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Bin-packed texture atlas implementation in Zig. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texture_atlas
//! Implements a texture atlas (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texture_atlas).
//!
//! The implementation is based on "A Thousand Ways to Pack the Bin - A
//! Practical Approach to Two-Dimensional Rectangle Bin Packing" by Jukka
//! Jylänki. This specific implementation is based heavily on
//! Nicolas P. Rougier's freetype-gl project as well as Jukka's C++
//! implementation: https://github.com/juj/RectangleBinPack
//!
//! Limitations that are easy to fix, but I didn't need them:
//!
//! * Written data must be packed, no support for custom strides.
//! * Texture is always a square, no ability to set width != height. Note
//! that regions written INTO the atlas do not have to be square, only
//! the full atlas texture itself.
//!
const Atlas = @This();
const std = @import("std");
const assert = std.debug.assert;
const Allocator = std.mem.Allocator;
const testing = std.testing;
/// Data is the raw texture data.
data: []u8,
/// Width and height of the atlas texture. The current implementation is
/// always square so this is both the width and the height.
size: u32 = 0,
/// The nodes (rectangles) of available space.
nodes: std.ArrayListUnmanaged(Node) = .{},
/// The format of the texture data being written into the Atlas. This must be
/// uniform for all textures in the Atlas. If you have some textures with
/// different formats, you must use multiple atlases or convert the textures.
format: Format = .greyscale,
/// This will be set to true when the atlas has data set on it. It is up
/// to the user of the atlas to set this to false when they observe the value.
/// This is a useful value to know if you need to send new data to the GPU or
/// not.
modified: bool = false,
/// This will be set to true when the atlas has been resized. It is up
/// to the user of the atlas to set this to false when they observe the value.
/// The resized value is useful for sending textures to the GPU to know if
/// a new texture needs to be allocated or if an existing one can be
/// updated in-place.
resized: bool = false,
pub const Format = enum(u3) {
greyscale = 1,
rgb = 3,
rgba = 4,
};
const Node = struct {
x: u32,
y: u32,
width: u32,
};
pub const Error = error{
/// Atlas cannot fit the desired region. You must enlarge the atlas.
AtlasFull,
};
/// A region within the texture atlas. These can be acquired using the
/// "reserve" function. A region reservation is required to write data.
pub const Region = struct {
x: u32,
y: u32,
width: u32,
height: u32,
};
pub fn init(alloc: Allocator, size: u32, format: Format) !Atlas {
var result = Atlas{
.data = try alloc.alloc(u8, size * size * @enumToInt(format)),
.size = size,
.nodes = .{},
.format = format,
};
errdefer result.deinit(alloc);
// TODO: figure out optimal prealloc based on real world usage
try result.nodes.ensureUnusedCapacity(alloc, 64);
// This sets up our initial state
result.clear();
result.modified = false;
return result;
}
pub fn deinit(self: *Atlas, alloc: Allocator) void {
self.nodes.deinit(alloc);
alloc.free(self.data);
self.* = undefined;
}
/// Reserve a region within the atlas with the given width and height.
///
/// May allocate to add a new rectangle into the internal list of rectangles.
/// This will not automatically enlarge the texture if it is full.
pub fn reserve(self: *Atlas, alloc: Allocator, width: u32, height: u32) !Region {
// x, y are populated within :best_idx below
var region: Region = .{ .x = 0, .y = 0, .width = width, .height = height };
// If our width/height are 0, then we return the region as-is. This
// may seem like an error case but it simplifies downstream callers who
// might be trying to write empty data.
if (width == 0 and height == 0) return region;
// Find the location in our nodes list to insert the new node for this region.
var best_idx: usize = best_idx: {
var best_height: u32 = std.math.maxInt(u32);
var best_width: u32 = best_height;
var chosen: ?usize = null;
var i: usize = 0;
while (i < self.nodes.items.len) : (i += 1) {
// Check if our region fits within this node.
const y = self.fit(i, width, height) orelse continue;
const node = self.nodes.items[i];
if ((y + height) < best_height or
((y + height) == best_height and
(node.width > 0 and node.width < best_width)))
{
chosen = i;
best_width = node.width;
best_height = y + height;
region.x = node.x;
region.y = y;
}
}
// If we never found a chosen index, the atlas cannot fit our region.
break :best_idx chosen orelse return Error.AtlasFull;
};
// Insert our new node for this rectangle at the exact best index
try self.nodes.insert(alloc, best_idx, .{
.x = region.x,
.y = region.y + height,
.width = width,
});
// Optimize our rectangles
var i: usize = best_idx + 1;
while (i < self.nodes.items.len) : (i += 1) {
const node = &self.nodes.items[i];
const prev = self.nodes.items[i - 1];
if (node.x < (prev.x + prev.width)) {
const shrink = prev.x + prev.width - node.x;
node.x += shrink;
node.width -|= shrink;
if (node.width <= 0) {
_ = self.nodes.orderedRemove(i);
i -= 1;
continue;
}
}
break;
}
self.merge();
return region;
}
/// Attempts to fit a rectangle of width x height into the node at idx.
