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@mbostock
Last active Aug 29, 2017
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Mitchell’s Best-Candidate II
license: gpl-3.0

An animation of Mitchell’s best-candidate algorithm, which produces samples with blue-noise spectral characteristics that are useful for minimizing aliasing. Unlike uniform random sampling, best-candidate samples are more evenly distributed, with fewer samples close together. (A similar, but more efficient, algorithm is poisson-disc sampling.)

For each new sample, the best-candidate algorithm generates a fixed number of candidate samples, shown in gray. Here, 10 candidates are generated. The best candidate, shown in red, is the one that is farthest away from all previous (non-candidate) samples.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<meta charset="utf-8">
<style>
.point {
fill: #000;
}
.candidate .point {
fill: #aaa;
transition: fill 250ms linear;
}
.candidate .search {
fill: none;
stroke: #aaa;
transition: stroke 250ms linear, stroke-width 250ms linear;
}
.candidate--best .point {
fill: #f00;
}
.candidate--best .search {
stroke: #f00;
stroke-width: 1.5px;
}
</style>
<body>
<script src="//d3js.org/d3.v3.min.js"></script>
<script>
var width = 960,
height = 500;
var k = 10; // number of candidates to consider per circle
var quadtree = d3.geom.quadtree()
.extent([[0, 0], [width, height]])
([[Math.random() * width, Math.random() * height]]);
var svg = d3.select("body").append("svg")
.attr("width", width)
.attr("height", height);
var gCandidate = svg.append("g")
.attr("class", "candidate");
var gPoint = svg.append("g")
.attr("class", "point");
gPoint.append("circle")
.attr("r", 3.5)
.attr("cx", quadtree.point[0])
.attr("cy", quadtree.point[1]);
(function nextPoint() {
var i = 0,
maxDistance = -Infinity,
bestCandidate = null;
(function nextCandidate() {
if (++i > k) {
gCandidate.selectAll("*").transition()
.style("opacity", 0)
.remove();
gPoint.append("circle")
.attr("r", 3.5)
.attr("cx", bestCandidate.__data__[0])
.attr("cy", bestCandidate.__data__[1]);
quadtree.add(bestCandidate.__data__);
return nextPoint();
}
var x = Math.random() * width,
y = Math.random() * height,
closest = search(x, y),
dx = closest[0] - x,
dy = closest[1] - y,
distance = Math.sqrt(dx * dx + dy * dy);
var g = gCandidate.insert("g", "*")
.datum([x, y])
.attr("class", "candidate--current");
g.append("circle")
.attr("class", "point")
.attr("r", 3.5)
.attr("cx", x)
.attr("cy", y);
g.append("circle")
.attr("class", "search")
.attr("r", 2.5)
.attr("cx", x)
.attr("cy", y);
g.append("line")
.attr("class", "search")
.attr("x1", x)
.attr("y1", y)
.attr("x2", x)
.attr("y2", y);
var t = g.transition()
.duration(500)
.each("end", function() {
if (distance > maxDistance) {
d3.select(bestCandidate).attr("class", null);
d3.select(this.parentNode.appendChild(this)).attr("class", "candidate--best");
bestCandidate = this;
maxDistance = distance;
} else {
d3.select(this).attr("class", null);
}
nextCandidate();
});
t.select("circle.search")
.attr("r", distance);
t.select("line.search")
.attr("x2", closest[0])
.attr("y2", closest[1]);
})();
})();
// Find the closest node to the specified point.
function search(x, y) {
var x0 = 0,
y0 = 0,
x3 = width,
y3 = width,
minDistance2 = Infinity,
closestPoint;
(function find(node, x1, y1, x2, y2) {
var point;
// stop searching if this cell can’t contain a closer node
if (x1 > x3 || y1 > y3 || x2 < x0 || y2 < y0) return;
// visit this point
if (point = node.point) {
var dx = x - point[0],
dy = y - point[1],
distance2 = dx * dx + dy * dy;
if (distance2 < minDistance2) {
var distance = Math.sqrt(minDistance2 = distance2);
x0 = x - distance, y0 = y - distance;
x3 = x + distance, y3 = y + distance;
closestPoint = point;
}
}
// bisect the current node
var children = node.nodes,
xm = (x1 + x2) * .5,
ym = (y1 + y2) * .5,
right = x > xm,
below = y > ym;
// visit closest cell first
if (node = children[below << 1 | right]) find(node, right ? xm : x1, below ? ym : y1, right ? x2 : xm, below ? y2 : ym);
if (node = children[below << 1 | !right]) find(node, right ? x1 : xm, below ? ym : y1, right ? xm : x2, below ? y2 : ym);
if (node = children[!below << 1 | right]) find(node, right ? xm : x1, below ? y1 : ym, right ? x2 : xm, below ? ym : y2);
if (node = children[!below << 1 | !right]) find(node, right ? x1 : xm, below ? y1 : ym, right ? xm : x2, below ? ym : y2);
})(quadtree, x0, y0, x3, y3);
return closestPoint;
}
</script>
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