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PHP code to get the domain name without subdomains (includes the tld, and the special types from IANA). Don't have support for unicode domain names.
<?php
/**
* @param string $domain Pass $_SERVER['SERVER_NAME'] here
* @param bool $debug
*
* @debug bool $debug
* @return string
*/
function get_domain($domain, $debug = false)
{
$original = $domain = strtolower($domain);
if (filter_var($domain, FILTER_VALIDATE_IP)) { return $domain; }
$debug ? print('<strong style="color:green">&raquo;</strong> Parsing: '.$original) : false;
$arr = array_slice(array_filter(explode('.', $domain, 4), function($value){
return $value !== 'www';
}), 0); //rebuild array indexes
if (count($arr) > 2)
{
$count = count($arr);
$_sub = explode('.', $count === 4 ? $arr[3] : $arr[2]);
$debug ? print(" (parts count: {$count})") : false;
if (count($_sub) === 2) // two level TLD
{
$removed = array_shift($arr);
if ($count === 4) // got a subdomain acting as a domain
{
$removed = array_shift($arr);
}
$debug ? print("<br>\n" . '[*] Two level TLD: <strong>' . join('.', $_sub) . '</strong> ') : false;
}
elseif (count($_sub) === 1) // one level TLD
{
$removed = array_shift($arr); //remove the subdomain
if (strlen($_sub[0]) === 2 && $count === 3) // TLD domain must be 2 letters
{
array_unshift($arr, $removed);
}
else
{
// non country TLD according to IANA
$tlds = array(
'aero',
'arpa',
'asia',
'biz',
'cat',
'com',
'coop',
'edu',
'gov',
'info',
'jobs',
'mil',
'mobi',
'museum',
'name',
'net',
'org',
'post',
'pro',
'tel',
'travel',
'xxx',
);
if (count($arr) > 2 && in_array($_sub[0], $tlds) !== false) //special TLD don't have a country
{
array_shift($arr);
}
}
$debug ? print("<br>\n" .'[*] One level TLD: <strong>'.join('.', $_sub).'</strong> ') : false;
}
else // more than 3 levels, something is wrong
{
for ($i = count($_sub); $i > 1; $i--)
{
$removed = array_shift($arr);
}
$debug ? print("<br>\n" . '[*] Three level TLD: <strong>' . join('.', $_sub) . '</strong> ') : false;
}
}
elseif (count($arr) === 2)
{
$arr0 = array_shift($arr);
if (strpos(join('.', $arr), '.') === false
&& in_array($arr[0], array('localhost','test','invalid')) === false) // not a reserved domain
{
$debug ? print("<br>\n" .'Seems invalid domain: <strong>'.join('.', $arr).'</strong> re-adding: <strong>'.$arr0.'</strong> ') : false;
// seems invalid domain, restore it
array_unshift($arr, $arr0);
}
}
$debug ? print("<br>\n".'<strong style="color:gray">&laquo;</strong> Done parsing: <span style="color:red">' . $original . '</span> as <span style="color:blue">'. join('.', $arr) ."</span><br>\n") : false;
return join('.', $arr);
}
$urls = array(
'www.example.com' => 'example.com',
'example.com' => 'example.com',
'example.com.br' => 'example.com.br',
'www.example.com.br' => 'example.com.br',
'www.example.gov.br' => 'example.gov.br',
'localhost' => 'localhost',
'www.localhost' => 'localhost',
'subdomain.localhost' => 'localhost',
'www.subdomain.example.com' => 'example.com',
'subdomain.example.com' => 'example.com',
'subdomain.example.com.br' => 'example.com.br',
'www.subdomain.example.com.br' => 'example.com.br',
'www.subdomain.example.biz.br' => 'example.biz.br',
'subdomain.example.biz.br' => 'example.biz.br',
'subdomain.example.net' => 'example.net',
'www.subdomain.example.net' => 'example.net',
'www.subdomain.example.co.kr' => 'example.co.kr',
'subdomain.example.co.kr' => 'example.co.kr',
'example.co.kr' => 'example.co.kr',
'example.jobs' => 'example.jobs',
'www.example.jobs' => 'example.jobs',
'subdomain.example.jobs' => 'example.jobs',
'insane.subdomain.example.jobs' => 'example.jobs',
'insane.subdomain.example.com.br' => 'example.com.br',
'www.doubleinsane.subdomain.example.com.br' => 'example.com.br',
'www.subdomain.example.jobs' => 'example.jobs',
'test' => 'test',
'www.test' => 'test',
'subdomain.test' => 'test',
'www.detran.sp.gov.br' => 'sp.gov.br',
'www.mp.sp.gov.br' => 'sp.gov.br',
'ny.library.museum' => 'library.museum',
'www.ny.library.museum' => 'library.museum',
'ny.ny.library.museum' => 'library.museum',
'www.library.museum' => 'library.museum',
'info.abril.com.br' => 'abril.com.br',
'127.0.0.1' => '127.0.0.1',
'::1' => '::1',
);
$failed = 0;
$total = count($urls);
foreach ($urls as $from => $expected)
{
$from = get_domain($from, true);
if ($from !== $expected)
{
$failed++;
print("<div style='color:fuchsia;'>expected {$from} to be {$expected}</div>");
}
}
if ($failed)
{
print("{$failed} tests failed out of {$total}");
}
else
{
print("Success");
}
@pocesar
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Author

