Skip to content

Instantly share code, notes, and snippets.

Embed
What would you like to do?
Version Link
ECMAScript 2015 - ES2015 - ES6 All Features List
ECMAScript 2016 - ES2016 - ES7 All Features List
ECMAScript 2017 - ES2017 - "ES8" All Features List
ECMAScript 2018 - ES2018 - "ES9" All Features List
ECMAScript 2019 - ES2019 - "ES10" All Features List
ECMAScript 2020 - ES2020 - "ES11" All Features List

1 ECMAScript 2015 -- ES6


All fetures Referance: https://github.com/lukehoban/es6features

1.1) Arrows

  • Arrows are a function shorthand using the => syntax.
  • An arrow function expression is a compact alternative to a traditional function expression, but is limited and can't be used in all situations
  • Does not have its own bindings to this or super, and should not be used as methods
  • Does not have arguments,
  • Not suitable for call, apply and bind methods
  • Can not be used as constructors.
  • Can not use yield, within its body.
// Expression bodies
var odds = evens.map(v => v + 1);
var nums = evens.map((v, i) => v + i);
var pairs = evens.map(v => ({even: v, odd: v + 1}));
// Statement bodies
nums.forEach(v => {
  if (v % 5 === 0)
    fives.push(v);
});
// Lexical this
var bob = {
  _name: "Bob",
  _friends: [],
  printFriends() {
    this._friends.forEach(f =>
      console.log(this._name + " knows " + f));
  }
}
1.2 Classes

  • ES6 classes are a simple sugar over the prototype-based OO pattern
  • JavaScript Classes are templates for JavaScript Objects.
  • Use the keyword class to create a class.
  • Always add a method named constructor():
class Car {
  constructor(name, year) {
    this.name = name;
    this.year = year;
  }
}
1.3 Enhanced Object Literals

// ES5 code
var a = 1, b = 2, c = 3;
var  obj = {
    a: a,
    b: b,
    c: c
  };
// obj.a = 1, obj.b = 2, obj.c = 3

// ES6 code
const
  a = 1, b = 2, c = 3;
  obj = {
    a
    b
    c
  };

// obj.a = 1, obj.b = 2, obj.c = 3

// ES6 code
const
  i = 1,
  obj = {
    ['i' + i]: i
  };

console.log(obj.i1); // 1
1.4) Template Strings

Template strings provide syntactic sugar for constructing strings

// Basic literal string creation
`In JavaScript '\n' is a line-feed.`

// String interpolation
var name = "Bob", time = "today";
`Hello ${name}, how are you ${time}?`
1.5 Destructuring

The destructuring assignment syntax is a JavaScript expression that makes it possible to unpack values from arrays, or properties from objects, into distinct variables.

let arr = ["John", "Smith"]
let [firstName, surname] = arr;
alert(firstName); // John
alert(surname);  // Smith
1.6) Default + Rest + Spread

function f(x, y=12) {
  // y is 12 if not passed (or passed as undefined)
  return x + y;
}
f(3) == 15

function f(x, ...y) {
  // y is an Array
  return x * y.length;
}
f(3, "hello", true) == 6

function f(x, y, z) {
  return x + y + z;
}
// Pass each elem of array as argument
f(...[1,2,3]) == 6
1.7) Let + Const

1.8) Generators

1.9) Unicode

1.10) Modules

Language-level support for modules for component definition.

// app.js
import * as math from "lib/math";
alert("2π = " + math.sum(math.pi, math.pi));
1.11) Module Loaders

1.12) Map + Set + WeakMap + WeakSet

1.13) Proxies

1.14) Symbols

1.15) Math + Number + String + Array + Object APIs

1.16) Tail Calls

1.17) Promises

1.18) Binary and Octal Literals

1.19) Subclassable Built-ins

2) ECMAScript 2016 - ES 7


Referance: https://github.com/daumann/ECMAScript-new-features-list/blob/master/ES2016.MD

2.1 ) Array.prototype.includes()

The includes() method determines whether an array includes a certain value among its entries, returning true or false as appropriate.

let numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4];
// ES 6 before
if(numbers.indexOf(2) !== -1) {  console.log('Array contains value');}
// ES 6 after
if(numbers.includes(2)) {  console.log('Array contains value');}
2.2) Exponential Operator:

3 ** 3 O/P: 27

let cubed = x => x ** 3;
cubed(2) // 8
2.3) Class Properties :

class Animal {
    constructor() {
        this.name = "Lion"
    }
    age = 0;
}

That will be complied to:
    class Animal {
        constructor() {
            this.age = 0;
            this.name = "Lion";
        }
    }
Especially react developers can relate easily state! and initialProps!:
    class Animal {
        constructor() {
            this.name = "Lion"
        }
        age = 0;
        state = {
        }
        initialProps = {
        }
    }

3) ECMAScript 2017 - ES2017 - "ES8"


https://github.com/daumann/ECMAScript-new-features-list/blob/master/ES2017.MD

3.1) async function

  • "async and await make promises easier to write"
  • async makes a function return a Promise
  • await makes a function wait for a Promise
function resolveAfter2Seconds() {
  return new Promise(resolve => {
    setTimeout(() => {
      resolve('resolved');
    }, 2000);
  });
}

async function asyncCall() {
  console.log('calling');
  const result = await resolveAfter2Seconds();
  console.log(result);
  // expected output: "resolved"
}

asyncCall();

The await keyword is only valid inside async functions within regular JavaScript code. If you use it outside of an async function's body, you will get a SyntaxError.

