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const hotspots = [
{
name: 'Eglise Saint-Eustache',
x: 0,
y: 0,
images: ['eglise-saint-eustache-1.jpg', 'eglise-saint-eustache-2.jpg'],
dateConstructed: '1532-1632',
beforeNapoleon:
'Named after Saint Eustace, this Catholic Church has been used for traditional services since its construction, except during the Revolution when it was desecrated and looted.',
connectionToNapoleon:
"During Napoleon's reign, the church's Chapel of the Virgin was restored from 1801 to 1804. Pope Pius VII consecrated the chapel when he visited Paris for Napoleon's coronation in December 1804.",
usageToday:
'The church hosts services and musical performances year round, including free concerts on Sunday afternoons.',
funFact:
'Saint-Eustache is home to the largest pipe organ in France with 8,000 pipes!'
},
{
name: 'The Louvre',
x: 0,
y: 0,
images: ['louvre-1.jpg', 'louvre-2.jpg'],
dateConstructed: '1190 (Fortress); 1528 (Palace)',
beforeNapoleon:
'Originally a fortress, the Louvre became a royal palace during the 1500s. It remained the primary residence of French Kings until 1682. The Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture occupied the building until the French Revolution (1789-1799), when it became a public art museum.',
connectionToNapoleon:
"After Napoleon's rise to power, it was renamed<em>Mus&#233;e Napol&#233;on</em>. Napoleon also began the construction of the north wing and appointed the museum's first director, Vivant Denon (see his portrait in this exhibition). Denon significantly enriched the art collection with works seized during Napoleon's military endeavors, including his Egyptian Campaign (1798-1810).",
usageToday: "Today, the Louvre is the world's largest art museum.",
funFact:
'During his rule, Napoleon hung the Mona Lisa in his private bedroom.'
},
{
name: 'The Conciergerie',
x: 0,
y: 0,
images: ['conciergerie-2.jpg', 'conciergerie-paris-1.jpg'],
dateConstructed: '6<sup>th</sup> Century (Palace), 1391 (Prison)',
beforeNapoleon:
'The Conciergerie is the oldest remaining part of the Palais de le Cit&#233;. The building originally functioned as a royal palace for the kings of France. In 1391, the building was converted into a prison.',
connectionToNapoleon:
'During the French Revolution, the building functioned as a prison for those convicted of crimes against the state by the Revolutionary Tribunal and awaiting execution by guillotine.',
usageToday:
'Decommissioned as a prison in 1914, it re-opened to the public as a national monument. Today it is both a tourist attraction and home to the Paris legal courts.',
funFact:
'Marie Antoinette was the most famous prisoner held at the Conciergerie.'
},
{
name: 'Notre-Dame de Paris',
x: 0,
y: 0,
images: ['notre-dame-1.jpg', 'notre-dame-2.jpg'],
dateConstructed: '1163-1345',
beforeNapoleon:
"Notre-Dame was built to serve as the Catholic cathedral, or principal church, of Paris. During the French Revolution (1789-1799), it was transformed into a modern temple devoted to the Cult of Reason (1793-1794, France's first state-sponsored atheistic religion.",
connectionToNapoleon:
'Rededicated to the Catholic faith under Napoleon, it was hastily restored and served as the site of his coronation as Emperor of France on December 2, 1804.',
usageToday:
"Today, tourists visit Notre-Dame to admire the building's French Gothic architecture, sculptures, and stained glass windows. Along with tour visits, the cathedral continues to function as a Catholic Church.",
funFact:
'In between the Revolution and the rededication to the Catholic Church, it served as a warehouse for wine.'
},
{
name: 'Pont des Arts Bridge',
x: 0,
y: 0,
images: ['pont-des-arts-2.jpg'],
dateConstructed: '1802 (Original), 1981 (Reconstruction)',
beforeNapoleon: 'N/A',
connectionToNapoleon:
"The original bridge was built between 1802 and 1804 under Napoleon's orders. It was the first metal bridge constructed in Paris. It connected the Institut de France and the Louvre.",
usageToday:
'Damaged in 1979, it was replaced by the current Pont de Arts bridge in 1984 and serves as a popular site for artists for its unique vantage point.',
funFact:
'Couples began leaving padlocks on the bridge as a symbol of love in 2008. However, the weight of over 700,000 locks became dangerous, and they were removed and banned in 2015 for safety reasons.'
