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mbillard/original.txt

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One syllable words. Taken from http://research.haifa.ac.il/~nancyh/wordlist.html
Vowel qualities in English words
The following is a list of the most common one-syllable words in English, grouped according to what vowels they contain. You will need to memorize the pronunciation of all these words for the final exam. Luckily, in most cases the spelling will help you. I suggest that you create a guide for yourself noting how particular letter combinations are usually pronounced, and which words are exceptions. The words have been arranged in groups according to spelling. (This list is a slightly modified version of one created by John Myhill.)
I have used the following substitutes for phonetic characters (see your handout from the IPA Handbook): [E] for the vowel in 'bed', [I] 'bid', [U] 'good', [A] 'bad', [^] 'bud', [O] 'bought', [3] RP 'bird', [@] for schwa.
Lists
Words pronounced with the near-high near-front vowel [I]:
GAE and RP: bid big bill bit brick bridge bring chill chin cliff cling did dig dim dip dish ditch drift drill drink fifth fill film fish fist fit fix gift glimpse grim grin grip hid hill him hint his hit if ill in inch ink inn is it kick kill king kiss knit lick lift limb link lip list midst milk mill miss mist pick pig pin pinch pink pit pitch prince print quick quit rib rich rid ridge ring risk shift ship sick silk sin since sing sink sit six sixth skill skin slip spin split stick stiff still sting swift swim swing thick thin thing think this thrill till tin tip trick trim trip twig twin twist which whip width will wilt win wind (the noun) wing wink wish wit witch with build built give live (the verb)
GAE only: been
Words pronounced with the high front vowel [ij]:
GAE and RP: bee beef breed breeze cheek cheese creek creep deed deep fee feed feel feet fleet free freeze geese Greece Greek green greet heed heel keep keen knee kneel meet need peep queen reed reel screen see seed seek seem seen sheep sheet sleep sleeve speech steel steep street sweep sweet teeth thee three tree weed week weep wheel beam bean beast beat breathe cease cheap cheat clean cream deal dream ease east eat feast gleam heal heap heat lead leaf league lean leap least mean meat neat pea peace peach peak plead please preach reach read real scream sea seal seat speak steal steam stream tea teach team treat weak weave wheat wreath key scheme these be he me she we chief field grief piece priest shield shriek thief yield seize
RP only: been
Words pronounced with the front mid-low vowel [E]:
Some sources describe these vowels as being slightly higher, like [e], in RP, but others describe RP with epsilon as well. We will take the latter approach.
GAE and RP: bed bell bench bend bent best bet bless cell cent check chest crept debt deck den dense depth desk dress dwell edge egg else end fed fell felt fence fetch fled flesh French fresh fret gem get guess guest hedge held hell help hen hence jest kept left leg lend length lent less lest let melt men mend met nest next pen pet pledge press quest red rent rest scent self sell send sense sent set sex shed sketch slept smell spell spend spent stem step strength swell swept tell tempt ten tend tent tenth test them then thence twelve vest well went wept west wet when whence wreck yell yes yet bread breast breath dead death head health lead (the element) read (past) realm sweat thread tread wealth friend said says
Words pronounced with the front mid-high vowel [ej]:
GAE and RP: bay clay day gay gray hay lay may nay pay play pray ray say slay stay sway way aid aim ain't brain chain claim fail faint faith gain grain hail jail laid maid mail main Maine nail paid pain paint plain praise rail rain raise sail saint slain Spain stain straight tail train wail waist wait ache age ate bade base bathe blade blame blaze brake brave cage came cane cape case cave change chase dame date face fade fame flame frame game gate gave grace grade gape grave haste lace lake lame lane late made make male mate name page phrase place plane plate race rage safe sake sale same save scale shade shake shape skate snake space stage stake strange take tale tame taste trace trade vague wake waste wave break great steak yea eight eighth freight reign rein veil vein weigh weight prey they