pocesar commented Apr 11, 2013

Codepad code running http://codepad.viper-7.com/GAh1tP

@domyen
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domyen commented Dec 26, 2013

Thank you!

@laimisf
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laimisf commented Mar 28, 2014

Thank You! This code helped me a lot ;)

@0xibram
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0xibram commented Dec 27, 2014

Thanks!

@neo22s
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neo22s commented Feb 18, 2015

Doesn't work for domains with TLD of len = 2:

'dev.example.ca' => 'example.ca',
'dev.example.io' => 'example.io',

Example:
http://codepad.viper-7.com/AB1Hg6

@Titogelo
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Titogelo commented May 20, 2015

Nice job. Thanks a lot man! :)

@NabiKAZ
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NabiKAZ commented Jun 2, 2016

does not work for sub.example.co and return sub.example.co

@pocesar
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Author

pocesar commented Aug 8, 2016

the best thing is to create a lookup array with all available TLDs from IANA, a lot have been added since 2013 including having support for punycode https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Internet_top-level_domains a bit of manual setup at first, but performance, and strictly compliant to the list

@codeMonkeyK
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codeMonkeyK commented Mar 8, 2017

very cool! Saves some custom code writting! Thanks!

@gopalkumar315
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gopalkumar315 commented Apr 9, 2018

Well written code for finding main domain, thanks...

@arturo-source
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arturo-source commented Jun 10, 2022

If you want all TLD list, you can find it updated in https://data.iana.org/TLD/tlds-alpha-by-domain.txt
But if you want the list for PHP language you can copy here:

