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Conventional Commit Messages

Conventinal Commit Messages

See how a minor change to your commit message style can make a difference. Examples

Have a look at CLI util git-conventional-commits to ensure this conventions and generate changelogs

Commit Formats

Default

<type>(<optional scope>): <subject>
empty separator line
<optional body>
empty separator line
<optional footer>

Merge

Merge branch '<branch name>'

Follows default git merge message

Revert

Revert "<commit headline>"
empty separator line
This reverts commit <commit hash>.
<optinal reason>

Follows default git revert message

Types

  • API relevant changes
    • feat Commits, that adds a new feature
    • fix Commits, that fixes a bug
  • refactor Commits, that rewrite/restructure your code, however does not change any behaviour
    • perf Commits are special refactor commits, that improves performance
  • style Commits, that do not affect the meaning (white-space, formatting, missing semi-colons, etc)
  • test Commits, that add missing tests or correcting existing tests
  • doc Commits, that affect documentation only
  • build Commits, that affect build components like build tool, ci pipeline, dependencies, project version, ...
  • ops Commits, that affect operational components like infrastructure, deployment, backup, recovery, ...

Scopes

The scope provides additional contextual information.

  • Is an optional part of the format
  • Allowed Scopes depends on the specific project
  • Don't use issue identifiers as scopes

Subject

The subject contains a succinct description of the change.

  • Is a mandatory part of the format
  • Use the imperative, present tense: "change" not "changed" nor "changes"
  • Don't capitalize the first letter
  • No dot (.) at the end

Body

The body should include the motivation for the change and contrast this with previous behavior.

  • Is an optional part of the format
  • Use the imperative, present tense: "change" not "changed" nor "changes"
  • This is the place to mention issue identifiers and their relations

Footer

The footer should contain any information about Breaking Changes and is also the place to reference Issues that this commit refers to.

  • Is an optional part of the format
  • optionally reference an issue by its id.
  • Breaking Changes should start with the word BREAKING CHANGES: followed by space or two newlines. The rest of the commit message is then used for this.

Examples

  • feat(shopping cart): add the amazing button
    
  • feat: remove ticket list endpoint
    
    refers to JIRA-1337
    BREAKING CHANGES: ticket enpoints no longer supports list all entites.
    
  • fix: add missing parameter to service call
    
    The error occurred because of <reasons>.
    
  • build: release version 1.0.0
    
  • build: update dependencies
    
  • refactor: implement calculation method as recursion
    
  • style: remove empty line
    
  • revert: refactor: implement calculation method as recursion
    
    This reverts commit 221d3ec6ffeead67cee8c730c4a15cf8dc84897a.
    

Git Hook Scripts to ensure commit message header format

commit-msg Hook (local)

  • create following file in your local repository folder.git-hooks/commit-msg
    #!/usr/bin/env sh
    
    commit_message="$1"
    # exit with a non zero exit code incase of an invalid commit message
    
    # use git-conventional-commits, see https://github.com/qoomon/git-conventional-commits
    git-conventional-commits commit-msg-hook "$commit_message"
    
    # or verify $commit_message with your own tooling
    # ...
    
  • make .git-hooks/commit-msg executable (unix: chmod +x '.git-hooks/commit-msg')
  • set git hook directory to .githooks git config core.hooksPath '.git-hooks'
  • commit .git-hooks directory if you want to share them with your team, they only need to call the git config command once after cloning the repository

pre-receive Hook (server side)

  • create following file in your repository folder .git/hooks/pre-receive
    #!/usr/bin/env sh
    
    # Pre-receive hook that will block commits with messges that do not follow regex rule
    
    commit_msg_type_regex='feat|fix|refactor|style|test|docs|build'
    commit_msg_scope_regex='.{1,20}'
    commit_msg_subject_regex='.{1,100}'
    commit_msg_regex="^(${commit_msg_type_regex})(\(${commit_msg_scope_regex}\))?: (${commit_msg_subject_regex})\$"
    merge_msg_regex="^Merge branch '.+'\$"
    revert_msg_regex="^Revert \".+\"\$"
    
    zero_commit="0000000000000000000000000000000000000000"
    
    # Do not traverse over commits that are already in the repository
    excludeExisting="--not --all"
    
    error=""
    while read oldrev newrev refname; do
      # branch or tag get deleted
      if [ "$newrev" = "$zero_commit" ]; then
        continue
      fi
    
      # Check for new branch or tag
      if [ "$oldrev" = "$zero_commit" ]; then
        rev_span=`git rev-list $newrev $excludeExisting`
      else
        rev_span=`git rev-list $oldrev..$newrev $excludeExisting`
      fi
    
      for commit in $rev_span; do
        commit_msg_header=$(git show -s --format=%s $commit)
        if ! [[ "$commit_msg_header" =~ (${commit_msg_regex})|(${merge_msg_regex})|(${revert_msg_regex}) ]]; then
          echo "$commit" >&2
          echo "ERROR: Invalid commit message format" >&2
          echo "$commit_msg_header" >&2
          error="true"
        fi
      done
    done
    
    if [ -n "$error" ]; then
      exit 1
    fi
  • make .git/hooks/pre-receive executable (unix: chmod +x '.git/hooks/pre-receive')

References


@JimmyMultani

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@JimmyMultani JimmyMultani commented Apr 17, 2020

This was helpful. Thank you for sharing!

@segun-luwi

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@segun-luwi segun-luwi commented Sep 30, 2020

Great work, keep doing the good work!

@CupCakeR

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@CupCakeR CupCakeR commented Dec 30, 2020

If you are on Windows and are also struggling to set it up locally, don't forget to try the fix mentioned in the instructions here.

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