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Methods (Chapter 6) -- examples from Liang Intro to Java Comprehensive 10e
import java.util.Scanner;
public class GreatestCommonDivisorMethod {
/** Main method */
public static void main(String[] args) {
// Create a Scanner
Scanner input = new Scanner(System.in);
// Prompt the user to enter two integers
System.out.print("Enter first integer: ");
int n1 = input.nextInt();
System.out.print("Enter second integer: ");
int n2 = input.nextInt();
System.out.println("The greatest common divisor for " + n1 +
" and " + n2 + " is " + gcd(n1, n2));
}
/** Return the gcd of two integers */
public static int gcd(int n1, int n2) {
int gcd = 1; // Initial gcd is 1
int k = 1; // Possible gcd
while (k <= n1 && k <= n2) {
if (n1 % k == 0 && n2 % k == 0)
gcd = k; // Update gcd
k++;
}
return gcd; // Return gcd
}
}
import java.util.Scanner;
public class Hex2Dec {
/** Main method */
public static void main(String[] args) {
// Create a Scanner
Scanner input = new Scanner(System.in);
// Prompt the user to enter a string
System.out.print("Enter a hex number: ");
String hex = input.nextLine();
System.out.println("The decimal value for hex number "
+ hex + " is " + hexToDecimal(hex.toUpperCase()));
}
public static int hexToDecimal(String hex) {
int decimalValue = 0;
for (int i = 0; i < hex.length(); i++) {
char hexChar = hex.charAt(i);
decimalValue = decimalValue * 16 + hexCharToDecimal(hexChar);
}
return decimalValue;
}
public static int hexCharToDecimal(char ch) {
if (ch >= 'A' && ch <= 'F')
return 10 + ch - 'A';
else // ch is '0', '1', ..., or '9'
return ch - '0';
}
}
public class Increment {
public static void main(String[] args) {
int x = 1;
System.out.println("Before the call, x is " + x);
increment(x);
System.out.println("after the call, x is " + x);
}
public static void increment(int n) {
n++;
System.out.println("n inside the method is " + n);
}
}
public class PrimeNumberMethod {
public static void main(String[] args) {
System.out.println("The first 50 prime numbers are \n");
printPrimeNumbers(50);
}
public static void printPrimeNumbers(int numberOfPrimes) {
final int NUMBER_OF_PRIMES_PER_LINE = 10; // Display 10 per line
int count = 0; // Count the number of prime numbers
int number = 2; // A number to be tested for primeness
// Repeatedly find prime numbers
while (count < numberOfPrimes) {
// Print the prime number and increase the count
if (isPrime(number)) {
count++; // Increase the count
if (count % NUMBER_OF_PRIMES_PER_LINE == 0) {
// Print the number and advance to the new line
System.out.printf("%-5s\n", number);
}
else
System.out.printf("%-5s", number);
}
// Check if the next number is prime
number++;
}
}
/** Check whether number is prime */
public static boolean isPrime(int number) {
for (int divisor = 2; divisor <= number / 2; divisor++) {
if (number % divisor == 0) { // If true, number is not prime
return false; // number is not a prime
}
}
return true; // number is prime
}
}
import java.util.Scanner;
public class PrintCalendar {
/** Main method */
public static void main(String[] args) {
Scanner input = new Scanner(System.in);
// Prompt the user to enter year
System.out.print("Enter full year (e.g., 2001): ");
int year = input.nextInt();
// Prompt the user to enter month
System.out.print("Enter month in number between 1 and 12: ");
int month = input.nextInt();
// Print calendar for the month of the year
printMonth(year, month);
}
/** Print the calendar for a month in a year */
public static void printMonth(int year, int month) {
// Print the headings of the calendar
printMonthTitle(year, month);
// Print the body of the calendar
printMonthBody(year, month);
}
/** Print the month title, e.g., May, 1999 */
public static void printMonthTitle(int year, int month) {
System.out.println(" " + getMonthName(month)
+ " " + year);
System.out.println("-----------------------------");
System.out.println(" Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat");
}
/** Get the English name for the month */