$tlds = array(
    # Version 2022060900, Last Updated Thu Jun  9 07:07:02 2022 UTC
    'aaa',
    'aarp',
    'abarth',
    'abb',
    'abbott',
    'abbvie',
    'abc',
    'able',
    'abogado',
    'abudhabi',
    'ac',
    'academy',
    'accenture',
    'accountant',
    'accountants',
    'aco',
    'actor',
    'ad',
    'adac',
    'ads',
    'adult',
    'ae',
    'aeg',
    'aero',
    'aetna',
    'af',
    'afl',
    'africa',
    'ag',
    'agakhan',
    'agency',
    'ai',
    'aig',
    'airbus',
    'airforce',
    'airtel',
    'akdn',
    'al',
    'alfaromeo',
    'alibaba',
    'alipay',
    'allfinanz',
    'allstate',
    'ally',
    'alsace',
    'alstom',
    'am',
    'amazon',
    'americanexpress',
    'americanfamily',
    'amex',
    'amfam',
    'amica',
    'amsterdam',
    'analytics',
    'android',
    'anquan',
    'anz',
    'ao',
    'aol',
    'apartments',
    'app',
    'apple',
    'aq',
    'aquarelle',
    'ar',
    'arab',
    'aramco',
    'archi',
    'army',
    'arpa',
    'art',
    'arte',
    'as',
    'asda',
    'asia',
    'associates',
    'at',
    'athleta',
    'attorney',
    'au',
    'auction',
    'audi',
    'audible',
    'audio',
    'auspost',
    'author',
    'auto',
    'autos',
    'avianca',
    'aw',
    'aws',
    'ax',
    'axa',
    'az',
    'azure',
    'ba',
    'baby',
    'baidu',
    'banamex',
    'bananarepublic',
    'band',
    'bank',
    'bar',
    'barcelona',
    'barclaycard',
    'barclays',
    'barefoot',
    'bargains',
    'baseball',
    'basketball',
    'bauhaus',
    'bayern',
    'bb',
    'bbc',
    'bbt',
    'bbva',
    'bcg',
    'bcn',
    'bd',
    'be',
    'beats',
    'beauty',
    'beer',
    'bentley',
    'berlin',
    'best',
    'bestbuy',
    'bet',
    'bf',
    'bg',
    'bh',
    'bharti',
    'bi',
    'bible',
    'bid',
    'bike',
    'bing',
    'bingo',
    'bio',
    'biz',
    'bj',
    'black',
    'blackfriday',
    'blockbuster',
    'blog',
    'bloomberg',
    'blue',
    'bm',
    'bms',
    'bmw',
    'bn',
    'bnpparibas',
    'bo',
    'boats',
    'boehringer',
    'bofa',
    'bom',
    'bond',
    'boo',
    'book',
    'booking',
    'bosch',
    'bostik',
    'boston',
    'bot',
    'boutique',
    'box',
    'br',
    'bradesco',
    'bridgestone',
    'broadway',
    'broker',
    'brother',
    'brussels',
    'bs',
    'bt',
    'bugatti',
    'build',
    'builders',
    'business',
    'buy',
    'buzz',
    'bv',
    'bw',
    'by',
    'bz',
    'bzh',
    'ca',
    'cab',
    'cafe',
    'cal',
    'call',
    'calvinklein',
    'cam',
    'camera',
    'camp',
    'cancerresearch',
    'canon',
    'capetown',
    'capital',
    'capitalone',
    'car',
    'caravan',
    'cards',
    'care',
    'career',
    'careers',
    'cars',
    'casa',
    'case',
    'cash',
    'casino',
    'cat',
    'catering',
    'catholic',
    'cba',
    'cbn',
    'cbre',
    'cbs',
    'cc',
    'cd',
    'center',
    'ceo',
    'cern',
    'cf',
    'cfa',
    'cfd',
    'cg',
    'ch',
    'chanel',
    'channel',
    'charity',
    'chase',
    'chat',
    'cheap',
    'chintai',
    'christmas',
    'chrome',
    'church',
    'ci',
    'cipriani',
    'circle',
    'cisco',
    'citadel',
    'citi',
    'citic',
    'city',
    'cityeats',
    'ck',
    'cl',
    'claims',
    'cleaning',
    'click',
    'clinic',
    'clinique',
    'clothing',
    'cloud',
    'club',
    'clubmed',
    'cm',
    'cn',
    'co',
    'coach',
    'codes',
    'coffee',
    'college',
    'cologne',
    'com',
    'comcast',
    'commbank',
    'community',
    'company',
    'compare',
    'computer',
    'comsec',
    'condos',
    'construction',
    'consulting',
    'contact',
    'contractors',
    'cooking',
    'cookingchannel',
    'cool',
    'coop',
    'corsica',
    'country',
    'coupon',
    'coupons',
    'courses',
    'cpa',
    'cr',
    'credit',
    'creditcard',
    'creditunion',
    'cricket',
    'crown',
    'crs',
    'cruise',
    'cruises',
    'cu',
    'cuisinella',
    'cv',
    'cw',
    'cx',
    'cy',
    'cymru',
    'cyou',
    'cz',
    'dabur',
    'dad',
    'dance',
    'data',
    'date',
    'dating',
    'datsun',
    'day',
    'dclk',
    'dds',
    'de',
    'deal',
    'dealer',
    'deals',
    'degree',