},
{
name: 'Institut de France',
x: 0,
y: 0,
images: ['institut-de-france-1.jpg', 'institut-de-france-2.jpg'],
dateConstructed:
'1662 (Coll&#232;ge des Quatre-Nations), 1805 (Institut de France)',
beforeNapoleon:
'Originally constructed as the Coll&#232;ge des Quatre-Nations as a school for students from new provinces attached to France under Louis XIV.',
connectionToNapoleon:
'During the French Revolution (1789-1799), universities and official academic bodies throughout France were suppressed. In 1795, five academies devoted to the arts and sciences were reopened and consolidated as the Institut de France. Napoleon restored this building and made it the headquarters of the Institut in 1805.<strong></strong>',
usageToday:
'The Institut is still a place of learning, it is home to five state-run academies of arts and sciences. Additionally, the Institut manages foundations and museums throughout France.',
funFact:
'The <em>Biblioth&#232;que Mazarine</em>, located inside the Institut, is the oldest public library in France.'
},
{
name: 'Panth&#233;on',
x: 0,
y: 0,
images: ['pantheon-1.jpg', 'pantheon-2.jpg'],
dateConstructed: '1758-1790<strong></strong>',
beforeNapoleon:
'The Panth&#233;on was originally built as a Catholic church dedicated to Saint Genevieve. During the French Revolution, it was rededicated as a mausoleum for the interment of great Frenchmen.',
connectionToNapoleon:
"In February of 1806, Napoleon allocated 600,000 francs to strengthen the building's signature dome (roughly 3 million dollars today). Soon after, Napoleon re-established the building as a Catholic church.",
usageToday:
"After Napoleon's fall, the building returned to functioning a mausoleum. Those interred at the Panth&#233;on include scientist Marie Curie and philosophers Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Voltaire.",
funFact:
"In 1851, the French physicist L&#233;on Foucault constructed a pendulum beneath the central dome to conduct an experiment that provided the first evidence of the earth's rotation on its axis."
},
{
name: 'Chapelle Sainte-Ursule/Chapelle de la Sorbonne',
x: 0,
y: 0,
images: ['chapelle-sainte-ursule-1.jpg', 'chapelle-sainte-ursule-2.jpg'],
dateConstructed: '1635-1642',
beforeNapoleon:
'Founded in 1257, the Sorbonne has always had a chapel for private devotion by its students and faculty. The original Gothic chapel was in ruins by the 1600s, and the classical style Chapelle Sainte-Ursule was built in 1635 during the restoration of the institution.',
connectionToNapoleon:
'Education at the Sorbonne was suppressed during the French Revolution and the Chapelle Sainte-Ursule was ransacked. Napoleon restored and reopened the Sorbonne in 1808.',
usageToday:
"The chapel no longer operates as a church. After much debate over the building's use, school officials decided it would close to the public.",
funFact:
'The chapel was originally named for the Christian saint Ursula, a warrior princess who according to legend was martyred along with her entourage of 11,000 virgins in the late 300s.'
},
{
name: 'Eglise Saint-Sulpice',
x: 0,
y: 0,
images: ['eglise-saint-sulpice-1.jpg', 'eglise-saint-sulpice-2.jpg'],
dateConstructed: '1646-1870',
beforeNapoleon:
"Built as a Catholic church, Eglise Saint-Sulpice was the second church to be built on this site. During the 1770s, there were plans to correct the church's mismatched baroque and neoclassical style towers. The French Revolution (1789-1799) intervened and tower renovation ceased.",
connectionToNapoleon:
'The interior of the building was extensively damaged during the Revolution. It was restored after the Concordat of 1801 in which Napoleon and Pope Pius VII agreed to establish the Roman Catholic Church as the majority church of France.',
usageToday: 'Today, Saint-Sulpice continues to function as a church.',
funFact:
"The church figured in Dan Brown's best-selling novel<em>The Da Vinci Code</em> (2003) and was one of the film sites for the movie adaptation (2006)."
