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Scala for the Impatient: Chapter 5 exercises solutions
// 1. Improve the Counter class in Section 5.1, "Simple Classes and Parameterless
// Methods," on page 51 so that it doesn't turn negative at Int.MaxValue.
class Counter {
private var value = 0
def increment() { if(value < Int.MaxValue) value += 1 }
def current = value
def isLess(other: Counter) = value < other.value // can access private field of other object
}
// 2. Write a class BankAccount with methods deposit and withdraw, and a read-only
// property balance.
class BankAccount {
private var _balance = 0
def balance = _balance
def deposit(money: Int) = _balance += money
def withdraw(money: Int) = if(money < _balance) _balance -= money
}
// 3. Write a class Time with read-only properties hours and minutes and a method
// before(other: Time): Boolean that checks whether this time comes before the
// other. A Time object should be constructed as new Time(hrs, min), where hrs is in
// military time format (between 0 and 23).
class Time(val hrs: Int, val min: Int) {
def before(other: Time) = {
(hrs < other.hrs) || (hrs == other.hrs && min < other.min)
}
}
// 4. Reimplement the Time class from the preceding exercise so that the internal
// representation is the number of minutes since midnight (between 0 and
// 24 * 60 - 1). Do not change the public interface. That is, client code should be
// unaffected by your change.
class Time(hrs: Int, min: Int) {
private val _time = hrs * 60 + min
def before(other: Time) = _time < other._time
}
// 5. Make a class Student with read-write JavaBeans properties name (of type String)
// and id (of type Long). What methods are generated? (Use javap to check.) Can
// you call the JavaBeans getters and setters in Scala? Should you?
class Student (@BeanProperty var name: String, @BeanProperty var id: Long) {
}
/*
What methods are generated? (Use javap to check.)
//Compiled from "Student.scala"
public class Student implements scala.ScalaObject {
public java.lang.String name();
public void name_$eq(java.lang.String);
public void setName(java.lang.String);
public long id();
public void id_$eq(long);
public void setId(long);
public long getId();
public java.lang.String getName();
public Student(java.lang.String, long);
}
Can you call the JavaBeans getters and setters in Scala? => Yes
Should you? => No because they are verbose and not as intuitive as scala's methods
*/
// 6. In the Person class of Section 5.1, "Simple Classes and Parameterless Methods,"
// on page 51, provide a primary constructor that turns negative ages to 0.
class Person(var name: String = "", var age: Int = 0) {
if(age < 0) age = 0
}
// 7. Write a class Person with a primary constructor that accepts a string containing
// a first name, a space, and a last name, such as new Person("Fred Smith"). Supply
// read-only properties firstName and lastName. Should the primary constructor
// parameter be a var, a val, or a plain parameter? Why?
class Person(name: String) {
private val fnln = name.split(' ')
val firstName = fnln(0)
val lastName = fnln(1)
}
// Should the primary constructor
// parameter be a var, a val, or a plain parameter? Why?
// => It should be a plain parameter as it's not used in any of the methods
//8. Make a class Car with read-only properties for manufacturer, model name,
//and model year, and a read-write property for the license plate. Supply four
//constructors. All require the manufacturer and model name. Optionally,
//model year and license plate can also be specified in the constructor. If not,
//the model year is set to -1 and the license plate to the empty string. Which
//constructor are you choosing as the primary constructor? Why?
class Car(val manufacturer: String, val modelName: String, val modelYear: Int, var licensePlate: String) {
def this(manufacturer: String, modelName: String, licensePlate: String) = {
this(manufacturer, modelName, -1, licensePlate)
}
def this(manufacturer: String, modelName: String, modelYear: Int) = {
this(manufacturer, modelName, modelYear, "")
}
def this(manufacturer: String, modelName: String) = {
this(manufacturer, modelName, -1, "")
}
override def toString = {
"[" + manufacturer + ", " + modelName + ", " + modelYear + ", '" + licensePlate + "']"
}
}
// Using default values for constructor parameters, this class can be simplified to the following
class Car(val manufacturer: String, val modelName: String, val modelYear: Int = -1, var licensePlate: String = "") {
def this(manufacturer: String, modelName: String, licensePlate: String) = {
this(manufacturer, modelName, -1, licensePlate)
}
override def toString = {
"[" + manufacturer + ", " + modelName + ", " + modelYear + ", '" + licensePlate + "']"
}
}
// Which constructor are you choosing as the primary constructor? Why?
// => The constructor that takes all 4 values was chosen as the primary constructor. It's easy to define the other
// constructors that simply need to call the primary constructor with some default values
//9. Reimplement the class of the preceding exercise in Java, C#, or C++ (your
//choice). How much shorter is the Scala class?
public class JCar {
private String manufacturer;
private String modelName;
private int modelYear = -1;
private String licensePlate = "";
public JCar(String manufacturer, String modelName, int modelYear, String licensePlate) {
this.manufacturer = manufacturer;
this.modelName = modelName;
this.modelYear = modelYear;
this.licensePlate = licensePlate;
}
public JCar(String manufacturer, String modelName, int modelYear) {
this.manufacturer = manufacturer;
this.modelName = modelName;
this.modelYear = modelYear;
}
public JCar(String manufacturer, String modelName, String licensePlate) {
this.manufacturer = manufacturer;
this.modelName = modelName;
this.licensePlate = licensePlate;
}
public JCar(String manufacturer, String modelName) {
this.manufacturer = manufacturer;
this.modelName = modelName;
}
public String getLicensePlate() {
return licensePlate;
}
public void setLicensePlate(String licensePlate) {
this.licensePlate = licensePlate;
}
public String getManufacturer() {
return manufacturer;
}
public String getModelName() {
return modelName;
}
public int getModelYear() {
return modelYear;
}
@Override
public String toString() {
return "[" + manufacturer + ", " + modelName + ", " + modelYear + ", '" + licensePlate + "']";
}
}
//10. Consider the class
//class Employee(val name: String, var salary: Double) {
// def this() { this("John Q. Public", 0.0) }
//}
//Rewrite it to use explicit fields and a default primary constructor. Which form
//do you prefer? Why?
class Employee() {
private var _name: String = "John Q. Public"
var salary: Double = 0.0
def this(n: String, s: Double) {
this()
_name = n
salary = s
}
def name = _name
}
@aladagemre