    'delivery',
    'dell',
    'deloitte',
    'delta',
    'democrat',
    'dental',
    'dentist',
    'desi',
    'design',
    'dev',
    'dhl',
    'diamonds',
    'diet',
    'digital',
    'direct',
    'directory',
    'discount',
    'discover',
    'dish',
    'diy',
    'dj',
    'dk',
    'dm',
    'dnp',
    'do',
    'docs',
    'doctor',
    'dog',
    'domains',
    'dot',
    'download',
    'drive',
    'dtv',
    'dubai',
    'dunlop',
    'dupont',
    'durban',
    'dvag',
    'dvr',
    'dz',
    'earth',
    'eat',
    'ec',
    'eco',
    'edeka',
    'edu',
    'education',
    'ee',
    'eg',
    'email',
    'emerck',
    'energy',
    'engineer',
    'engineering',
    'enterprises',
    'epson',
    'equipment',
    'er',
    'ericsson',
    'erni',
    'es',
    'esq',
    'estate',
    'et',
    'etisalat',
    'eu',
    'eurovision',
    'eus',
    'events',
    'exchange',
    'expert',
    'exposed',
    'express',
    'extraspace',
    'fage',
    'fail',
    'fairwinds',
    'faith',
    'family',
    'fan',
    'fans',
    'farm',
    'farmers',
    'fashion',
    'fast',
    'fedex',
    'feedback',
    'ferrari',
    'ferrero',
    'fi',
    'fiat',
    'fidelity',
    'fido',
    'film',
    'final',
    'finance',
    'financial',
    'fire',
    'firestone',
    'firmdale',
    'fish',
    'fishing',
    'fit',
    'fitness',
    'fj',
    'fk',
    'flickr',
    'flights',
    'flir',
    'florist',
    'flowers',
    'fly',
    'fm',
    'fo',
    'foo',
    'food',
    'foodnetwork',
    'football',
    'ford',
    'forex',
    'forsale',
    'forum',
    'foundation',
    'fox',
    'fr',
    'free',
    'fresenius',
    'frl',
    'frogans',
    'frontdoor',
    'frontier',
    'ftr',
    'fujitsu',
    'fun',
    'fund',
    'furniture',
    'futbol',
    'fyi',
    'ga',
    'gal',
    'gallery',
    'gallo',
    'gallup',
    'game',
    'games',
    'gap',
    'garden',
    'gay',
    'gb',
    'gbiz',
    'gd',
    'gdn',
    'ge',
    'gea',
    'gent',
    'genting',
    'george',
    'gf',
    'gg',
    'ggee',
    'gh',
    'gi',
    'gift',
    'gifts',
    'gives',
    'giving',
    'gl',
    'glass',
    'gle',
    'global',
    'globo',
    'gm',
    'gmail',
    'gmbh',
    'gmo',
    'gmx',
    'gn',
    'godaddy',
    'gold',
    'goldpoint',
    'golf',
    'goo',
    'goodyear',
    'goog',
    'google',
    'gop',
    'got',
    'gov',
    'gp',
    'gq',
    'gr',
    'grainger',
    'graphics',
    'gratis',
    'green',
    'gripe',
    'grocery',
    'group',
    'gs',
    'gt',
    'gu',
    'guardian',
    'gucci',
    'guge',
    'guide',
    'guitars',
    'guru',
    'gw',
    'gy',
    'hair',
    'hamburg',
    'hangout',
    'haus',
    'hbo',
    'hdfc',
    'hdfcbank',
    'health',
    'healthcare',
    'help',
    'helsinki',
    'here',
    'hermes',
    'hgtv',
    'hiphop',
    'hisamitsu',
    'hitachi',
    'hiv',
    'hk',
    'hkt',
    'hm',
    'hn',
    'hockey',
    'holdings',
    'holiday',
    'homedepot',
    'homegoods',
    'homes',
    'homesense',
    'honda',
    'horse',
    'hospital',
    'host',
    'hosting',
    'hot',
    'hoteles',
    'hotels',
    'hotmail',
    'house',
    'how',
    'hr',
    'hsbc',
    'ht',
    'hu',
    'hughes',
    'hyatt',
    'hyundai',
    'ibm',
    'icbc',
    'ice',
    'icu',
    'id',
    'ie',
    'ieee',
    'ifm',
    'ikano',
    'il',
    'im',
    'imamat',
    'imdb',
    'immo',
    'immobilien',
    'in',
    'inc',
    'industries',
    'infiniti',
    'info',
    'ing',
    'ink',
    'institute',
    'insurance',
    'insure',
    'int',
    'international',
    'intuit',
    'investments',
    'io',
    'ipiranga',
    'iq',
    'ir',
    'irish',
    'is',
    'ismaili',
    'ist',
    'istanbul',
    'it',
    'itau',
    'itv',
    'jaguar',
    'java',
    'jcb',
    'je',
    'jeep',
    'jetzt',
    'jewelry',
    'jio',
    'jll',
    'jm',
    'jmp',
    'jnj',
    'jo',
    'jobs',
    'joburg',
    'jot',
    'joy',
    'jp',
    'jpmorgan',
    'jprs',
    'juegos',
    'juniper',
    'kaufen',
    'kddi',
    'ke',
    'kerryhotels',
    'kerrylogistics',
    'kerryproperties',
    'kfh',
    'kg',
    'kh',
    'ki',
    'kia',
    'kids',
    'kim',
    'kinder',
    'kindle',
    'kitchen',
    'kiwi',