Words pronounced with the high back vowel [uw]:
GAE and RP: bloom boom boot brood choose cool doom food fool goose loom mood moon noon pool proof room root school shoot smooth soon spoon stoop too tool tooth troop blew crew dew few flew grew Jew jewel knew new news screw threw mule muse rude rule tube tune true use truth due cruel blue lose move prove do to two who group soup through wound (injury) you youth shoe fruit juice suit
RP only: hoof
Words pronounced with the near-high near-back vowel [U]:
GAE and RP: bull bush full pull push put book brook cook foot good hood hook look shook stood took wood wool could should would wolf
GAE only: hoof
Words pronounced [ow] in GAE but [@U] in RP:
bow (& arrow) blow crow flow glow grow grown growth know low owe own row show slow snow sow throw bold bolt both cold colt comb don't fold folk ghost go gold hold host mold most no old post roll scold so sold told won't foe goes toe woe boast boat cloak coach coal coast coat float foam goal goat groan load loan moan oak oat road roam roast soak soap toast bone broke choke chose close clothe clothes coda globe grove hole home joke lone mode nose note phone Pope quote robe Rome rope rose shone slope smoke sole spoke stole stone stove stroke those throne tone vote whole wrote zone sew soul though
Words pronounced with the mid-low back unrounded vowel [^]:
GAE and RP: blush brush bud bulk bunch but club clutch crush crust cup drug drum drunk duck dug dull dumb dust Dutch flung flush fun gulf gun hum hung hunt hush hut judge just luck lump lunch mud must much nut pluck plum plunge puff pump rub rug run rush shut stuck stuff stump such sum sun swung thumb thrust thus truck trunk trust tuck up us rough touch tough young front monk son ton tongue won does come done dove glove love none some
GAE only: what was from of
Words pronounced with syllabic [r] in GAE, mid-low central unrounded vowel [3] in RP:
bird birth dirt firm first girl shirt sir skirt stir third thirst whirl burn burst church curl curse curve fur hurt hurl spurt turn urge her herd hers nerve serve stern term verse word work world worm worse worth earl earn earth heard learn search were
GAE only: clerk sure
Words pronounced with [aj]:
GAE and RP: bite bride crime dine dive drive file fine five glide guide ice knife life like lime line mice mine nice nine pipe pride price prize quite ride ripe rise shine side site size slice slide smile spite strike strive thine tide time vice vine while white wide wife wine wipe wise write bind blind bright child Christ climb fight find flight fright high hind I kind knight light might mild mind nigh night ninth right sigh sight sign slight tight wild wind (the verb) cried die flies lie pie tie tried dye by cry fly my shy sky spy thy try why height type style buy guy eye
Words pronounced with [oj]:
GAE and RP: choice join joint moist oil point soil voice spoil toil boy joy toy
Words pronounced with [aw]:
GAE and RP: bough bound cloud couch count doubt foul found ground hound house loud mount mouse mouth ounce out pound proud round rouse scout shout sound south thou wound (past tense of wind) bow (verb, or noun meaning 'front of boat') brow brown cow crowd crown down drown fowl gown growl how howl now owl plow town vow
Postvocalic r
Words pronounced with [ijr] in GAE, [I@] in RP:
beer cheer deer peer queer sheer steer pierce beard clear dear ear fear near rear tear (from crying) year here mere
Words pronounced with [uwr] in GAE, [U@] in RP:
poor tour cure (also, RP only: sure)
Words are pronounced with [er] in GAE, [E@] in RP
air chair fair hair pair stair bare care dare glare rare scarce scare share spare stare bear pear swear tear wear heir their there where prayer
Vowels involved in lexical differences across dialects
For the word lists above, there are cases where GAE and RP have different pronunciations of one of the vowels, but the words are mostly grouped into the same lists in each dialect. This is not the case with the words below. Among the low vowels and the mid-low back rounded vowel, many words fall into different groups in the two dialects. For example, in GAE 'bath' has the same vowel as 'act', but in RP the two words have different vowels.
