This guide assumes that you recently run
brew upgrade postgresql and discovered to your dismay that you accidentally bumped from one major version to another: say 9.3.x to 9.4.x. Yes, that is a major version bump in PG land.
First let's check something.
brew info postgresql
The top of what gets printed as a result is the most important:
postgresql: stable 9.4.1 (bottled) http://www.postgresql.org/ Conflicts with: postgres-xc /usr/local/Cellar/postgresql/9.3.2 (2924 files, 39M) Poured from bottle /usr/local/Cellar/postgresql/9.4.1 (2996 files, 40M) * Poured from bottle
The interesting bit is that there are two versions installed on my systems. Homebrew thankfully installs the Postgres binaries in different subfolders, which is very important to be able to migrate data from one version to the other.
As you can see I have my old version installed in
The new version is in
First ensure that you have the correct PG binaries running:
which psql /usr/local/bin/psql psql --version psql (PostgreSQL) 9.4.1
This means that the
pg_upgrade binary we'll be using is also the new one. But let's not assume:
pg_upgrade --version pg_upgrade (PostgreSQL) 9.4.1
Mise en place
The directory where your actual database data is stored is different from the one where your PostgreSQL binaries are installed. Homebrew installs the data directory in
/usr/local/var/postgres/ and doesn't touch that data folder when you upgrade from one version to the next. This is a good thing because if Homebrew tried to install a brand new database (with
initdb) it could squash all your existing data.
First I recommend moving your existing data to a directory with a different name:
mv /usr/local/var/postgres/ /usr/local/var/postgres.9.3.backup/
Now that the old data directory has been "moved", you can safely create a brand new clean database:
initdb /usr/local/var/postgres/ The files belonging to this database system will be owned by user "olivierlacan". This user must also own the server process. The database cluster will be initialized with locale "en_US.UTF-8". The default database encoding has accordingly been set to "UTF8". The default text search configuration will be set to "english". Data page checksums are disabled. creating directory /usr/local/var/postgres ... ok creating subdirectories ... ok selecting default max_connections ... 100 selecting default shared_buffers ... 128MB selecting dynamic shared memory implementation ... posix creating configuration files ... ok creating template1 database in /usr/local/var/postgres/base/1 ... ok initializing pg_authid ... ok initializing dependencies ... ok creating system views ... ok loading system objects' descriptions ... ok creating collations ... ok creating conversions ... ok creating dictionaries ... ok setting privileges on built-in objects ... ok creating information schema ... ok loading PL/pgSQL server-side language ... ok vacuuming database template1 ... ok copying template1 to template0 ... ok copying template1 to postgres ... ok syncing data to disk ... ok WARNING: enabling "trust" authentication for local connections You can change this by editing pg_hba.conf or using the option -A, or --auth-local and --auth-host, the next time you run initdb. Success. You can now start the database server using: postgres -D /usr/local/var/postgres or pg_ctl -D /usr/local/var/postgres -l logfile start
Your output will be slightly different. For one, the user won't be
olivierlacan but whatever your system user is. You can find that out easily with
Interesting to note, but if you use PostgreSQL with Rails. This means there will be no password on your development database, so you can skip the
password field in
database.yml or leave it *completely empty.
Let's get to it.
First we have to make sure both database servers are not running when we do the upgrade:
pg_ctl -D /usr/local/var/postgres stop -m fast pg_ctl -D /usr/local/var/postgres.9.3.backup stop -m fast
If you get the following message it's possible that you have PG in launchctl which may prevent you from stopping the server:
pg_ctl: server does not shut down
In that case let's remove PG from launchctl for now, you can add it back later by following the instructions given on
brew info postgres:
launchctl unload -w ~/Library/LaunchAgents/homebrew.mxcl.postgresql.plist rm ~/Library/LaunchAgents/homebrew.mxcl.postgresql.plist
Then try stopping the server again:
pg_ctl -D /usr/local/var/postgres stop -m fast
This would be good news:
pg_ctl: PID file "/usr/local/var/postgres/postmaster.pid" does not exist Is server running?
Assuming you're dealing with the same version numbers I'm dealing with (you probably aren't, so change them when running this on your machine), this is what the
pg_upgrade command should look like when you run it:
$ pg_upgrade -b /usr/local/Cellar/postgresql/9.3.2/bin/ -B /usr/local/Cellar/postgresql/9.4.1/bin/ -d /usr/local/var/postgres.9.3.backup/ -D /usr/local/var/postgres
Lowercase flags (
-d) are for old
data directories respectively. Their uppercase counterparts are for their new equivalents.
You should see the following output immediately if the upgrade process is starting:
Performing Consistency Checks ----------------------------- Checking cluster versions ok Checking database user is a superuser ok Checking for prepared transactions ok Checking for reg* system OID user data types ok Checking for contrib/isn with bigint-passing mismatch ok Checking for invalid "line" user columns ok Creating dump of global objects ok Creating dump of database schemas ok Checking for presence of required libraries ok Checking database user is a superuser ok Checking for prepared transactions ok If pg_upgrade fails after this point, you must re-initdb the new cluster before continuing. Performing Upgrade ------------------ Analyzing all rows in the new cluster ok Freezing all rows on the new cluster ok Deleting files from new pg_clog ok Copying old pg_clog to new server ok Setting next transaction ID and epoch for new cluster ok Deleting files from new pg_multixact/offsets ok Copying old pg_multixact/offsets to new server ok Deleting files from new pg_multixact/members ok Copying old pg_multixact/members to new server ok Setting next multixact ID and offset for new cluster ok Resetting WAL archives ok Setting frozenxid and minmxid counters in new cluster ok Restoring global objects in the new cluster ok Adding support functions to new cluster ok Restoring database schemas in the new cluster ok Creating newly-required TOAST tables ok Removing support functions from new cluster ok Copying user relation files ok Setting next OID for new cluster ok Sync data directory to disk ok Creating script to analyze new cluster ok Creating script to delete old cluster ok Upgrade Complete ---------------- Optimizer statistics are not transferred by pg_upgrade so, once you start the new server, consider running: analyze_new_cluster.sh Running this script will delete the old cluster's data files: delete_old_cluster.sh
You manually shut down PG during this upgrade so now it won't be running unless you follow the
brew info postgres instructions:
ln -sfv /usr/local/opt/postgresql/*.plist ~/Library/LaunchAgents launchctl load -w ~/Library/LaunchAgents/homebrew.mxcl.postgresql.plist
Once PG is running you could run the optimization script recommended by
pg_upgrade. It was created in whichever directory you ran
pg_upgrade in, and you can run it with:
./analyze_new_cluster.sh This script will generate minimal optimizer statistics rapidly so your system is usable, and then gather statistics twice more with increasing accuracy. When it is done, your system will have the default level of optimizer statistics. If you have used ALTER TABLE to modify the statistics target for any tables, you might want to remove them and restore them after running this script because they will delay fast statistics generation. If you would like default statistics as quickly as possible, cancel this script and run: "/usr/local/Cellar/postgresql/9.4.1/bin/vacuumdb" --all --analyze-only (...)
You may encounter the following error:
*failure* Consult the last few lines of "pg_upgrade_server.log" for the probable cause of the failure. There seems to be a postmaster servicing the new cluster. Please shutdown that postmaster and try again. Failure, exiting
This means you have at least one PG server running. So go back to the beginning of this section and make real sure you shut down all your servers.