/// The return value is the y within the texture where the rectangle can be
/// placed. The x is the same as the node.
fn fit(self: Atlas, idx: usize, width: u32, height: u32) ?u32 {
// If the added width exceeds our texture size, it doesn't fit.
const node = self.nodes.items[idx];
if ((node.x + width) > (self.size - 1)) return null;
// Go node by node looking for space that can fit our width.
var y = node.y;
var i = idx;
var width_left = width;
while (width_left > 0) : (i += 1) {
const n = self.nodes.items[i];
if (n.y > y) y = n.y;
// If the added height exceeds our texture size, it doesn't fit.
if ((y + height) > (self.size - 1)) return null;
width_left -|= n.width;
}
return y;
}
/// Merge adjacent nodes with the same y value.
fn merge(self: *Atlas) void {
var i: usize = 0;
while (i < self.nodes.items.len - 1) {
const node = &self.nodes.items[i];
const next = self.nodes.items[i + 1];
if (node.y == next.y) {
node.width += next.width;
_ = self.nodes.orderedRemove(i + 1);
continue;
}
i += 1;
}
}
/// Set the data associated with a reserved region. The data is expected
/// to fit exactly within the region. The data must be formatted with the
/// proper bpp configured on init.
pub fn set(self: *Atlas, reg: Region, data: []const u8) void {
assert(reg.x < (self.size - 1));
assert((reg.x + reg.width) <= (self.size - 1));
assert(reg.y < (self.size - 1));
assert((reg.y + reg.height) <= (self.size - 1));
const depth = @enumToInt(self.format);
var i: u32 = 0;
while (i < reg.height) : (i += 1) {
const tex_offset = (((reg.y + i) * self.size) + reg.x) * depth;
const data_offset = i * reg.width * depth;
std.mem.copy(
u8,
self.data[tex_offset..],
data[data_offset .. data_offset + (reg.width * depth)],
);
}
self.modified = true;
}
// Grow the texture to the new size, preserving all previously written data.
pub fn grow(self: *Atlas, alloc: Allocator, size_new: u32) Allocator.Error!void {
assert(size_new >= self.size);
if (size_new == self.size) return;
// Preserve our old values so we can copy the old data
const data_old = self.data;
const size_old = self.size;
// Allocate our new data
self.data = try alloc.alloc(u8, size_new * size_new * @enumToInt(self.format));
defer alloc.free(data_old);
errdefer {
alloc.free(self.data);
self.data = data_old;
}
// Add our new rectangle for our added righthand space. We do this
// right away since its the only operation that can fail and we want
// to make error cleanup easier.
try self.nodes.append(alloc, .{
.x = size_old - 1,
.y = 1,
.width = size_new - size_old,
});
// If our allocation and rectangle add succeeded, we can go ahead
// and persist our new size and copy over the old data.
self.size = size_new;
std.mem.set(u8, self.data, 0);
self.set(.{
.x = 0, // don't bother skipping border so we can avoid strides
.y = 1, // skip the first border row
.width = size_old,
.height = size_old - 2, // skip the last border row
}, data_old[size_old * @enumToInt(self.format) ..]);
// We are both modified and resized
self.modified = true;
self.resized = true;
}
// Empty the atlas. This doesn't reclaim any previously allocated memory.
pub fn clear(self: *Atlas) void {
self.modified = true;
std.mem.set(u8, self.data, 0);
self.nodes.clearRetainingCapacity();
// Add our initial rectangle. This is the size of the full texture
// and is the initial rectangle we fit our regions in. We keep a 1px border
// to avoid artifacting when sampling the texture.
self.nodes.appendAssumeCapacity(.{ .x = 1, .y = 1, .width = self.size - 2 });
}
test "exact fit" {
const alloc = testing.allocator;
var atlas = try init(alloc, 34, .greyscale); // +2 for 1px border
defer atlas.deinit(alloc);
_ = try atlas.reserve(alloc, 32, 32);
try testing.expect(!atlas.modified);
try testing.expectError(Error.AtlasFull, atlas.reserve(alloc, 1, 1));
}
test "doesnt fit" {
const alloc = testing.allocator;
var atlas = try init(alloc, 32, .greyscale);
defer atlas.deinit(alloc);
// doesn't fit due to border
try testing.expectError(Error.AtlasFull, atlas.reserve(alloc, 32, 32));
}
test "fit multiple" {
const alloc = testing.allocator;
var atlas = try init(alloc, 32, .greyscale);
defer atlas.deinit(alloc);
_ = try atlas.reserve(alloc, 15, 30);
_ = try atlas.reserve(alloc, 15, 30);
try testing.expectError(Error.AtlasFull, atlas.reserve(alloc, 1, 1));
}
test "writing data" {
const alloc = testing.allocator;
var atlas = try init(alloc, 32, .greyscale);
defer atlas.deinit(alloc);
const reg = try atlas.reserve(alloc, 2, 2);
try testing.expect(!atlas.modified);
atlas.set(reg, &[_]u8{ 1, 2, 3, 4 });
try testing.expect(atlas.modified);
// 33 because of the 1px border and so on
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 1), atlas.data[33]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 2), atlas.data[34]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 3), atlas.data[65]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 4), atlas.data[66]);
}
test "grow" {
const alloc = testing.allocator;
var atlas = try init(alloc, 4, .greyscale); // +2 for 1px border
defer atlas.deinit(alloc);
const reg = try atlas.reserve(alloc, 2, 2);
try testing.expectError(Error.AtlasFull, atlas.reserve(alloc, 1, 1));
// Write some data so we can verify that growing doesn't mess it up
atlas.set(reg, &[_]u8{ 1, 2, 3, 4 });
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 1), atlas.data[5]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 2), atlas.data[6]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 3), atlas.data[9]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 4), atlas.data[10]);
// Reset our state
atlas.modified = false;
atlas.resized = false;
// Expand by exactly 1 should fit our new 1x1 block.
