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-----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE-----
Hash: SHA256
# Section 1 - Table of Contents<a id="heading-0"/>
* 1 - [Table of Contents](#heading-0)
* 2 - [Introduction](#heading-2)
* 2.1 - [Authenticity](#heading-2.1)
* 2.2 - [Audit Goals and Focus](#heading-2.2)
* 2.2.1 - [Sound Architecture](#heading-2.2.1)
* 2.2.2 - [Smart Contract Best Practices](#heading-2.2.2)
* 2.2.3 - [Code Correctness](#heading-2.2.3)
* 2.2.4 - [Code Quality](#heading-2.2.4)
* 2.2.5 - [Security](#heading-2.2.5)
* 2.3 - [About EtherRoll](#heading-2.3)
* 2.4 - [Terminology](#heading-2.4)
* 2.4.1 - [Severity](#heading-2.4.1)
* 2.4.1.1 - [**minor**](#heading-2.4.1.1)
* 2.4.1.2 - [**medium**](#heading-2.4.1.2)
* 2.4.1.3 - [**major**](#heading-2.4.1.3)
* 2.4.1.4 - [**critical**](#heading-2.4.1.4)
* 3 - [Overview](#heading-3)
* 3.1 - [Source Code](#heading-3.1)
* 3.2 - [Contracts](#heading-3.2)
* 3.2.1 - [`EtherollToken`](#heading-3.2.1)
* 3.2.2 - [`EtherollCrowdfund`](#heading-3.2.2)
* 4 - [Main Findings](#heading-4)
* 4.1 - [Minor Issues](#heading-4.1)
* 4.2 - [Medium Issues](#heading-4.2)
* 4.2.1 - [The `EtherollToken.priviledgedAddressBurnUnsoldCoins` function is likely not necessary.](#heading-4.2.1)
* 4.3 - [Major Issues](#heading-4.3)
* 4.3.1 - [Deviation from the ERC20 Standard](#heading-4.3.1)
* 4.3.2 - [Freeze and Self Destruct functionality on the Token contract can be abused.](#heading-4.3.2)
* 4.4 - [Critical Issues](#heading-4.4)
* 5 - [Detailed Findings](#heading-5)
* 5.1 - [Minor Issues](#heading-5.1)
* 5.2 - [Medium Issues](#heading-5.2)
* 5.2.1 - [`EtherollToken.transfer` throws on failure conditions.](#heading-5.2.1)
* 5.2.2 - [`EtherollToken` does not implement an ERC20 compliant `Transfer` event](#heading-5.2.2)
* 5.2.3 - [`EtherollToken` does not implement an ERC20 compliant `Approval` event](#heading-5.2.3)
* 5.2.4 - [Logging of incorrect data within the `EtherollCrowdfund.safeWithdraw` function.](#heading-5.2.4)
* 5.2.5 - [`EtherollCrowdfund.safeWithdraw` will withdraw user funds to the `etherollBeneficiary` address.](#heading-5.2.5)
* 5.3 - [Major Issues](#heading-5.3)
* 5.3.1 - [`EtherollToken.transfer` does not conform to the ERC20 standard.](#heading-5.3.1)
* 5.3.2 - [`EtherollCrowdfund.ownerkill` allows `owner` to bypass contract rules.](#heading-5.3.2)
* 5.3.3 - [`EtherollToken.priviledgedAddressBurnUnsoldCoins` can be used to burn any tokens.](#heading-5.3.3)
* 5.4 - [Critical Issues](#heading-5.4)
* 6 - [Follow Up Audit](#heading-6)
* 6.1 - [Overview](#heading-6.1)
* 6.2 - [Source Code](#heading-6.2)
* 6.3 - [Terminology](#heading-6.3)
* 6.3.1 - [Status: Resolved](#heading-6.3.1)
* 6.3.2 - [Status: Unchanged](#heading-6.3.2)
* 6.3.3 - [Status: Partially Resolved](#heading-6.3.3)
* 6.4 - [Main Findings](#heading-6.4)
* 6.4.1 - [Minor Issues](#heading-6.4.1)
* 6.4.2 - [Medium Issues](#heading-6.4.2)
* 6.4.2.1 - [The `EtherollToken.priviledgedAddressBurnUnsoldCoins` function is likely not necessary.](#heading-6.4.2.1)
* 6.4.3 - [Major Issues](#heading-6.4.3)
* 6.4.3.1 - [Deviation from the ERC20 Standard](#heading-6.4.3.1)
* 6.4.3.2 - [Freeze and Self Destruct functionality on the Token contract can be abused.](#heading-6.4.3.2)
* 6.4.4 - [Critical Issues](#heading-6.4.4)
