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Cyber security engineer, Security Engineer, Security Analyst, Information Security Analyst and many more names
> What is information security and how is it achieved?
> What are the core principles of information security?
> What is non-repudiation (as it applies to IT security)?
> What is the relationship between information security and data availability?
> What is a security policy and why do we need one?
> What is the difference between logical and physical security? Can you give an example of both?
> What’s an acceptable level of risk?
> What are the most common types of attacks that threaten enterprise data security?
> What is the difference between a threat and a vulnerability?
> Can you give me an example of common security vulnerabilities?
> Are you familiar with any security management frameworks such as ISO/IEC 27002?
> What is a security control?
> What are the different types of security control?
> Can you describe the information lifecycle? How do you ensure information security at each phase?
> What is Information Security Governance?
> What are your professional values? Why are professional ethics important in the information security field?
> Are open-source projects more or less secure than proprietary ones?
> Who do you look up to within the field of Information Security? Why?
> Where do you get your security news from?
> What’s the difference between symmetric and public-key cryptography?
> What kind of network do you have at home?
> What are the advantages offered by bug bounty programs over normal testing practices?
> What are your first three steps when securing a Linux server?
> What are your first three steps when securing a Windows server?
> Who’s more dangerous to an organization, insiders or outsiders?
> Why is DNS monitoring important?
> How would traceroute help you find out where a breakdown in communication is?
> Why would you want to use SSH from a Windows PC?
> How would you find out what a POST code means?
> What is the difference between a black hat and a white hat?
> What do you think of social networking sites such as Facebook and LinkedIn?
> Why are internal threats often more successful than external threats?
> Why is deleted data not truly gone when you delete it?
> What is the Chain of Custody?
> How would you permanently remove the threat of data falling into the wrong hands?
> What is exfiltration?
> How do you protect your home wireless access point?
> If you were going to break into a database-based website, how would you do it?
> What is the CIA triangle?
> What is the difference between information protection and information assurance?
> How would you lock down a mobile device?
> What is the difference between closed-source and open-source? Which is better?
> What is your opinion on hacktivist groups such as Anonymous?
# Network security
> What port does ping work over?
> Do you prefer filtered ports or closed ports on your firewall?
> How exactly does traceroute/tracert work at the protocol level?
> What are Linux’s strengths and weaknesses vs Windows?
> What is a firewall? And provide an example of how a firewall can be bypassed by an outsider to access the corporate network
> Besides firewalls, what other devices are used to enforce network boundaries?
> What is the role of network boundaries in information security?
> What does an intrusion detection system do? How does it do it?
> What is a honeypot? What type of attack does it defend against?
> What technologies and approaches are used to secure information and services deployed on cloud computing infrastructure?
> What information security challenges are faced in a cloud computing environment?
> Can you give me an overview of IP multicast?
> How many bits do you need for a subnet size?
> What is packet filtering?
> Can you explain the difference between a packet filtering firewall and an application layer firewall?
> What are the layers of the OSI model?
> How would you login to Active Directory from a Linux or Mac box?
> What is an easy way to configure a network to allow only a single computer to login on a particular jack?
> What are the three ways to authenticate a person?
> You find out that there is an active problem on your network! You can fix it, but it is out of your jurisdiction! What do you do?
> How would you compromise an “office workstation” at a hotel?
> What is worse in firewall detection, a false negative or a false positive? And why?
> How would you judge if a remote server is running IIS or Apache?
> What is the difference between an HIDS and a NIDS?
# Application security
> Describe the last program or script that you wrote, what problem did it solve?
> Can you briefly discuss the role of information security in each phase of the software development lifecycle?
> How would you implement a secure login field on a high traffic website where performance is a consideration?
> What are the various ways to handle account brute forcing?
> What is cross-site request forgery?
> How does one defend against CSRF?
> If you were a site administrator looking for incoming CSRF attacks, what would you look for?
> What’s the difference between HTTP and HTML?
> How does HTTP handle state?
> What exactly is cross-site scripting?
> What’s the difference between stored and reflected XSS?
> What are the common defenses against XSS?
> You are remoted in to a headless system in a remote area, you have no physical access to the hardware and you need to perform an OS installation! What do you do?
> On a Windows network, why is it easier to break into a local account than an AD account?
# Security architect
> Explain data leakage and give examples of some of the root causes
> What are some effective ways to control data leakage?
> Describe the 80/20 rules of networking
> What are web server vulnerabilities and name a few methods to prevent web server attacks?
> What are the most damaging types of malwares?
> What’s your preferred method of giving remote employees access to the company network and are there any weaknesses associated to it?
> List a couple of tests that you would do to a network to identify security flaws
> What kind of websites and cloud services would you block?
> What type of security flaw is there in VPN?
> What is a DDoS attack?
> Can you describe the role of security operations in the enterprise?
> What is layered security architecture? Is it a good approach? Why?
> Have you designed security measures that span overlapping information domains? Can you give me a brief overview of the solution?
> How do you ensure that a design anticipates human error?
> How do you ensure that a design achieves regulatory compliance?
> What is capability-based security? Have you incorporated this pattern into your designs? How?
> Can you give me a few examples of security architecture requirements?
> Who typically owns security architecture requirements and what stakeholders contribute?
> What special security challenges does SOA present?
> What security challenges do unified communications present?
> Do you take a different approach to security architecture for a COTS vs a custom solution?
> Have you architected a security solution that involved SaaS components? What challenges did you face?
> Have you worked on a project in which stakeholders choose to accept identified security risks that worried you? How did you handle the situation?