    'km',
    'kn',
    'koeln',
    'komatsu',
    'kosher',
    'kp',
    'kpmg',
    'kpn',
    'kr',
    'krd',
    'kred',
    'kuokgroup',
    'kw',
    'ky',
    'kyoto',
    'kz',
    'la',
    'lacaixa',
    'lamborghini',
    'lamer',
    'lancaster',
    'lancia',
    'land',
    'landrover',
    'lanxess',
    'lasalle',
    'lat',
    'latino',
    'latrobe',
    'law',
    'lawyer',
    'lb',
    'lc',
    'lds',
    'lease',
    'leclerc',
    'lefrak',
    'legal',
    'lego',
    'lexus',
    'lgbt',
    'li',
    'lidl',
    'life',
    'lifeinsurance',
    'lifestyle',
    'lighting',
    'like',
    'lilly',
    'limited',
    'limo',
    'lincoln',
    'linde',
    'link',
    'lipsy',
    'live',
    'living',
    'lk',
    'llc',
    'llp',
    'loan',
    'loans',
    'locker',
    'locus',
    'loft',
    'lol',
    'london',
    'lotte',
    'lotto',
    'love',
    'lpl',
    'lplfinancial',
    'lr',
    'ls',
    'lt',
    'ltd',
    'ltda',
    'lu',
    'lundbeck',
    'luxe',
    'luxury',
    'lv',
    'ly',
    'ma',
    'macys',
    'madrid',
    'maif',
    'maison',
    'makeup',
    'man',
    'management',
    'mango',
    'map',
    'market',
    'marketing',
    'markets',
    'marriott',
    'marshalls',
    'maserati',
    'mattel',
    'mba',
    'mc',
    'mckinsey',
    'md',
    'me',
    'med',
    'media',
    'meet',
    'melbourne',
    'meme',
    'memorial',
    'men',
    'menu',
    'merckmsd',
    'mg',
    'mh',
    'miami',
    'microsoft',
    'mil',
    'mini',
    'mint',
    'mit',
    'mitsubishi',
    'mk',
    'ml',
    'mlb',
    'mls',
    'mm',
    'mma',
    'mn',
    'mo',
    'mobi',
    'mobile',
    'moda',
    'moe',
    'moi',
    'mom',
    'monash',
    'money',
    'monster',
    'mormon',
    'mortgage',
    'moscow',
    'moto',
    'motorcycles',
    'mov',
    'movie',
    'mp',
    'mq',
    'mr',
    'ms',
    'msd',
    'mt',
    'mtn',
    'mtr',
    'mu',
    'museum',
    'music',
    'mutual',
    'mv',
    'mw',
    'mx',
    'my',
    'mz',
    'na',
    'nab',
    'nagoya',
    'name',
    'natura',
    'navy',
    'nba',
    'nc',
    'ne',
    'nec',
    'net',
    'netbank',
    'netflix',
    'network',
    'neustar',
    'new',
    'news',
    'next',
    'nextdirect',
    'nexus',
    'nf',
    'nfl',
    'ng',
    'ngo',
    'nhk',
    'ni',
    'nico',
    'nike',
    'nikon',
    'ninja',
    'nissan',
    'nissay',
    'nl',
    'no',
    'nokia',
    'northwesternmutual',
    'norton',
    'now',
    'nowruz',
    'nowtv',
    'np',
    'nr',
    'nra',
    'nrw',
    'ntt',
    'nu',
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    'nz',
    'obi',
    'observer',
    'office',
    'okinawa',
    'olayan',
    'olayangroup',
    'oldnavy',
    'ollo',
    'om',
    'omega',
    'one',
    'ong',
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    'online',
    'ooo',
    'open',
    'oracle',
    'orange',
    'org',
    'organic',
    'origins',
    'osaka',
    'otsuka',
    'ott',
    'ovh',
    'pa',
    'page',
    'panasonic',
    'paris',
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    'partners',
    'parts',
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    'passagens',
    'pay',
    'pccw',
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    'pet',
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    'pg',
    'ph',
    'pharmacy',
    'phd',
    'philips',
    'phone',
    'photo',
    'photography',
    'photos',
    'physio',
    'pics',
    'pictet',
    'pictures',
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    'pink',
    'pioneer',
    'pizza',
    'pk',
    'pl',
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    'playstation',
    'plumbing',
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    'pm',
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    'pnc',
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    'poker',
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    'pru',
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    'py',
    'qa',
    'qpon',
    'quebec',
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    'racing',
    'radio',
    're',
    'read',
    'realestate',
    'realtor',
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    'red',
    'redstone',