* 6.5 - [Detailed Findings](#heading-6.5)
* 6.5.1 - [Minor Issues](#heading-6.5.1)
* 6.5.2 - [Medium Issues](#heading-6.5.2)
* 6.5.2.1 - [`EtherollToken.transfer` throws on failure conditions.](#heading-6.5.2.1)
* 6.5.2.2 - [`EtherollToken` does not implement an ERC20 compliant `Transfer` event](#heading-6.5.2.2)
* 6.5.2.3 - [`EtherollToken` does not implement an ERC20 compliant `Approval` event](#heading-6.5.2.3)
* 6.5.2.4 - [Logging of incorrect data within the `EtherollCrowdfund.safeWithdraw` function.](#heading-6.5.2.4)
* 6.5.2.5 - [`EtherollCrowdfund.safeWithdraw` will withdraw user funds to the `etherollBeneficiary` address.](#heading-6.5.2.5)
* 6.5.3 - [Major Issues](#heading-6.5.3)
* 6.5.3.1 - [`EtherollToken.transfer` does not conform to the ERC20 standard.](#heading-6.5.3.1)
* 6.5.3.2 - [`EtherollCrowdfund.ownerkill` allows `owner` to bypass contract rules.](#heading-6.5.3.2)
* 6.5.4 - [`EtherollToken.priviledgedAddressBurnUnsoldCoins` can be used to burn any tokens.](#heading-6.5.4)
* 6.5.5 - [Critical Issues](#heading-6.5.5)
# <a id="heading-2"/> Section 2 - Introduction
From January 9th through January 12th of 2017, Piper Merriam conducted an audit of the
primary Crowdsale smart contract for the Etheroll service. The findings of the
audit are presented in this document.
I, Piper Merriam have no stake in the success or failure of EtherRoll. This
audit was performed under a contracted hourly rate with no other compensation.
## <a id="heading-2.1"/> 2.1 Authenticity
This document should have an attached cryptographic signature to ensure it has not been tampered with. The signature can be verified using the public key from Piper Merriam's the keybase.io.
[Piper Merriam on Keybase.io](https://keybase.io/pipermerriam)
## <a id="heading-2.2"/> 2.2 Audit Goals and Focus
### <a id="heading-2.2.1"/> 2.2.1 Sound Architecture
This audit includes assessments of the overall architecture and design choices.
Given the subjective nature of these assessments it will be up to the EtherRoll
development team to determine whether any changes should be made.
### <a id="heading-2.2.2"/> 2.2.2 Smart Contract Best Practices
This audit will evaluate whether the codebase follows the current established
best practices for smart contract development.
### <a id="heading-2.2.3"/> 2.2.3 Code Correctness
This audit will evaluate whether the code does what it is intended to do.
### <a id="heading-2.2.4"/> 2.2.4 Code Quality
This audit will evaluate whether the code has been written in a way that
ensures readability and maintainability.
### <a id="heading-2.2.5"/> 2.2.5 Security
This audit will look for any exploitable security vulnerabilities, or other
potential threats to either the operators of EtherRoll or its users.
## <a id="heading-2.3"/> 2.3 About EtherRoll
EtherRoll is a gambling service on the Ethereum blockchain.
## <a id="heading-2.4"/> 2.4 Terminology
This audit uses the following terminology.
### <a id="heading-2.4.1"/> 2.4.1 Severity
Measurement of magnitude of an issue.
#### <a id="heading-2.4.1.1"/> 2.4.1.1 **minor**
Minor issues are generally subjective in nature, or potentially deal with
topics like "best practices" or "readability". Minor issues in general will
not indicate an actual problem or bug in code.
