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Using a zvol for a swap device for host and VMs
Swapping to Optane
Since i’m running virtual machines, there is another thing which should go to low-latency storage: swap. I try to conserve as much memory as possible, which means VMs sometimes use their swap space, which gets horribly slow in case it resides on spinning disks. For that reason i created another partition, created a separate ZFS pool and created disk images that will hold the VMs swap.
Creating a new pool is very simple and as i don’t need redundancy on swap it will just be one “device”, actually a partition. Using unique hardware identifiers instead of device paths (e.g. “/dev/nvme0n1p3”) is quite helpful as PCIe enumeration and partition order may change.
$ zpool create \
-O normalization=formD \
-O sync=always \
SWPS INTEL_SSDPED1D280GA_PHMXXX2301DU280CGN-part2
Now create a zvol as a swap device but you'll need to configure it appropriately.
- Set the volume block size to match your systems page size. This tuning prevents ZFS from having to perform read-modify-write options on a larger block while the system is already low on memory.
- Set the logbias=throughput and sync=always properties. Data written to the volume will be flushed immediately to disk freeing up memory as quickly as possible.
- Set primarycache=metadata to avoid keeping swap data in RAM via the ARC.
- Disable automatic snapshots of the swap device.
( 4GB works for me but size accordingly. I'm not sure if this duplication of settings is needed, i.e. sync=always, as the zvool should inheret these from the pool. In which case maybe all the options should go to the pool?)
$ zfs create -V 4G -b $(getconf PAGESIZE) \
-o logbias=throughput -o sync=always \
-o primarycache=metadata \
-o com.sun:auto-snapshot=false \
SWPS/swap
Now new virtual disks are created on this ZFS pool and get attached to their virtual machine.
$ zfs list
swaps 33.1M 96.8G 24K /swaps
swaps/vm-100-disk-1 30K 96.8G 30K -
swaps/vm-101-disk-1 1.02M 96.8G 1.02M -
...
Replacing old swap and re-claiming that space for the root partition is easy if the VMs are using LVM. /dev/sdb is the new virtual device available to the VM, stored at the ZFS “swaps” pool on Optane.
Add the new swap space to LVM:
$ pvcreate /dev/sdb
$ vgcreate swp /dev/sdb
$ lvcreate -l 100%FREE -n swap swp
Create the swap file system and use the UUID as device identifier in /etc/fstab:
$ mkswap /dev/vm-optane/swap
$ vim /etc/fstab
/dev/mapper/swp-swap none swap sw 0 0
Disable and remove the old swap partition:
$ swapoff /dev/vm-system/swap
$ lvremove /dev/vm-system/swap
Extend the root partition and file system to use the free’d up space:
$ lvextend -l +100%FREE /dev/vm-system/root
$ resize2fs /dev/vm-system/root
…and reboot the VM, just to be sure the file system is undamaged.
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