try atlas.grow(alloc, atlas.size + 1);
try testing.expect(atlas.modified);
try testing.expect(atlas.resized);
_ = try atlas.reserve(alloc, 1, 1);
// Ensure our data is still set. Not the offsets change due to size.
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 1), atlas.data[atlas.size + 1]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 2), atlas.data[atlas.size + 2]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 3), atlas.data[atlas.size * 2 + 1]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 4), atlas.data[atlas.size * 2 + 2]);
}
test "writing RGB data" {
const alloc = testing.allocator;
var atlas = try init(alloc, 32, .rgb);
defer atlas.deinit(alloc);
// This is RGB so its 3 bpp
const reg = try atlas.reserve(alloc, 1, 2);
atlas.set(reg, &[_]u8{
1, 2, 3,
4, 5, 6,
});
// 33 because of the 1px border and so on
const depth = @intCast(usize, @enumToInt(atlas.format));
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 1), atlas.data[33 * depth]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 2), atlas.data[33 * depth + 1]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 3), atlas.data[33 * depth + 2]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 4), atlas.data[65 * depth]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 5), atlas.data[65 * depth + 1]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 6), atlas.data[65 * depth + 2]);
}
test "grow RGB" {
const alloc = testing.allocator;
// Atlas is 4x4 so its a 1px border meaning we only have 2x2 available
var atlas = try init(alloc, 4, .rgb);
defer atlas.deinit(alloc);
// Get our 2x2, which should be ALL our usable space
const reg = try atlas.reserve(alloc, 2, 2);
try testing.expectError(Error.AtlasFull, atlas.reserve(alloc, 1, 1));
// This is RGB so its 3 bpp
atlas.set(reg, &[_]u8{
10, 11, 12, // (0, 0) (x, y) from top-left
13, 14, 15, // (1, 0)
20, 21, 22, // (0, 1)
23, 24, 25, // (1, 1)
});
// Our top left skips the first row (size * depth) and the first
// column (depth) for the 1px border.
const depth = @intCast(usize, @enumToInt(atlas.format));
var tl = (atlas.size * depth) + depth;
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 10), atlas.data[tl]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 11), atlas.data[tl + 1]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 12), atlas.data[tl + 2]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 13), atlas.data[tl + 3]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 14), atlas.data[tl + 4]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 15), atlas.data[tl + 5]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 0), atlas.data[tl + 6]); // border
tl += (atlas.size * depth); // next row
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 20), atlas.data[tl]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 21), atlas.data[tl + 1]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 22), atlas.data[tl + 2]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 23), atlas.data[tl + 3]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 24), atlas.data[tl + 4]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 25), atlas.data[tl + 5]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 0), atlas.data[tl + 6]); // border
// Expand by exactly 1 should fit our new 1x1 block.
try atlas.grow(alloc, atlas.size + 1);
// Data should be in same place accounting for the new size
tl = (atlas.size * depth) + depth;
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 10), atlas.data[tl]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 11), atlas.data[tl + 1]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 12), atlas.data[tl + 2]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 13), atlas.data[tl + 3]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 14), atlas.data[tl + 4]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 15), atlas.data[tl + 5]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 0), atlas.data[tl + 6]); // border
tl += (atlas.size * depth); // next row
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 20), atlas.data[tl]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 21), atlas.data[tl + 1]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 22), atlas.data[tl + 2]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 23), atlas.data[tl + 3]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 24), atlas.data[tl + 4]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 25), atlas.data[tl + 5]);
try testing.expectEqual(@as(u8, 0), atlas.data[tl + 6]); // border
// Should fit the new blocks around the edges
_ = try atlas.reserve(alloc, 1, 3);
_ = try atlas.reserve(alloc, 2, 1);
try testing.expectError(Error.AtlasFull, atlas.reserve(alloc, 1, 1));
}

Copyright 2022 Mitchell Hashimoto

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

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