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    'reliance',
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    'republican',
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    'rexroth',
    'rich',
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    'rocher',
    'rocks',
    'rodeo',
    'rogers',
    'room',
    'rs',
    'rsvp',
    'ru',
    'rugby',
    'ruhr',
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    'rwe',
    'ryukyu',
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    'safety',
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    'sale',
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    'sandvik',
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    'sanofi',
    'sap',
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    'sfr',
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    'sj',
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    'skype',
    'sl',
    'sling',
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    'smile',
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    'sohu',
    'solar',
    'solutions',
    'song',
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    'spa',
    'space',
    'sport',
    'spot',
    'sr',
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    'statefarm',
    'stc',
    'stcgroup',
    'stockholm',
    'storage',
    'store',
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    'studio',
    'study',
    'style',
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    'supply',
    'support',
    'surf',
    'surgery',
    'suzuki',
    'sv',
    'swatch',
    'swiss',
    'sx',
    'sy',
    'sydney',
    'systems',
    'sz',
    'tab',
    'taipei',
    'talk',
    'taobao',
    'target',
    'tatamotors',
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    'tattoo',
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    'tc',
    'tci',
    'td',
    'tdk',
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    'tech',
    'technology',
    'tel',
    'temasek',
    'tennis',
    'teva',
    'tf',
    'tg',
    'th',
    'thd',
    'theater',
    'theatre',
    'tiaa',
    'tickets',
    'tienda',
    'tiffany',
    'tips',
    'tires',
    'tirol',
    'tj',
    'tjmaxx',
    'tjx',
    'tk',
    'tkmaxx',
    'tl',
    'tm',
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    'tn',
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    'tools',
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    'toshiba',
    'total',
    'tours',
    'town',
    'toyota',
    'toys',
    'tr',
    'trade',
    'trading',
    'training',
    'travel',
    'travelchannel',
    'travelers',
    'travelersinsurance',
    'trust',
    'trv',
    'tt',
    'tube',
    'tui',
    'tunes',
    'tushu',
    'tv',
    'tvs',
    'tw',
    'tz',
    'ua',
    'ubank',
    'ubs',
    'ug',
    'uk',
    'unicom',
    'university',
    'uno',
    'uol',
    'ups',
    'us',
    'uy',
    'uz',
    'va',
    'vacations',
    'vana',
    'vanguard',
    'vc',
    've',
    'vegas',
    'ventures',
    'verisign',
    'versicherung',
    'vet',
    'vg',
    'vi',
    'viajes',
    'video',
    'vig',
    'viking',
    'villas',
    'vin',
    'vip',
    'virgin',
    'visa',
    'vision',
    'viva',
    'vivo',
    'vlaanderen',
    'vn',
    'vodka',
    'volkswagen',
    'volvo',
    'vote',
    'voting',
    'voto',
    'voyage',
    'vu',
    'vuelos',
    'wales',
    'walmart',
    'walter',
    'wang',
    'wanggou',
    'watch',
    'watches',
    'weather',
    'weatherchannel',
    'webcam',
    'weber',
    'website',
    'wed',
    'wedding',
    'weibo',
    'weir',
    'wf',
    'whoswho',
    'wien',
    'wiki',
    'williamhill',
    'win',
    'windows',
    'wine',
    'winners',
    'wme',
    'wolterskluwer',
    'woodside',
    'work',
    'works',
    'world',
    'wow',
    'ws',
    'wtc',
    'wtf',
    'xbox',
    'xerox',
    'xfinity',
    'xihuan',
    'xin',
    'xxx',
    'xyz',
    'yachts',
    'yahoo',
    'yamaxun',
    'yandex',
    'ye',
    'yodobashi',
    'yoga',
    'yokohama',
    'you',
    'youtube',
    'yt',
    'yun',
    'za',
    'zappos',
    'zara',
    'zero',
    'zip',
    'zm',
    'zone',
    'zuerich',
    'zw',
);

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