The maintainers should use their own judgement as to whether addressing these
issues improves the codebase.
#### <a id="heading-2.4.1.2"/> 2.4.1.2 **medium**
Medium issues are generally objective in nature but do not represent actual
bugs or security problems.
These issues should be addressed unless there is a clear reason not to.
#### <a id="heading-2.4.1.3"/> 2.4.1.3 **major**
Major issues will be things like bugs or security vulnerabilities. These
issues may not be directly exploitable, or may require a certain condition to
arise in order to be exploited.
Left unaddressed these issues are highly likely to cause problems with the
operation of the contract or lead to a situation which allows the system to be
exploited in some way.
#### <a id="heading-2.4.1.4"/> 2.4.1.4 **critical**
Critical issues are directly exploitable bugs or security vulnerabilities.
Left unaddressed these issues are highly likely or guaranteed to cause major
problems or potentially a full failure in the operations of the contract.
# <a id="heading-3"/> Section 3 - Overview
## <a id="heading-3.1"/> 3.1 Source Code
The Crowdsale contract source code was made available through a private
repository on github. The code being evaluated can be found under the commit
hash `ecf962d20dfcf190d462018dc61c7eec8b2c2790`
The code being evaluated is spread across the following three solidity source
files
* `./contracts/crowdsale-limited.sol`.
* `./contracts/limited-token.sol`.
The sha256 of that contract source is as follows.
```bash
$ shasum -a 256 contracts/crowdsale-limited.sol contracts/limited-token.sol
a67adf04735bdd331b7920aae04213ede60fb5ce975dc911664a72f895c0fa6e contracts/crowdsale-limited.sol
490e732a3234a0279d3ad80b13331f5dc33cd87d60a3710893952ce0eff8a371 contracts/limited-token.sol
```
## <a id="heading-3.2"/> 3.2 Contracts
The codebase contains two primary contracts.
### <a id="heading-3.2.1"/> 3.2.1 `EtherollToken`
An implementation of the ERC20 token standard with some additional
functionality.
The added features are:
* Ability to freeze individual token assets.
* Ability to freeze all token assets.
* Ability to `selfdestruct` the contract.
* Ability to destroy tokens.
### <a id="heading-3.2.2"/> 3.2.2 `EtherollCrowdfund`
A standard crowdfunding contract with the following features.
* Runs for a duration specified in the constructor by `_durationInMinutes`. Code comments suggest this will be set to two weeks time.
* No cap on the overall funding. Code comments suggest funding goal is 10,000 ether.
* Disbursement of tokens to those that contribute to the crowdsale.
* Escape hatch feature which will abort the crowdsale and allow contributors to withdraw their contribution.
# <a id="heading-4"/> Section 4 - Main Findings
General findings of the audit
## <a id="heading-4.1"/> 4.1 Minor Issues
No minor issues were found.
## <a id="heading-4.2"/> 4.2 Medium Issues
### <a id="heading-4.2.1"/> 4.2.1 The `EtherollToken.priviledgedAddressBurnUnsoldCoins` function is likely not necessary.
The `EtherollToken.priviledgedAddressBurnUnsoldCoins` could be removed. The
same functionality can be accomplished by transfering any remaining tokens to
the null address (`0x0`).
This approach will cause the `totalSupply` value to not be representative of
the actual circulating supply but this is also the case with other token
systems as inevitably some tokens will become unrecoverable through loss of
private keys.
## <a id="heading-4.3"/> 4.3 Major Issues
### <a id="heading-4.3.1"/> 4.3.1 Deviation from the ERC20 Standard
The token contract deviates from the ERC20 standard in the following places.
* `EtherollToken.transfer` does not return a boolean (and throws exceptions on transfer failures)
* `EtherollToken.LogTransfer` should be `Transfer`
* `EtherollToken.LogApproval` should be `Approval`
There are already numerous services and applications built on top of the ERC20
standard. By not complying with the standard this contract will likely not
function correctly within these applications. This will likely result in an
inability to get the token listed on exchanges or to be used in any number of
other applications which rely on this standard.