Words pronounced with the front low vowel [A]:
GAE and RP: act add am and ant apt as ash at ax back bad bag band bank bat black blank brand camp can cap cash cat catch clad clap crack crash dad dam damp dash drag drank fact fan fat flag flash flat frank gang gas glad grand had hand hang has hat hatch lack lad lamb lamp land lap lash mad man mass pan pant pat plan plank rack rag ran rang rat sack sad sang sank sat scratch shall snap snatch splash sprang stamp stand tank tap tax than thank that track tramp trap van wax wrap have
GAE only: ask bath blast branch brass can't cast chance clasp class craft dance draft fast gasp glance glass grant grasp grass half last mast pass past path plant ranch shaft staff task wrath laugh
Words pronounced with the low back vowel:
GAE: block box chop clock cock crop dot flock fox got hop hot knock knot lock lot mock not ox plot pop pot rock shock shop shot spot stock stop top trot watch bond bronze doll fond god job lodge mob nod odd on pond rob rod sob yon arch arm art bar bark barn car card cart carve charge charm dark dart far farm guard hard harm harp jar large lark march mark park part sharp smart spark star start starve yard heart are calm palm swamp swan want
RP: ask bath blast branch brass calm can't cast chance clasp class craft dance draft fast France gasp glance glass grant grasp grass half last mast palm pass past path plant ranch shaft staff task arch are arm art bar bark barn car card cart carve charge charm dark dart guard hard harm harp jar large lark march mark park part sharp smart spark star start starve yard heart clerk
Words pronounced with the low back rounded vowel:
RP: block bond boss box bronze chop clock cloth cock cost crop cross dog doll dot flock fond fox frog from god gold got hop hot job knock knot lock lodge log long loss lost lot mob mock moss nod not odd of off on ox plot pond pop pot rob rock rod shock shop shot sob soft solve song spot stock stop strong throng top toss trot wrong yon swamp swan want was wash watch what wrath
Words pronounced with the mid-low back rounded vowel [O]:
Note that for many American speakers, including me, this vowel does not exist and these words are pronounced with the low back unrounded vowel instead.
GAE: cloth cost cross dog long loss lost off soft song strong toss wrong all ball call fall hall halt salt small stalk stall talk tall walk wall claw crawl dawn draw hawk law lawn paw raw saw straw bought brought fought ought sought thought wrought caught cause fault haul haunt sauce taught broad born borne cord corn for force fork form fort forth horn horse lord nor north or porch port scorn short sort sport storm sword thorn torn worn door floor course court four fourth mourn pour your board coarse roar bore more score shore sore store tore wore dwarf swarm war warm warn drawer boss frog golf gone log moss solve throng wash
RP: all ball call fall hall halt salt small stalk stall talk tall walk wall claw crawl dawn draw hawk law lawn paw raw saw straw bought brought fought ought sought thought wrought caught cause fault haul haunt sauce taught broad born borne corn for force fork form cord forth fort horse horn lord nor north or porch port scorn short sort sport storm sword thorn torn worn door floor course court four fourth mourn pour your board coarse roar bore more score shore sore store tore wore dwarf swarm war warm warn drawer
ache
act
add
age
aid
aim
ain't
air
all
am
and
ant
apt
arch
are
arm
art
as
ash
ask
at
ate
ax
back
bad
bade
bag
ball
band
bank
bar
bare
bark
barn
base
bat
bath
bathe
bay
be
beam
bean
bear
beard
beast
beat
bed
bee
beef
been
beer
bell
bench
bend
bent
best
bet
bid
big
bill
bind