3.2) Object.entries()

JavaScript Object.entries() method is used to return an array of a given object's own enumerable property [key, value] pairs

var fruits = {
    apple: 10,
    orange: 20,
    grapes: 30,
    pineapple: 40
}

 Object.entries(fruits);
 O/P // => [ ["apple", 10], ...etc ]

for (var [key, val] of Object.entries(fruits)) {
    console.log(key, val);
}
Output:
apple 10
orange 20
grapes 30
pineapple 40
3.3) Object.values()

Object.values lets us return an array of a given object's own enumerable property values. Note that the order is the same as provided by the for...in loop.

var fruits = {
    apple: 10,
    orange: 20,
    grapes: 30,
    pineapple: 40
}

Object.values(fruits)
O/P [10, 20, 30, 40]

var totalVegetables = Object.values(fruits).reduce((a, b) => a + b);
console.log(totalVegetables);
Output: 100
3.4) Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptors()

Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptors() returns all own property descriptors of a given object A property descriptor is a record with one of the

  • value
  • writable
  • get
  • set
  • configurable
  • enumerable
let myObj = {
  property1: 'foo',
  property2: 'bar',
  property3: 42,
  property4: () => console.log('prop4')  
}

Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptors(myObj)
/*
{ property1: {…}, property2: {…}, property3: {…}, property4: {…} }
  property1: {value: "foo", writable: true, enumerable: true, configurable: true}
  property2: {value: "bar", writable: true, enumerable: true, configurable: true}
  property3: {value: 42, writable: true, enumerable: true, configurable: true}
  property4: {value: ƒ, writable: true, enumerable: true, configurable: true}
  __proto__: Object
*/
3.5) Trailing Commas

var list = [
    "one",
    "two",
    "three",   // It is valid
]

const func = (a,b,c,) => {
  // no error occurs
};
3.8) string.padEnd() and string.padStart() functions:

'1'.padStart(3, 0);
O/P: "001"

'1'.padEnd(5, 0);
O/P: "10000"

4) ECMAScript 2018 - ES2018 - "ES9"


https://github.com/daumann/ECMAScript-new-features-list/blob/master/ES2018.MD

4.1) Async iterators

Asynchronous iteration allow us to iterate over data that comes asynchronously, on-demand. Like, for instance, when we download something chunk-by-chunk over a network. And asynchronous generators make it even more convenient.

function asyncIterator() {
  const array = [1, 2];
  return {
    next: function() {
      if (array.length) {
        return Promise.resolve({
          value: array.shift(),
          done: false
        });
      } else {
        return Promise.resolve({
          done: true
        });
      }
    }
  };
}

var iterator = asyncIterator();

(async function() {
    await iterator.next().then(console.log); // { value: 1, done: false }
    await iterator.next().then(console.log); // { value: 2, done: false }
    await iterator.next().then(console.log); // { done: true }
})();
4.2) Object rest properties

Rest properties for object destructuring assignment.

let { fname, lname, ...rest } = { fname: "Hemanth", lname: "HM", location: "Earth", type: "Human" };
fname; //"Hemanth"
rest; // {location: "Earth", type: "Human"}
4.3) Object spread properties

Spread properties for object destructuring assignment.

let info = {fname, lname, ...rest};
info; // { fname: "Hemanth", lname: "HM", location: "Earth", type: "Human" }
4.4) Promise prototype finally

Promise API is extended by an optional finally block which is called in any case (after the Promise is resolved or is rejected).

function testFinally() {
  return new Promise((resolve,reject) => resolve())
}

testFinally().then(() => console.debug("resolved")).finally(() => console.debug("finally"))
// resolved
// finally

5) ECMAScript 2019 - ES2019 - "ES10"


https://dev.to/prabusubra/es2019-es10-features-5b14

5.1) Array.prototype.{flat,flatMap}

The flat() method enables you to easily concatenate all sub-array elements of an array. Consider the following example:

arr = [10, [20, [30]]];

console.log(arr.flat());     // => [10, 20, [30]]
console.log(arr.flat(1));    // => [10, 20, [30]]
console.log(arr.flat(2));    // => [10, 20, 30]

The flatMap() method combines map() and flat() into one method. It first creates a new array with the return value of a provided function and then concatenates all sub-array elements of the array.

console.log(arr.map(value => [Math.round(value)]));    
// => [[4], [20], [26]]

console.log(arr.flatMap(value => [Math.round(value)]));    
// => [4, 20, 26]
5.2) Object.fromEntries