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@aladagemre aladagemre commented Sep 28, 2015

That's kind of you sharing these exercises. I have a chance to compare and learn things that didn't come to my mind. Here are my 2 cents:

L19: money <= _balance

L81-83: val Array(firstName, lastName) = name.split(" ")

L96-112: I used 2 param (manifacturer, modelName) default primary constructor. Then wrote 3 additional constructors with manifacturer, modelName by default + ([modelYear], [licencePlate], [modelYear, licencePlate]) for the three. I don't know which one was intended.

L110 - 122: s"$manufacturer $modelName ($modelYear) <$licencePlate>"

@nikitajz

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@nikitajz nikitajz commented Mar 1, 2017

thanks a lot for your solutions. Compared with mine and found a couple of interesting things. Though p.10 seems to be not quite right. It states:

Rewrite it to use explicit fields and a default primary constructor.

while you used auxiliary constructor.
Pay attention at chapter

5.7 THE PRIMARY CONSTRUCTOR
In Scala, every class has a primary constructor. The primary constructor is not defined with a this method. Instead, it is interwoven with the class definition

  1. The parameters of the primary constructor are placed immediately after the class name.
class Person(val name: String, val age: Int) {
  // Parameters of primary constructor in (...)
 ...
}
@InnaValentino

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@InnaValentino InnaValentino commented May 21, 2018

Can anyone help me understand the underscore before the var name (_balance) in p.2 ?

@KevinRickard

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@KevinRickard KevinRickard commented May 23, 2018

@InnaValentino the underscore is just a common scala convention to signal a private field in the class. I like the underscore, but you could rename _balance to privateBalance if that makes more sense to you. That's how the book does it on page 58

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