bird
birth
bit
bite
black
blade
blame
blank
blast
blaze
bless
blew
blind
block
bloom
blow
blue
blush
board
boast
boat
bold
bolt
bond
bone
book
boom
boot
bore
born
borne
boss
both
bough
bought
bound
bow
box
boy
brain
brake
branch
brand
brass
brave
bread
break
breast
breath
breathe
breed
breeze
brick
bride
bridge
bright
bring
broad
broke
bronze
brood
brook
brought
brow
brown
brush
bud
build
built
bulk
bull
bunch
burn
burst
bush
but
buy
by
cage
call
calm
came
camp
can
can't
cane
cap
cape
car
card
care
cart
carve
case
cash
cast
cat
catch
caught
cause
cave
cease
cell
cent
chain
chair
chance
change
charge
charm
chase
cheap
cheat
check
cheek
cheer
cheese
chest
chief
child
chill
chin
choice
choke
choose
chop
chose
Christ
church
clad
claim
clap
clasp
class
claw
clay
clean
clear
clerk
cliff
climb
cling
cloak
clock
close
cloth
clothe
clothes
cloud
club
clutch
coach
coal
coarse
coast
coat
cock
coda
cold
colt
comb
come
cook
cool
cord
corn
cost
couch
could
count
course
court
cow
crack
craft
crash
crawl
cream
creek
creep
crept
crew
cried
crime
crop
cross
crow
crowd
crown
cruel
crush
crust
cry
cup
cure
curl
curse
curve
dad
dam
dame
damp
dance
dare
dark
dart
dash
date
dawn
day
dead
deal
dear
death
debt
deck
deed
deep
deer
den
dense
depth
desk
dew
did
die
dig
dim
dine
dip
dirt
dish
ditch
dive
do
does
dog
doll
don't
done
doom
door
dot
doubt
dove
down
draft
drag
drank
draw
drawer
dream
dress
drift
drill
drink
drive
drown
drug
drum
drunk
duck
due
dug
dull
dumb
dust
Dutch
dwarf
dwell
dye
ear
earl
earn
earth
ease
east
eat
edge
egg
eight
eighth
else
end
eye
face
fact
fade
fail
faint
fair
faith
fall
fame
fan
far
farm
fast
fat
fault
fear
feast
fed
fee
feed
feel
feet
fell
felt
fence
fetch
few
field
fifth
fight
file
fill
film
find
fine
firm
first
fish
fist
fit
five
fix
flag
flame
flash
flat
fled
fleet
flesh
flew
flies
flight
float
flock
floor
flow
flung
flush
fly
foam
foe
fold
folk
fond
food
fool
foot
for
force
fork
form
fort
forth
fought
foul
found
four
fourth
fowl
fox
frame
France
frank
free
freeze
freight
French
fresh
fret
friend
fright
frog
from
front
fruit
full
fun
fur
gain
game
gang
gape
gas
gasp
gate
gave
gay
geese
gem
get
ghost
gift
girl
give
glad
glance
glare
glass
gleam
glide
glimpse
globe
glove
glow
go
goal
goat
god
goes
gold
golf
gone
good
goose
got
gown
grace
grade
grain
grand
grant
grasp
grass
grave
gray
great
Greece
Greek
green
greet
grew
grief
grim
grin
grip
groan
ground
group
grove
grow
growl
grown
growth
guard
guess
guest
guide
gulf
gun
guy
had
hail
hair
half
hall
halt
hand
hang
hard
harm
harp
has
haste
hat
hatch
haul
haunt
have
hawk
hay
he
head
heal
health
heap
heard
heart
heat
hedge
heed
heel
height
heir
held
hell
help
hen
hence
her
herd
here
hers
hid
high
hill
him
hind
hint
his
hit
hold
hole
home
hood
hoof
hook
hop
horn
horse
host
hot
hound
house
how
howl
hum
hung
hunt
hurl
hurt
hush
hut
I
ice
if
ill
in
inch
ink
inn
is
it
jail
jar
jest
Jew
jewel
job
join
joint
joke
joy
judge
juice
just
keen
keep
kept
key
kick
kill
kind
king
kiss
knee
kneel
knew
knife
knight
knit
knock
knot
know
lace
lack
lad
laid
lake
lamb
lame
lamp
land
lane
lap
large
lark
lash
last
late
laugh
law
lawn
lay
lead
leaf
league
lean
leap
learn
least
left
leg
lend
length
lent
less
lest
let
lick
lie
life
lift
light
like
limb
lime
line
link
lip
list
live
load
loan
lock
lodge
log
lone
long
look
loom
lord
lose
loss
lost
lot
loud
love
low
luck
lump
lunch
mad
made
maid
mail
main
Maine
make
male
man
march
mark
mass
mast
mate
may
me
mean
meat
meet
melt
men
mend
mere
met
mice
midst
might
mild
milk
mill
mind
mine
miss
mist
moan
mob
mock
mode
moist
mold
monk
mood
moon
more
moss
most
mount
mourn
mouse
mouth
move
much
mud
mule
muse
must
my
nail
name
nay
near