> You see a user logging in as root to perform basic functions, Is this a problem?
> What is data protection in transit vs data protection at rest?
> You need to reset a password-protected BIOS configuration, What do you do?
# Risk management
> Is there an acceptable level of risk?
> How do you measure risk? Can you give an example of a specific metric that measures information security risk?
> Can you give me an example of risk trade-offs (eg risk vs cost)?
> What is incident management?
> What is business continuity management? How does it relate to security?
> What is the primary reason most companies haven’t fixed their vulnerabilities?
> What’s the goal of information security within an organization?
> What’s the difference between a threat, vulnerability, and a risk?
> If you were to start a job as head engineer or CSO at a Fortune 500 company due to the previous guy being fired for incompetence, what would your priorities be? [Imagine you start on day one with no knowledge of the environment]
> As a corporate information security professional, what’s more important to focus on: threats or vulnerabilities?
> If I’m on my laptop, here inside my company, and I have just plugged in my network cable, How many packets must leave my NIC in order to complete a traceroute to twitter(dot)com?
> How would you build the ultimate botnet?
> What are the primary design flaws in HTTP, and how would you improve it?
> If you could re-design TCP, what would you fix?
> What is the one feature you would add to DNS to improve it the most?
> What is likely to be the primary protocol used for the Internet of Things in 10 years?
> If you had to get rid of a layer of the OSI model, which would it be?
> What is residual risk?
> What is the difference between a vulnerability and an exploit?
# Security audits, testing & incident response
> What is an IT security audit?
> What is an RFC?
> What type of systems should be audited?
> Have you worked in a virtualized environment?
> What is the most difficult part of auditing for you?
> Describe the most difficult auditing procedure you’ve implemented?
> What is change management?
> What types of RFC or change management software have you used?
> What do you do if a rollout goes wrong?
> How do you manage system major incidents?
> How do you ask developers to document changes?
> How do you compare files that might have changed since the last time you looked at them?
> Name a few types of security breaches?
> What is a common method of disrupting enterprise systems?
> What are some security software tools you can use to monitor the network?
> What should you do after you suspect a network has been hacked?
> How can you encrypt email to secure transmissions about the company?
> What document describes steps to bring up a network that’s had a major outage?
> How can you ensure backups are secure?
> What is one way to do a cross-script hack?
> How can you avoid cross script hacks?
> How do you test information security?
> What is the difference between black box and white box penetration testing?
> What is a vulnerability scan?
> In pen testing what’s better, a red team or a blue team?
> Why would you bring in an outside contractor to perform a penetration test?
> When will you consider an incident to be resolved?
> How to investigate a potentially infected employee workstation?
> How to respond to root CA breach?
> How to analyze netstat logs for suspicious activities?
> How to respond to a compromised server?
> How to respond if company's chats are leaked into public(say slack data)?
> How do you respond if you came to know a Critical Zero-day has been disclosed without any available patch?
> How to respond if you came to know on a random Monday morning that 3 of the workstation's AV resported it cleaned password stealers from the system?
> What details must be added in a report after a DDoS attack?
> After analyzing active server logs, you see someone trying to break into your site, how would you respond to this incident? Is this even an incident?
# Cryptography
> What is secret-key cryptography?
> What is public-key cryptography?
> What is a session key?
> What is RSA?
> How fast is RSA?
> What would it take to break RSA?
> Are strong primes necessary for RSA?
> How large a module (key) should be used in RSA?
> How large should the primes be?
> How is RSA used for authentication in practice? What are RSA digital signatures?
> What are the alternatives to RSA?
> Is RSA currently in use today?
> What are DSS and DSA?
> What is difference between DSA and RSA?
> Is DSA secure?
> What are special signature schemes?
> What is a blind signature scheme?
> What is a designated confirmer signatures?
> What is a fail-stop signature scheme?
> What is a group signature?
> What is blowfish?
> What is SAFER?
> What is FEAL?
> What is Shipjack?
> What is stream cipher?
> What is the advantage of public-key cryptography over secret-key cryptography?
> What is the advantage of secret-key cryptography over public-key cryptography?
> What is Message Authentication Code (MAC)?
> What is a block cipher?
> What are different block cipher modes of operation?
> What is a stream cipher? Name a most widely used stream cipher?
> What is one-way hash function?
> What is collision when we talk about hash functions?
> What are the applications of a hash function?
> What is trapdoor function?
> Cryptographically speaking, what is the main method of building a shared secret over a public medium?
> What’s the difference between Diffie-Hellman and RSA?
> What kind of attack is a standard Diffie-Hellman exchange vulnerable to?
> What’s the difference between encoding, encryption, and hashing?
> In public-key cryptography you have a public and a private key, and you often perform both encryption and signing functions! Which key is used for which function?
> What’s the difference between Symmetric and Asymmetric encryption?
> If you had to both encrypt and compress data during transmission, which would you do first, and why?
> What is SSL and why is it not enough when it comes to encryption?
> What is salting, and why is it used?
> What are salted hashes?
> What is the Three-way handshake? How can it be used to create a DOS attack?
> What’s more secure, SSL or HTTPS?
> Can you describe rainbow tables?
> How do CAs store their private root keys?
> How does HTTP(S) prevents a MITM attack by a proxy server?
> How does the browser actually verify the validity of a given server certificate?
> How can <Any Country> perform MITM attacks on all HTTPS traffic? Is it even possible?
> How does my browser inherently trust a CA?
# Source:- sec-community and personal experience
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