### <a id="heading-4.3.2"/> 4.3.2 Freeze and Self Destruct functionality on the Token contract can be abused.
The `EtherollCrowdfund` implements privileged methods for the following.
* Freezing all tokens
* Freezing tokens belonging to a specific account.
* Self destructing the contract.
The existence of these APIs gives significant centralized control over the
token system and may adversely affect the desirability of holding this token.
Recommend removing these APIs entirely. Contracts such as this one that only
house data can be replaced simply by deploying a new token contract which
initializes it's data in the desired state. Even in situations where a defect
is found that allows an attacker to compromise the token contract in
significant ways such as minting new tokens or the ability to alter other
account balances, the new contract can easily be initialized at the last good
state prior to the attackers actions.
Given that removal of these APIs will remove most, if not all of the
non-standard ERC functionality, the Etheroll development team should consider
switching over to an existing ERC20 implementation that has been subjected to
security audits.
## <a id="heading-4.4"/> 4.4 Critical Issues
No critical issues were found.
# <a id="heading-5"/> Section 5 - Detailed Findings
Detailed findings of the audit
## <a id="heading-5.1"/> 5.1 Minor Issues
No minor issues were found.
## <a id="heading-5.2"/> 5.2 Medium Issues
### <a id="heading-5.2.1"/> 5.2.1 `EtherollToken.transfer` throws on failure conditions.
The current implementation throws errors on failure conditions. While this is
not a deviation from the ERC20 standard, it is a deviation from the established
convention which is to return `false` in failure conditions.
Recommend modifying this function to not throw on failure conditions and
instead gracefully fail by returning `false`.
### <a id="heading-5.2.2"/> 5.2.2 `EtherollToken` does not implement an ERC20 compliant `Transfer` event
The `EtherollToken` contract uses the event `LogTransfer` which deviates from
the ERC20 standard. The ERC standard specifies that the event signature should
be as follows.
```
event Transfer(address indexed _from, address indexed _to, uint256 _value)
```
Recommend modifying the contract's event logging to comply with the standard.
### <a id="heading-5.2.3"/> 5.2.3 `EtherollToken` does not implement an ERC20 compliant `Approval` event
The `EtherollToken` contract uses the event `LogApproval` which deviates from
the ERC20 standard. The ERC standard specifies that the event signature should
be as follows.
```
event Approval(address indexed _owner, address indexed _spender, uint256 _value)
```
Recommend modifying the contract's event logging to comply with the standard.
### <a id="heading-5.2.4"/> 5.2.4 Logging of incorrect data within the `EtherollCrowdfund.safeWithdraw` function.
On line 280 in the `./contracts/crowdsale-limited.sol` source file the
`LogFundTransfer` event is used to record the transfer of funds to the
`etherollBeneficiary` address. The code for this section is as follows.
```javascript
if(!etherollBeneficiary.send(this.balance)) throw;
LogFundTransfer(etherollBeneficiary, this.balance, false);
```
The previous statement sends the full contract balance to the
`etherollBeneficiary` address which will result in `this.balance` always being
`0` at the time the event is logged.
Recommend swapping the order of these two statements so that the event data
will be correct.
### <a id="heading-5.2.5"/> 5.2.5 `EtherollCrowdfund.safeWithdraw` will withdraw user funds to the `etherollBeneficiary` address.
The `EtherollCrowdfund.safeWithdraw` function transfers the raised funds to the
`etherollBeneficiary` and `bankrollBeneficiary` accounts. The funds are
distributed across the two accounts with 80% going to the `bankrollBeneficiary`
account and the remaining 20% going to the `etherollBeneficiary` account.
The token contract being used has a decimal value of `0` meaning that the
tokens are not divisible. The crowdfunding contract is designed to *refund*
any extra ether that is leftover after allocating tokens. In the event that
the sending of the *refund* fails, the extra funds are set aside to allow the
user to trigger the refund themselves with the
`EtherollCrowdfund.withdrawChange` function.
The manner in which the raised funds are sent to the two beneficiary addresses
will empty the crowdfunding contract of any *change* which has been set aside.
Recommend investigating whether this issue can be fixed without adding unwanted complexity to the contract. The amount of funds which is likely to be incorrectly allocated in this situation is likely to be small.