neat
need
nerve
nest
new
news
next
nice
nigh
night
nine
ninth
no
nod
none
noon
nor
north
nose
not
note
noun
nounfront
now
nut
oak
oat
odd
of
off
oil
old
on
or
ought
ounce
out
owe
owl
own
ox
page
paid
pain
paint
pair
palm
pan
pant
park
part
pass
past
pat
path
paw
pay
pea
peace
peach
peak
pear
peep
peer
pen
pet
phone
phrase
pick
pie
piece
pierce
pig
pin
pinch
pink
pipe
pit
pitch
place
plain
plan
plane
plank
plant
plate
play
plead
please
pledge
plot
plow
pluck
plum
plunge
point
pond
pool
poor
pop
Pope
porch
port
post
pot
pound
pour
praise
pray
prayer
preach
press
prey
price
pride
priest
prince
print
prize
proof
proud
prove
puff
pull
pump
push
put
queen
queer
quest
quick
quit
quite
quote
race
rack
rag
rage
rail
rain
raise
ran
ranch
rang
rare
rat
raw
ray
reach
read
real
realm
rear
red
reed
reel
reign
rein
rent
rest
rib
rich
rid
ride
ridge
right
ring
ripe
rise
risk
road
roam
roar
roast
rob
robe
rock
rod
roll
Rome
room
root
rope
rose
rough
round
rouse
row
rub
rude
rug
rule
run
rush
sack
sad
safe
said
sail
saint
sake
sale
salt
same
sang
sank
sat
sauce
save
saw
say
says
scale
scarce
scare
scent
scheme
school
scold
score
scorn
scout
scratch
scream
screen
screw
sea
seal
search
seat
see
seed
seek
seem
seen
seize
self
sell
send
sense
sent
serve
set
sew
sex
shade
shaft
shake
shall
shape
share
sharp
she
shed
sheep
sheer
sheet
shield
shift
shine
ship
shirt
shock
shoe
shone
shook
shoot
shop
shore
short
shot
should
shout
show
shriek
shut
shy
sick
side
sigh
sight
sign
silk
sin
since
sing
sink
sir
sit
site
six
sixth
size
skate
sketch
skill
skin
skirt
sky
slain
slay
sleep
sleeve
slept
slice
slide
slight
slip
slope
slow
small
smart
smell
smile
smoke
smooth
snake
snap
snatch
snow
so
soak
soap
sob
soft
soil
sold
sole
solve
some
son
song
soon
sore
sort
sought
soul
sound
soup
south
sow
space
Spain
spare
spark
speak
speech
spell
spend
spent
spin
spite
splash
split
spoil
spoke
spoon
sport
spot
sprang
spurt
spy
staff
stage
stain
stair
stake
stalk
stall
stamp
stand
star
stare
start
starve
stay
steak
steal
steam
steel
steep
steer
stem
step
stern
stick
stiff
still
sting
stir
stock
stole
stone
stood
stoop
stop
store
storm
stove
straight
strange
straw
stream
street
strength
strike
strive
stroke
strong
stuck
stuff
stump
style
such
suit
sum
sun
sure
swamp
swan
swarm
sway
swear
sweat
sweep
sweet
swell
swept
swift
swim
swing
sword
swung
tail
take
tale
talk
tall
tame
tank
tap
task
taste
taught
tax
tea
teach
team
tear
teeth
tell
tempt
ten
tend
tense
tent
tenth
term
test
than
thank
that
the
thee
their
them
then
thence
there
these
they
thick
thief
thin
thine
thing
think
third
thirst
this
thorn
those
thou
though
thought
thread
three
threw
thrill
throne
throng
through
throw
thrust
thumb
thus
thy
tide
tie
tight
till
time
tin
tip
to
toast
toe
toil
told
ton
tone
tongue
too
took
tool
tooth
top
tore
torn
toss
touch
tough
tour
town
toy
trace
track
trade
train
tramp
trap
tread
treat
tree
trick
tried
trim
trip
troop
trot
truck
true
trunk
trust
truth
try
tube
tuck
tune
turn
twelve
twig
twin
twist
two
type
up
urge
us
use
vague
van
veil
vein
verb
verse
vest
vice
vine
voice
vote
vow
wail
waist
wait
wake
walk
wall
want
war
warm
warn
was
wash
waste
watch
wave
wax
way
we
weak
wealth
wear
weave
weed
week
weep
weigh
weight
well
went
wept
were
west
wet
what
wheat
wheel
when
whence
where
which
while
whip
whirl
white
who
whole
why
wide
width
wife
wild
will
wilt
win
wind
wine
wing
wink
wipe
wise
wish
wit
witch
with
woe
wolf
won
won't
wood
wool
word
wore
work
world
worm
worn
worse
worth
would
wound
wrap
wrath
wreath
wreck
write
wrong
wrote
wrought
yard
yea
year
yell
yes
yet
yield
yon
you
young
your
youth
zone
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