},
{
name: 'Les Invalides',
x: 0,
y: 0,
images: [
'hotel-des-invalides-3.jpg',
'hotel-des-invalides-north-view-paris-7e-140402-1.jpg',
'hotel-des-invalides-seen-from-the-tour-montparnasse-2.jpg'
],
dateConstructed:
'1671-1678 (Les Invalides), 1677-1706 (D&#244;me des Invalides)',
beforeNapoleon:
'In 1670, Louix XIV commissioned Les Invalides as a home and hospital for French soldiers. The chapel, D&#244;me des Invalides, and its famous golden dome were added between 1677 and 1706.',
connectionToNapoleon:
'Napoleon died on May 5, 1821 while in exile on the island of St. Helena. His remains were transferred to D&#244;me des Invalides in 1840 where they are today.',
usageToday:
'Retired military veterans still call the Les Invalides complex home. It also houses the Historical Museum of the Armies.',
funFact:
'Napoleon took time to visit soldiers at Les Invalides during his rule.'
},
{
name: 'Palais Bourbon',
x: 0,
y: 0,
images: ['palais-bourbon-1.jpg', 'palais-bourbon-2.jpg'],
dateConstructed: '1722-1726',
beforeNapoleon:
'Originally the home of the Duchess of Bourbon, it was declared "property of the people" in 1791. It then became the meeting place of the Council of Five Hundred (the lower house of the legislature during the French Revolution).',
connectionToNapoleon:
'In 1806, Napoleon added the classical colonnade to the front of the building in order to mirror the Church of the Madeleine across the Seine.',
usageToday:
'The building remains the seat of the French National Assembly, the lower chamber of the French government.',
funFact:
'After the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in 1814, the government tried to give the palace back to its rightful owner, the Prince of Cond&#233;, a Bourbon descendant. Unable to use the heavily modified building as a residence, he rented it to the government.'
},
{
name: 'Tuileries Palace and Garden',
x: 0,
y: 0,
images: [
'tuileries-arial-view.jpg',
'tuileries-garden.jpg',
'tuileries-orangerie-3.jpg'
],
dateConstructed: '1564 - 1860 (Palace), 1564 (Garden),',
beforeNapoleon:
"The Tuileries Palace was commissioned by Queen Catherine de' Medici in 1564 as a royal residence. The 547 by 328 yard garden was constructed as part of this palace.",
connectionToNapoleon:
"During his reign, Napoleon used the Tuileries Palace as one of his residences. Although the garden became public during the French Revolution, Napoleon continued to use it for military parades. The garden served as the site for his and Marie Louise's wedding procession on April 2, 1810.",
usageToday:
'The palace was destroyed in 1871, however, the garden remains. Today, it is a popular public garden and gathering place located between the Louvre and the Place de la Concorde.',
funFact:
"The Orangerie art gallery (1852) located in the Tuileries Gardens, houses eight of Claude Monet's<em>Water Lilies</em>murals. You can see another example of Monet's famous water lilies at the Nelson-Atkins (Gallery P27)."
},
{
name: 'Place de la Concorde',
x: 0,
y: 0,
images: [
'place-de-la-concorde-2011-10-03.jpg',
'place-de-la-concorde-from-the-eiffel-tower-paris-april-2011.jpg'
],
dateConstructed: '1755',
beforeNapoleon:
'The area was originally named Place Louis XV, in honor of the king. During the Revolution, a statue of Louis XV was torn down and the square was renamed the Place de la Revolution (1789) and the guillotine was erected at its center. Under the Directoire (1795) it was renamed Place de la Concorde as a gesture of reconciliation after the turmoil of the Revolution.',
connectionToNapoleon:
"The obelisk at the center of the square was gifted to France by Egypt in 1833, a legacy of Napoleon's conquest of Egypt. Louis Philippe installed it in its present location in 1836.",
usageToday:
'It is the largest public square in Paris and an important meeting place for tourists, demonstrators, etc.',
funFact:
'1300 people were guillotined in the square, including King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette.'
}
];
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