One possible approach would be to remove the change withdrawal mechanism
entirely. This should probably be accompanied by clear instructions to users
to send exact ether amounts and that additional *change* leftover after
allocation of tokens will be forfeit.
## <a id="heading-5.3"/> 5.3 Major Issues
### <a id="heading-5.3.1"/> 5.3.1 `EtherollToken.transfer` does not conform to the ERC20 standard.
The `EtherollToken.transfer` function deviates from the ERC20 standard by not
returning a boolean. This will likely limit the usefulness of this token as it
will be incompatible with many applications which rely on this standard.
Recommend modifying this function to comply with the standard and return a
boolean indicating the success or failure of the transfer.
Specific care should be taken to also adjust the logic within the
`EtherollCrowdfund` contract which transfers the tokens to check the return
value of the `transfer` function call. The current behavior relies on the
current behavior of the function throwing an error on failure conditions.
### <a id="heading-5.3.2"/> 5.3.2 `EtherollCrowdfund.ownerkill` allows `owner` to bypass contract rules.
The `EtherollCrowdfund.ownerkill` function will self destruct the contract and send all funds to
the `owner` address. This function can be called at anytime by the `owner`
account.
This would allow the `owner` address to collect all raised funds from the
crowdsale at any point during or after the crowdsale regardless of whether the
funding goal was reached.
It is not clear what the appropriate change, if any, is for this issue. It may
be appropriate change the beneficiary address for this function to a
multisignature account whose keys are held by multiple parties who can be
expected to act in the best interest of the crowdsale participants. This will
allow the escape hatch to remain in place while removing the ability for the
`owner` address to wholly bypass the crowdsale contract's parameters.
### <a id="heading-5.3.3"/> 5.3.3 `EtherollToken.priviledgedAddressBurnUnsoldCoins` can be used to burn any tokens.
The `EtherollToken.priviledgedAddressBurnUnsoldCoins` allows the
`priviledgedAddress` to destroy the tokens belonging to whatever address is
provided in the function call. Given the name of this function, it does not
appear that the actual behavior of the function matches the intended behavior
of burning the coins which were not purchased during the crowdsale.
Recommend removal of the `address` argument from the function signature and
modifying the function to burn the coins allocated to the `priviledgedAddress`.
## <a id="heading-5.4"/> 5.4 Critical Issues
No critical issues were found.
# <a id="heading-6"/> Section 6 - Follow Up Audit
After submitting the above report to the Etheroll development team a follow up
audit was performed on the updated codebase. The follow up audit was performed
on the codebase at commit hash `615ccd2c6a4661eec176c367bce8a1292526530d`.
The follow up audit involved a very brief review of the source as a whole
followed by individual assessment of each issue covered in the initial audit.
## <a id="heading-6.1"/> 6.1 Overview
After reviewing the updated source all issues have been satisfactorily
addressed. The one unaddressed issue was left as-is intentionally and does not
appear to pose any threat to the security of the contracts.
## <a id="heading-6.2"/> 6.2 Source Code
The SHA256 of the three contact files is as follows.
```
$ shasum -a 256 contracts/crowdsale-limited.sol contracts/limited-token.sol
1d3a627f24d4122a7ad8ffdadf92071d7cfcbd247682017373a3d0d4370b7c74 contracts/crowdsale-limited.sol
shasum: contracts/limited-beneficiary.sol:
04254c533641b6c9730ab499906b73b7590cfeaf204a61c228ea90e44087056d contracts/limited-token.sol
```
## <a id="heading-6.3"/> 6.3 Terminology
### <a id="heading-6.3.1"/> 6.3.1 Status: Resolved
Issues that are noted with the resolved status have been adequately addressed.
### <a id="heading-6.3.2"/> 6.3.2 Status: Unchanged
Issues that are noted with the unchanged status have not been addressed.
### <a id="heading-6.3.3"/> 6.3.3 Status: Partially Resolved
Something was done in response to this issue but it may not fully address the
issue.
