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A small task to play with function overloading and slicing

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Custom String

A small task to play with function overloading and slcining of elements.
Our goal is to implement a basic string-class that is mutable (parts can be changed after creation).

class CustomString:
    def __init__(self):

    def __setitem__(self, key, value):

    def __getitem__(self, item):

    def __str__(self):

This is important for all the upcomming tasks:
Just try it out!
Try to figure out what you're getting in e.g. __getitem__ as inputs when calling the function by simply printing the types and values of the inputs you recieved.

1. Basic implementation

Let __init__ take a normal python string as an argument and fill __str__ with useful code.

2. Write code for __getitem__

Get item is the function called when accessing slices of a string, a list or something simillar. It returns the requested part of that object:

my_string = "Hello"
print(my_string[0])     # Output: H
print(my_string[0:4])   # Output: Hell

Make __getitem__ return the accessed item.
It's enough if you just focus on the first example only for now.

3. Write __setitem__

This is the function called when replacing an element in e.g. a dict or a list.
Strings can't do that since they're immutable.
The whole goal of this task is to create a class that can do this.

my_list = ["a", "b", "c"]
my_list[0] = "z"
print(my_list)  # Output: ["z", "b", "c"]

Implement __setitem__ in a way that your class can do this.

Ensure that my_list[0] = "xx" does not work. The string shall have the same length after replacement.

4. Futher operations

Let's try something more wild, now that your class can to 'simple' replacements.
What happens if we do the follwoing:

s1 = CustomString("0123456789")
s1[4:6] = "xx"

What happens? - Are you able to make this work too?
Make sure, that the first way of access (from 3) keeps working!

5. Replacing part three

You might know that slicing supports this syntax e.g. [1:] to get every item in you object expect the first one (at position 0).
Try how your CustomString behaves when you're trying this:

s1 = CustomString("0123456789")
s1[4:] = "xx"

Does it handle this access as expected? - If not, can you fix it?
What happens if you try: [:] as slicining?

A valid implementation would be that a replacement 'up to the end' is only valid if the length of the replacement equals the length of the characters to replace.
So that the given example above would be invalid, because it does not define what should happen to the "6789" substring.

6. __getitem__ part 2

Now that you saw what's possible in __setitem__ with task 4 and 5...
Are you able to allwo the same operations for _getitem__?

s1 = CustomString("0123456789")

7. One more thing

Now that you wen't through all of this pain getting a string-class that is mutable...
Should you go ahead and use it all the time? - Why didn't the python devs just do exactly what you did? It wasn't that hard... was it?
No. But you're not quite done yet.
First you should consider implementing functions for comparing your class to other objects of you class and maybe even to objects the normal string class?
And there are other functions as well that should be written.

Second: Immutability has advantages! - You can hash those objects to use them as keys in dictionaries for example.
You'll lerarn more on those topics when continiung to study computer science.
Just hang on a bit for now :)

This task was mainly for fun and shwoing you the power of slicing and how those fancy backets are just synatctic sugar for some more basic function calls.
There is nothing to fear. Just stay curious! :)

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