public static String getMonthName(int month) {
String monthName = "";
switch (month) {
case 1: monthName = "January"; break;
case 2: monthName = "February"; break;
case 3: monthName = "March"; break;
case 4: monthName = "April"; break;
case 5: monthName = "May"; break;
case 6: monthName = "June"; break;
case 7: monthName = "July"; break;
case 8: monthName = "August"; break;
case 9: monthName = "September"; break;
case 10: monthName = "October"; break;
case 11: monthName = "November"; break;
case 12: monthName = "December";
}
return monthName;
}
/** Print month body */
public static void printMonthBody(int year, int month) {
// Get start day of the week for the first date in the month
int startDay = getStartDay(year, month);
// Get number of days in the month
int numberOfDaysInMonth = getNumberOfDaysInMonth(year, month);
// Pad space before the first day of the month
int i = 0;
for (i = 0; i < startDay; i++)
System.out.print(" ");
for (i = 1; i <= numberOfDaysInMonth; i++) {
System.out.printf("%4d", i);
if ((i + startDay) % 7 == 0)
System.out.println();
}
System.out.println();
}
/** Get the start day of month/1/year */
public static int getStartDay(int year, int month) {
final int START_DAY_FOR_JAN_1_1800 = 3;
// Get total number of days from 1/1/1800 to month/1/year
int totalNumberOfDays = getTotalNumberOfDays(year, month);
// Return the start day for month/1/year
return (totalNumberOfDays + START_DAY_FOR_JAN_1_1800) % 7;
}
/** Get the total number of days since January 1, 1800 */
public static int getTotalNumberOfDays(int year, int month) {
int total = 0;
// Get the total days from 1800 to 1/1/year
for (int i = 1800; i < year; i++)
if (isLeapYear(i))
total = total + 366;
else
total = total + 365;
// Add days from Jan to the month prior to the calendar month
for (int i = 1; i < month; i++)
total = total + getNumberOfDaysInMonth(year, i);
return total;
}
/** Get the number of days in a month */
public static int getNumberOfDaysInMonth(int year, int month) {
if (month == 1 || month == 3 || month == 5 || month == 7 ||
month == 8 || month == 10 || month == 12)
return 31;
if (month == 4 || month == 6 || month == 9 || month == 11)
return 30;
if (month == 2) return isLeapYear(year) ? 29 : 28;
return 0; // If month is incorrect
}
/** Determine if it is a leap year */
public static boolean isLeapYear(int year) {
return year % 400 == 0 || (year % 4 == 0 && year % 100 != 0);
}
}
import java.util.Scanner;
public class PrintCalendarSkeleton {
/** Main method */
public static void main(String[] args) {
Scanner input = new Scanner(System.in);
// Prompt the user to enter year
System.out.print("Enter full year (e.g., 2001): ");
int year = input.nextInt();
// Prompt the user to enter month
System.out.print("Enter month as number between 1 and 12: ");
int month = input.nextInt();
// Print calendar for the month of the year
printMonth(year, month);
}
/** A stub for printMonth may look like this */
public static void printMonth(int year, int month) {
System.out.print(month + " " + year);
}
/** A stub for printMonthTitle may look like this */
public static void printMonthTitle(int year, int month) {
}
/** A stub for getMonthBody may look like this */
public static void printMonthBody(int year, int month) {
}
/** A stub for getMonthName may look like this */
public static String getMonthName(int month) {
return "January"; // A dummy value
}
/** A stub for getMonthName may look like this */
public static int getStartDay(int year, int month) {
return 1; // A dummy value
}
/** A stub for getTotalNumberOfDays may look like this */
public static int getTotalNumberOfDays(int year, int month) {
return 10000; // A dummy value
}
/** A stub for getNumberOfDaysInMonth may look like this */
public static int getNumberOfDaysInMonth(int year, int month) {
return 31; // A dummy value
}
/** A stub for getTotalNumberOfDays may look like this */
public static boolean isLeapYear(int year) {
return true; // A dummy value
}
}
public class RandomCharacter {
