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@nfarrar nfarrar/spectrum.rst
Created Dec 30, 2015

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EMR Spectrum

  • the the shorter wavelength allows them to more easily penetrate the structure of buildings
  • Knife-edge propagation is the term used to describe when signals are partially refracted around solid objects exhibiting sharp edges
  • wavelength in meters equals 300 divided by frequency in megahertz

2 Meter Band: 144 Mhz - 148 Mhz

Conversions

Unit Target Formula Example
MHz kHz Mhz * 1,000 9.62 MHz x 1000 = 9620 kHz
kHz MHz Khz / 1,000 2780 kHz divided by 1000 = 2.780 MHz
MHz meters 300 / MHz 300 divided by 7.1 MHz = 42.25 meters
meters MHz 300 / meters 300 divided by 42.25 meters = 7.1 MHz

300/.7

Radio Frequencies

  • AM radio - 535 kilohertz to 1.7 megahertz
  • Short wave radio - bands from 5.9 megahertz to 26.1 megahertz
  • Citizens band (CB) radio - 26.96 megahertz to 27.41 megahertz
  • Television stations - 54 to 88 megahertz for channels 2 through 6
  • FM radio - 88 megahertz to 108 megahertz
  • Television stations - 174 to 220 megahertz for channels 7 through 13
Name Abbr Frequency Wavelength Application
- + - +
Tremendously Low Frequency TLF N/A < 3Hz N/A 100,000km N/A
Extremely Low Frequency ELF 3Hz 30Hz 100,000km 10,000km Submarine Communications
Super Low Frequency SLF 30Hz 300Hz 10,000km 1000 km Submarine Communication
Ultra Low Frequency ULF 300Hz 3000Hz 1000km 100km Submarine Communication
Subterrestrial Mine Communications
Very Low Frequency VLF 3KHz 30kHz 100km 10km
  • Submarine Communication
  • Navigation
  • Time Signals
  • Wireless Heart Rate Monitors
  • Geophysics
Low Frequency LF 30KHz 300kHz 10km 1km
  • Navigation
  • Time Signals
  • AM Radio (longwave)
  • RFID
  • Amateur Radio
Medium Frequency MF 300KHz 3000kHz 1km 100m
  • AM Radio (medium-wave)
  • Amateur Radio
  • Avalanche Beacons
High Frequency HF 3MHz 30MHz 100m 10m
  • Shortwave Broadcasts
  • Citizens' Band Radio
  • Amateur Radio
  • Aircraft (over-the-horizon)
  • RFID
  • Radar (over-the-horizon)
  • Automatic Link Establishment (ALE)
  • Near Vertical Incidence Skywave Radio Communications (NVIS)
  • Marine and Mobile Radio Telephony
  • Garage Door Openers
  • Home & Commerical Security Systems
Very High Frequency VHF 30MHz 300MHz 10m 1m
  • FM Radio
  • Television Broadcasts
  • LoS Ground-to-Aircraft Communications
  • LoS Aircraft-to-Aircft Communications
  • Land Mobile and Maritime Mobile Communications
  • Amateur Radio
  • Weather Radio
Ultra High Frequency UHF 300MHz 3000MHz 1m 100mm
  • Television Broadcasts
  • Microwave Ovens
  • Microwave Devices & Communications
  • Radio Astronomy
  • Mobile Phone Communications
  • Wireless LAN
  • Bluetooth
  • ZigBee
  • GPS
  • Amateur Radio
Super High Frequency SHF 3GHz 30GHz 100mm 10mm
  • Radio Astronomy
  • Microwave Devices & Communications
  • Wireless LAN
  • Modern Radar Systems
  • Satellite Communication Systems
  • Satellite Television Systems
  • DBS
  • Amateur Radio
Extremely High Frequency EHF 30GHz 300GHz 10mm 1mm
  • Radio Astronomy
  • High Frequency Microwave Relay Systems
  • Microwave Remote Sensing Systems
  • Amateur Radio
  • Directed-Energy Weapon Systems
  • Millimeter Wave Scanners
Tremendously High Frequency THF 300GHz 3,000GHz 1mm 100μm
  • Terahertz imaging
  • Ultrafast Molecular Dynamics
  • Condensed-Matter Physics
  • Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy
  • Terahertz Computing & Communications
  • Sub-milimeter Remote Sensing
  • Amateur Radio

Citizen's Band

  • CB radio consists of 40 channels in the 27 mhz range (11m).
  • Using CB does not require a license and can be used for personal communications.
  • Transmission on CB frequencies is limited to 4W
Channel Frequency Channel Frequency Channel Frequency Channel Frequency
1 26.965 MHz 11 27.085 MHz 21 27.215 MHz 31 27.315 MHz
2 26.975 MHz 12 27.105 MHz 22 27.225 MHz 32 27.325 MHz
3 26.985 MHz 13 27.115 MHz 23 27.255 MHz 33 27.335 MHz
4 27.005 MHz 14 27.125 MHz 24 27.235 MHz 34 27.345 MHz
5 27.015 MHz 15 27.135 MHz 25 27.245 MHz 35 27.355 MHz
6 27.025 MHz 16 27.155 MHz 26 27.265 MHz 36 27.365 MHz
7 27.035 MHz 17 27.165 MHz 27 27.275 MHz 37 27.375 MHz
8 27.055 MHz 18 27.175 MHz 28 27.285 MHz 38 27.385 MHz
9 27.065 MHz 19 27.185 MHz 29 27.295 MHz 39 27.395 MHz
10 27.075 MHz 20 27.205 MHz 30 27.305 MHz 40 27.405 MHz

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single-sideband_modulation

Amateur Radio (HAM)

Band (Meters) Frequency (MHz) -
Notes
6 50 54  
10 28 29.7
  • Best long distance (across oceans)
  • Useful short-medium range groundwave propogation
       
       
  Frequencies Notes
HAM    
MURS 151.82 Multiple-Use Radio Service
  151.88  
  151.94  
  154.57  
  154.60  
FRS   Family Radio Service
GMRS   General Mobile Radio Service
     

MURS

FRS

GRMS

  • General Mobile Radio Service

MURS

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