This static method allows you to easily transform a list of key-value pairs into an object:

const myArray = [['one', 1], ['two', 2], ['three', 3]];
const obj = Object.fromEntries(myArray);
console.log(obj);    // => {one: 1, two: 2, three: 3}
5.3) String.prototype.{trimStart,trimEnd}

The trimStart() and trimEnd() methods are technically the same as trimLeft() and trimRight(). These methods are currently stage 4 proposals and will be added to the specification for consistency with padStart() and padEnd().

const str = "   string   ";

// es2019
console.log(str.trimStart());    // => "string   "
console.log(str.trimEnd());      // => "   string"

// the same as
console.log(str.trimLeft());     // => "string   "
console.log(str.trimRight());    // => "   string"
5.4) Symbol.prototype.description

When creating a Symbol, you can add a description to it for debugging purposes. Sometimes, it’s useful to be able to directly access the description in your code.

This ES2019 proposal adds a read-only description property to the Symbol object, which returns a string containing the description of the Symbol. Here are some examples:

let sym = Symbol('foo');
console.log(sym.description);    // => foo

sym = Symbol();
console.log(sym.description);    // => undefined

// create a global symbol
sym = Symbol.for('bar');
console.log(sym.description);    // => bar
5.5) Optional catch binding

This makes a small change to the ECMAScript specification that allows you to omit the catch binding and its surrounding parentheses:

try {
  // use a feature that the browser might not have implemented
} catch {
  // do something that doesn’t care about the value thrown
}

6) ECMAScript 2020 - ES2020 - "ES11"


https://areknawo.com/ecmascript-2020-biggest-new-features/ https://dev.to/aryclenio/the-new-features-of-javascript-in-2020-es11-7jc

6.1) BigInt

The biggest integer "usual" number type can handle is equal to 2 ** 53 - 1 or 9007199254740991. You can access this value under the MAX_SAFE_INTEGER constant.

Number.MAX_SAFE_INTEGER; // 9007199254740991
6.2) Dynamic import

Now, with Javascript, we can import modules dynamically through variables. With that, the variables that receive the modules are able to encompass the namespaces of these modules in a global way.

import("module.js").then((module) => {
  // ...
});
// or
async () => {
  const module = await import("module.js");
};
let Dmodule;

if ("module 1") {
  Dmodule = await import('./module1.js')
} else {
  Dmodule = await import('./module2.js')
}

/* It is possible to use Dmodule. (Methods)
throughout the file globally */
Dmodule.useMyModuleMethod()
6.3) Exporting modules

A new syntax was added allowing the export of modules similar to import that already existed, see an example below:

// Existing in JS
import * as MyComponent from './Component.js'
// Added in ES11
export * as MyComponent from './Component.js'
6.4) Optional Chaining

Optional Chaining, known to babel users, is now supported natively by Javascript

const user = {
  "name": "Aryclenio Barros",
  "age": 22,
  "alive": true,
  "address": {
    "street": "Hyrule street",
    "number": 24,
  }
}
// Without optional chaining
const number = user.address && user.address.number
// With optional chaining
const number = user.address?.number
6.5) Nullish coalescing operator

Now we're starting to talk about some truly new stuff! Nullish coalescing operator (??) is a new JS operator allowing basically to provide a "default value" when the accessed one is either null or undefined. Check it out:

const basicValue = "test";
const nullishValue = null;
const firstExample = basicValue ?? "example"; // "test"
const secondExample = nullishValue ?? "example"; // "example"
6.6) Promise.AllSettled

The Promise.AllSettled attribute allows you to perform a conditional that observes whether all promises in an array have been resolved

const myArrayOfPromises = [
    Promise.resolve(myPromise),
    Promise.reject(0),
    Promise.resolve(anotherPromise)
]

Promise.AllSettled(myArrayOfPromises).then ((result) => {
   // Do your stuff
})
6.7) String.matchAll()

Basically, if you've ever worked with RegExps before, String.matchAll() is a nice alternative to using RegExp.exec() in a while loop with the g flag enabled. That's all there's to it. It returns an iterator (not to be confused with full-blown arrays) that contains all the match results - including capturing groups.

const regexp = /t(e)(st(\d?))/g;
const str = "test1test2";
const resultsArr = [...str.matchAll(regexp)]; // convert iterator to an array

resultsArr[0]; // ["test1", "e", "st1", "1"]
resultsArr[0]; // ["test2", "e", "st2", "2"]
6.8) For-in order

Lastly, we've got just a minor tweak to the specs that now strictly defines the order in which the for..in loop should iterate. It was already handled pretty well by the browsers themselves, so it's just a matter of making it official.

@dheeraj097
Copy link

dheeraj097 commented Feb 14, 2022

Great work man

@HRussellZFAC023
Copy link

HRussellZFAC023 commented Mar 7, 2022

Excellent!

Sign up for free to join this conversation on GitHub. Already have an account? Sign in to comment