/** Generate a random character between ch1 and ch2 */
public static char getRandomCharacter(char ch1, char ch2) {
return (char)(ch1 + Math.random() * (ch2 - ch1 + 1));
}
/** Generate a random lowercase letter */
public static char getRandomLowerCaseLetter() {
return getRandomCharacter('a', 'z');
}
/** Generate a random uppercase letter */
public static char getRandomUpperCaseLetter() {
return getRandomCharacter('A', 'Z');
}
/** Generate a random digit character */
public static char getRandomDigitCharacter() {
return getRandomCharacter('0', '9');
}
/** Generate a random character */
public static char getRandomCharacter() {
return getRandomCharacter('\u0000', '\uFFFF');
}
}
public class TestMax {
/** Main method */
public static void main(String[] args) {
int i = 5;
int j = 2;
int k = max(i, j);
System.out.println("The maximum between " + i +
" and " + j + " is " + k);
}
/** Return the max between two numbers */
public static int max(int num1, int num2) {
int result;
if (num1 > num2)
result = num1;
else
result = num2;
return result;
}
}
public class TestMethodOverloading {
/** Main method */
public static void main(String[] args) {
// Invoke the max method with int parameters
System.out.println("The maximum of 3 and 4 is "
+ max(3, 4));
// Invoke the max method with the double parameters
System.out.println("The maximum of 3.0 and 5.4 is "
+ max(3.0, 5.4));
// Invoke the max method with three double parameters
System.out.println("The maximum of 3.0, 5.4, and 10.14 is "
+ max(3.0, 5.4, 10.14));
}
/** Return the max of two int values */
public static int max(int num1, int num2) {
if (num1 > num2)
return num1;
else
return num2;
}
/** Find the max of two double values */
public static double max(double num1, double num2) {
if (num1 > num2)
return num1;
else
return num2;
}
/** Return the max of three double values */
public static double max(double num1, double num2, double num3) {
return max(max(num1, num2), num3);
}
}
public class TestPassByValue {
/** Main method */
public static void main(String[] args) {
// Declare and initialize variables
int num1 = 1;
int num2 = 2;
System.out.println("Before invoking the swap method, num1 is " +
num1 + " and num2 is " + num2);
// Invoke the swap method to attempt to swap two variables
swap(num1, num2);
System.out.println("After invoking the swap method, num1 is " +
num1 + " and num2 is " + num2);
}
/** Swap two variables */
public static void swap(int n1, int n2) {
System.out.println("\tInside the swap method");
System.out.println("\t\tBefore swapping, n1 is " + n1
+ " and n2 is " + n2);
// Swap n1 with n2
int temp = n1;
n1 = n2;
n2 = temp;
System.out.println("\t\tAfter swapping, n1 is " + n1
+ " and n2 is " + n2);
}
}
public class TestRandomCharacter {
/** Main method */
public static void main(String args[]) {
final int NUMBER_OF_CHARS = 175;
final int CHARS_PER_LINE = 25;
// Print random characters between 'a' and 'z', 25 chars per line
for (int i = 0; i < NUMBER_OF_CHARS; i++) {
char ch = RandomCharacter.getRandomLowerCaseLetter();
if ((i + 1) % CHARS_PER_LINE == 0)
System.out.println(ch);
else
System.out.print(ch);
}
}
}
public class TestReturnGradeMethod {
public static void main(String[] args) {
System.out.print("The grade is " + getGrade(78.5));
System.out.print("\nThe grade is " + getGrade(59.5));
}
public static char getGrade(double score) {
if (score >= 90.0)
return 'A';
else if (score >= 80.0)
return 'B';
else if (score >= 70.0)
return 'C';
else if (score >= 60.0)
return 'D';
else
return 'F';
}
}
public class TestVoidMethod {
public static void main(String[] args) {
System.out.print("The grade is ");
printGrade(78.5);
System.out.print("The grade is ");
printGrade(59.5);
}
public static void printGrade(double score) {
if (score >= 90.0) {
System.out.println('A');
}
else if (score >= 80.0) {
System.out.println('B');
}
else if (score >= 70.0) {
System.out.println('C');
}
else if (score >= 60.0) {
System.out.println('D');
}
else {
System.out.println('F');
}
}
}
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