## <a id="heading-6.4"/> 6.4 Main Findings
### <a id="heading-6.4.1"/> 6.4.1 Minor Issues
None
### <a id="heading-6.4.2"/> 6.4.2 Medium Issues
#### <a id="heading-6.4.2.1"/> 6.4.2.1 The `EtherollToken.priviledgedAddressBurnUnsoldCoins` function is likely not necessary.
* [4.2.1](#heading-4.2.1)
* Status: **Unchanged**
Per information from the Etheroll development team there is future
functionality in dividend dispursement that relies on the accuracy of
`totalSupply`.
### <a id="heading-6.4.3"/> 6.4.3 Major Issues
#### <a id="heading-6.4.3.1"/> 6.4.3.1 Deviation from the ERC20 Standard
* [4.3.1](#heading-4.3.1)
* Status: **Resolved**
The `EtherollToken` contract is now compliant with the ERC20 standard.
#### <a id="heading-6.4.3.2"/> 6.4.3.2 Freeze and Self Destruct functionality on the Token contract can be abused.
* [4.3.2](#heading-4.3.2)
* Status: **Resolved**
All APIs recommended for removal have been removed with the *exception* of the
ability to freeze all token assets. The Etheroll development team has stated
that this is required for dividend payouts.
The remaining API for freezing tokens has been adjusted in such a way that
token freezes are not immediate but rather recurring scheduled events. This
adjustment removes the ability for this API to be abused by the privileged
addresses.
### <a id="heading-6.4.4"/> 6.4.4 Critical Issues
None
## <a id="heading-6.5"/> 6.5 Detailed Findings
### <a id="heading-6.5.1"/> 6.5.1 Minor Issues
None
### <a id="heading-6.5.2"/> 6.5.2 Medium Issues
#### <a id="heading-6.5.2.1"/> 6.5.2.1 `EtherollToken.transfer` throws on failure conditions.
* [5.2.1](#heading-5.2.1)
* Status: **Resolved**
This function now returns `false` on failure conditions.
#### <a id="heading-6.5.2.2"/> 6.5.2.2 `EtherollToken` does not implement an ERC20 compliant `Transfer` event
* [5.2.2](#heading-5.2.2)
* Status: **Resolved**
This event has been renamed to comply with the ERC20 standard.
#### <a id="heading-6.5.2.3"/> 6.5.2.3 `EtherollToken` does not implement an ERC20 compliant `Approval` event
* [5.2.3](#heading-5.2.3)
* Status: **Resolved**
This event has been renamed to comply with the ERC20 standard.
#### <a id="heading-6.5.2.4"/> 6.5.2.4 Logging of incorrect data within the `EtherollCrowdfund.safeWithdraw` function.
* [5.2.4](#heading-5.2.4)
* Status: **Resolved**
The event now logs the correct amount by using a local cached value populated prior to transferring the funds.
#### <a id="heading-6.5.2.5"/> 6.5.2.5 `EtherollCrowdfund.safeWithdraw` will withdraw user funds to the `etherollBeneficiary` address.
* [5.2.5](#heading-5.2.5)
* Status: **Resolved**
The token issuance has been reworked so that there are no longer any use funds
held within the contract that would be withdrawn using this mechanism.
### <a id="heading-6.5.3"/> 6.5.3 Major Issues
#### <a id="heading-6.5.3.1"/> 6.5.3.1 `EtherollToken.transfer` does not conform to the ERC20 standard.
* [5.3.1](#heading-5.3.1)
* Status: **Resolved**
The transfer function now returns a boolean in both success and failure conditions.
#### <a id="heading-6.5.3.2"/> 6.5.3.2 `EtherollCrowdfund.ownerkill` allows `owner` to bypass contract rules.
* [5.3.2](#heading-5.3.2)
* Status: **Resolved**
The `EtherollCrowdfund.ownerkill` function has been removed.
### <a id="heading-6.5.4"/> 6.5.4 `EtherollToken.priviledgedAddressBurnUnsoldCoins` can be used to burn any tokens.
* [5.3.3](#heading-5.3.3)
* Status: **Resolved**
The `EtherollToken.priviledgedAddressBurnUnsoldCoins` now only allows burning
of coins associated with the `priviledgedAddress` address account.
### <a id="heading-6.5.5"/> 6.5.5 Critical Issues
None
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