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Working around Haskell's namespace problem for records

The Problem

Defining records in Haskell causes accessor functions for the record's fields to be defined. There is no seperate namespace for these accessor functions.

The Goal

Be able to

  • use records in Haskell, which share field names.
  • use lenses for accessing these fields
  • use bindings in code with the same name as the record's fields avoiding any namespace clashes
  • avoid overly verbose code and boilerplate as much as possible.

The Solution Ingredients

DuplicateRecordsFields

There is the GHC extension `DuplicateRecordFields, which allows the definition of two records sharing the same field name:

{-# LANGUAGE DuplicateRecordFields #-}

data User  = User  { name :: Text, uid :: Int }
data Group = Group { name :: Text, gid :: Int }

The extentions allows the two records to share the field name name.

makeFieldsNoPrefix

But what about lenses? We want to be able to access the fields with lenses. We could generate lenses with makeLenses after prefixing all record fields with an underscore:

{-# LANGUAGE TemplateHaskell       #-}
{-# LANGUAGE DuplicateRecordFields #-}

import Control.Lens

data User  = User  { _name :: Text, _uid :: Int }
data Group = Group { _name :: Text, _gid :: Int }

makeLenses ''User
makeLenses ''Group

This doesn't work, because each makeLenses tries to define a lense named name. More suitable for this setup would be makeFields, which uses type classes for defining lenses suitable for different records.

But, makeFields expects the record fields to be prefixed not only with an underscore, but also with the data type name. Thus we would have to write something like

{-# LANGUAGE FunctionalDependencies #-}
{-# LANGUAGE MultiParamTypeClasses  #-}
{-# LANGUAGE TemplateHaskell        #-}
{-# LANGUAGE DuplicateRecordFields  #-}
{-# LANGUAGE NoImplicitPrelude      #-}

import Control.Lens

data User  = User  { _userName :: Text, _userUid :: Int }
data Group = Group { _groupName :: Text, _groupGid :: Int }

makeFields ''User
makeFields ''Group

This works, but it increases the verbosity of the code, which contradicts with one of our stated goals. Also, in this setup, we sacrifice short record field names for short lens names — in fact we wouldn't need DuplicateRecordFields anymore.

Lens' current master branch contains a function very similar to makeFields, but it doesn't require the verbose prefixing of the field names anymore (see https://github.com/ekmett/lens/blob/master/src/Control/Lens/TH.hs). It is called makeFieldsNoPrefix. Using this function we can write:

{-# LANGUAGE FunctionalDependencies #-}
{-# LANGUAGE MultiParamTypeClasses  #-}
{-# LANGUAGE TemplateHaskell        #-}
{-# LANGUAGE DuplicateRecordFields  #-}
{-# LANGUAGE NoImplicitPrelude      #-}

import Control.Lens

data User  = User  { _name :: Text, _uid :: Int }
data Group = Group { _name :: Text, _gid :: Int }

makeFieldsNoPrefix ''User
makeFieldsNoPrefix ''Group

This provides us with the lens name which can be used for accessing records of both types.

Source Organization

Generating lenses this way only works for multiple records if the lens generations using using makeFieldsNoPrefix (same for makeFields) are concentrated in one module scope; If we had a module User and a module Group both defining their records and generating lenses using makeFieldsNoPrefix, each module would bring their own class definition of HasName, which would clash in a module dealing with both, users and groups.

In order to prevent these issues, I suggest to put all lens definitions in one module named e.g. Lenses. This module imports all desired types and uses makeFieldsNoPrefix for generting the lens type classes and instances.

Qualified Imports

This looks promosing so far. But what we cannot do yet is having local bindings of the name name — this would shadow the existing lens of the same name. Consider these functions:

createUser :: Text -> IO User
createUser name = do
  uid <- allocateUserId
  return User { _name = name, _uid = uid }

lookupUser :: Text -> [User] -> Maybe User
lookupUser userName users = listToMaybe $
  filter (\ user -> user ^. name == userName) users

In createUser we would shadow the lens name, but this would only cause a compiler warning — we don't really need the lens there, so it's not much of a problem. In lookupUser we use the lens name, thus we have decided to go with the verbose local binding userName instead of the shorter name. Alternatives would be to call the first parameter to the function name_ or name' or n. Personally, I don't like this approach of continuously working around these name clashes by somehow adjusting my binding's names.

For a more consistent workaround, I have decided to simply import my Lenses module qualified, as in:

import qualified Lenses as Lens

lookupUser :: Text -> [User] -> Maybe User
lookupUser name users = listToMaybe $
  filter (\ user -> user ^. Lens.name == name) users

What this essentially means, that I define three namespaces:

  • One for raw field names, prefixed with an underscore
  • One for lenses, prefixed with Lens.
  • One for everything else (local bindings, my functions, etc.)

Summary

To summarize the above: the Haskell namespace collisioning problem with regards to record field names is annoying, but the following might pose a suitable workaround for some situations:

  • Use the DuplicateRecordFields extension which allows removing overly verbose prefixing of record fields
  • Prefix all record field names with an underscore
  • For a given project, define lenses in one dedicated module for all records using makeFieldsNoPrefix
  • Import this lens-defining module qualified

Comments?

Please feel free to leave a comment. I would be curious to learn how other people deal with these kind of issues.

@jchia

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jchia commented May 11, 2018

If your special lens module is already a separate module to be imported qualified, you could go further and make the lens name the same as the field names so that you don't need to get distracted by weird underscore-prefixed field names when you're using NameFieldPuns or other things that still require direct use of the field names. To that end, a variant of makeFieldsNoPrefix is needed that expects plain field names (without any special prefixes including underscore) but I don't think it's defined in Control.Lens.TH and I don't know how easy it is to make.

@eckyputrady

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eckyputrady commented May 13, 2018

One problem I see is that adding new, totally unrelated data structure might cause recompilation of the whole project. This is because the Lens module is most likely be imported in most modules & Lens module need to be modified when a new data structure is added.

@graninas

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graninas commented Aug 9, 2018

This works perfectly, thank you!

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