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@rnowling
Last active April 1, 2023 16:28
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Likelihood-Ratio Test with scikit-learn and scipy
"""
Copyright 2017 Ronald J. Nowling
Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
You may obtain a copy of the License at
http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
limitations under the License.
"""
import numpy as np
from scipy.stats import chi2
from sklearn.linear_model import SGDClassifier
from sklearn.metrics import log_loss
def likelihood_ratio_test(features_alternate, labels, lr_model, features_null=None):
"""
Compute the likelihood ratio test for a model trained on the set of features in
`features_alternate` vs a null model. If `features_null` is not defined, then
the null model simply uses the intercept (class probabilities). Note that
`features_null` must be a subset of `features_alternative` -- it can not contain
features that are not in `features_alternate`.
Returns the p-value, which can be used to accept or reject the null hypothesis.
"""
labels = np.array(labels)
features_alternate = np.array(features_alternate)
if features_null:
features_null = np.array(features_null)
if features_null.shape[1] >= features_alternate.shape[1]:
raise ValueError, "Alternate features must have more features than null features"
lr_model.fit(features_null, labels)
null_prob = lr_model.predict_proba(features_null)[:, 1]
df = features_alternate.shape[1] - features_null.shape[1]
else:
null_prob = sum(labels) / float(labels.shape[0]) * \
np.ones(labels.shape)
df = features_alternate.shape[1]
lr_model.fit(features_alternate, labels)
alt_prob = lr_model.predict_proba(features_alternate)
alt_log_likelihood = -log_loss(labels,
alt_prob,
normalize=False)
null_log_likelihood = -log_loss(labels,
null_prob,
normalize=False)
G = 2 * (alt_log_likelihood - null_log_likelihood)
p_value = chi2.sf(G, df)
return p_value
"""
Copyright 2017 Ronald J. Nowling
Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
You may obtain a copy of the License at
http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
limitations under the License.
"""
import random
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
from scipy.stats import chi2
from sklearn.linear_model import SGDClassifier
from sklearn.metrics import log_loss
N_SAMPLES = 100
N_SIMS = 100
CORR_PROBS = [1.0, -1.0, 0.95, -0.95, 0.9, -0.9, 0.85, -0.85, 0.8, -0.8, 0.75, -0.75, 0.7, -0.7, 0.65, -0.65, 0.6, -0.6, 0.5, -0.5]
def generate_binary_data(n_samples, corr_probs):
"""
Generate labels and binary features for data from two classes. The
probabilities given in `corr_probs` determine the probability that a
feature's value will agree with the sample's label. A negative
probability indicates that the feature's value should be the inverse
of the label. For uncorrelated features, use a probability of 0.5.
Returns a vector of labels and matrix of features.
"""
n_features = len(corr_probs)
features = np.zeros((n_samples, n_features))
labels = np.zeros(n_samples)
for r in xrange(n_samples):
labels[r] = random.randint(0, 1)
for i, p in enumerate(corr_probs):
inverted = p < 0.
p = np.abs(p)
if inverted:
for r in xrange(n_samples):
if random.random() < p:
features[r, i] = 1 - labels[r]
else:
features[r, i] = labels[r]
else:
for r in xrange(n_samples):
if random.random() < p:
features[r, i] = labels[r]
else:
features[r, i] = 1 - labels[r]
return labels, features
def needed_sgd_iter(n_samples):
"""
Return number of the number of SGD iterations (epochs) needed
based on the number of samples using advice from
http://scikit-learn.org/stable/modules/sgd.html#tips-on-practical-use
"""
return max(20,
int(np.ceil(10**6 / n_samples)))
def likelihood_ratio_test(features_alternate, labels, lr_model, features_null=None):
"""
Compute the likelihood ratio test for a model trained on the set of features in
`features_alternate` vs a null model. If `features_null` is not defined, then
the null model simply uses the intercept (class probabilities). Note that
`features_null` must be a subset of `features_alternative` -- it can not contain
features that are not in `features_alternate`.
Returns the p-value, which can be used to accept or reject the null hypothesis.
"""
labels = np.array(labels)
features_alternate = np.array(features_alternate)
if features_null:
features_null = np.array(features_null)
if features_null.shape[1] >= features_alternate.shape[1]:
raise ValueError, "Alternate features must have more features than null features"
lr_model.fit(features_null, labels)
null_prob = lr_model.predict_proba(features_null)[:, 1]
df = features_alternate.shape[1] - features_null.shape[1]
else:
null_prob = sum(labels) / float(labels.shape[0]) * \
np.ones(labels.shape)
df = features_alternate.shape[1]
lr_model.fit(features_alternate, labels)
alt_prob = lr_model.predict_proba(features_alternate)
alt_log_likelihood = -log_loss(labels,
alt_prob,
normalize=False)
null_log_likelihood = -log_loss(labels,
null_prob,
normalize=False)
G = 2 * (alt_log_likelihood - null_log_likelihood)
p_value = chi2.sf(G, df)
return p_value
def plot_pvalues(flname, p_values, title):
log_p_values = np.log10(p_values)
plt.clf()
plt.boxplot(x=log_p_values)
plt.xlabel("Variable", fontsize=16)
plt.ylabel("P-Value (log10)", fontsize=16)
plt.title(title, fontsize=18)
plt.savefig(flname, DPI=200)
if __name__ == "__main__":
# burn in
for i in xrange(100):
random.random()
model = SGDClassifier(loss="log",
penalty="l2",
n_iter=needed_sgd_iter(N_SAMPLES))
print "Feature Details:"
for i in xrange(len(CORR_PROBS)):
inverted = CORR_PROBS[i] < 0.
print "Feature:", i, "Corr Prob:", np.abs(CORR_PROBS[i]), "Inverted:", inverted
feature_log_p_values = np.zeros((N_SIMS, len(CORR_PROBS)))
for j in xrange(N_SIMS):
labels, features = generate_binary_data(N_SAMPLES, CORR_PROBS)
print "Trial:", (j+1)
for i in xrange(len(CORR_PROBS)):
# force into Nx1 matrix
column = features[:, i].reshape(-1, 1)
p_value = likelihood_ratio_test(column,
labels,
model)
feature_log_p_values[j, i] = p_value
#inverted = CORR_PROBS[i] < 0.
#print "Feature:", i, "Corr Prob:", np.abs(CORR_PROBS[i]), "Inverted:", inverted, "Likelihood Ratio Test p-value:", p_value
plot_pvalues("p_values_boxplot.png",
feature_log_p_values,
"")
@ikizhvatov
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Thank you for publishing this very clear implementation and the respective blog post.

A couple of comments:

  • Rather than doing many tests with two fits of the models each (which may not be the best possible fits), would it make sense to fit many null models and many alternative models, then select the best fitted model for each, and compute a single p-value?
  • There is an inconsistency between likelihood_ratio_test.py lines 42 and 50. It does not affect the result though.

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