d option of the program to select your device. If no devices are listed, check if you have any video source (webcam) plugged in ;-).

@eecheng87
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eecheng87 commented Jun 8, 2020

Hey sir, I have some question here, hope can help.
When I execute ./ capture_raw_frame and it only create empty file.
As a result, I open my video0 through vlc v4l2:///dev/video0. Then I execute capture_raw_frame again, but get ERROR:VIDIOC_REQBUFS error 16, Device or resource busy

I'm wondering how to capture data through your code properly? Thanks!

@maxlapshin
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Author

maxlapshin commented Jun 8, 2020

continuation of this code is here: https://github.com/flussonic/v4l-erl

@postmodern
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postmodern commented Aug 8, 2020

Why is it in read_frame, that for IO_METHOD_MMAP you use buf.index to lookup the buffer, but in IO_METHOD_USERPTR you for loop through the buffers looking for the matching pointer? Is that behavior required when using USER_PTR buffers?

@Bang-Jiwon
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Bang-Jiwon commented Dec 10, 2020

i want to start using '-u' options but it fails, (VIDIOC_QBUF error 22, Invalid argument).
To resolve this problem, what should i do?

@Yasha-ops
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Yasha-ops commented Jan 20, 2021

The file is full of errors ! My termina turned red instantly

@9ghtX
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9ghtX commented Feb 25, 2021

There is some errors with buffer and calloc in 309, 351 and 403 lines. buffer* can't get void* as result

@EuphoricCatface
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EuphoricCatface commented May 6, 2021

To understand this code better, refer to this document: https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/userspace-api/media/index.html
For easier approach, try qv4l2 or fswebcam

@postmodern
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postmodern commented May 6, 2021

While developing crystal v4l2 bindings, I found this documentation which is explains the sequence of events in order to initialize, enqueue, dequeue, re-queue buffers.
https://lwn.net/Articles/203924/

@kannanbalu1
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kannanbalu1 commented Dec 8, 2021

Hey I tried this code. I got the output and when i run the file my camera is streaming but I'm getting the files containing 0 bytes. No information on it. Please clear me if i need to clear any issue so as to get the raw image. Thanks for comments in advance.

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