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Flipboard's summarization algorithm, sort of
#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
pip install networkx distance pattern
In Flipboard's article[1], they kindly divulge their interpretation
of the summarization technique called LexRank[2].
While reading Flipboard's article, you can, if followed point by point,
reimplement their summarization algorithm.
Here are the steps/excerpts that stood out to me:
1. We model sentences as bags of words
2. The strength of interaction... [can be measured by] standard
metrics for this, such as Jaccard similarity...
Note: We skip the normalization step
3. The normalized adjacency matrix[3] of the graph is...
4. We can compute the PageRank centrality measure for each sentence
in the document.
Note: The following pictures help visualize the mirrored for-loop(?):
I dont know what the technical name is for that double for-loop.
If anyone knows, please send your answers here:
import distance, operator
import networkx as nx
from pattern.en import tokenize
from pattern.vector import Document,LEMMA
def summarize(text_to_summarize):
stokens = tokenize(text_to_summarize)
# STEP 1
# pattern.vector's Document is a nifty bag-o-words structure,
# with a TF weighting scheme
docs = [Document(string= s, name=e,stemmer=LEMMA)
for e,s in enumerate(stokens) if len(s.split(" ")) > 7]
linkgraph = []
# STEP 2 and 3 happen interwovenly
for doc in docs:
for doc_copy in docs:
if !=
# STEP 2 happens here
wordset_a = [x[1] for x in doc.keywords()]
wordset_b = [y[1] for y in doc_copy.keywords()]
jacc_dist = distance.jaccard(wordset_a, wordset_b)
if jacc_dist < 1:
linkgraph.append((str(, #index to sentence
str(,1-jacc_dist)) #dist. score
# By the time we reach here, we'd have completed STEP 3
# STEP 4
#I referenced this SO post for help with pagerank'ing
pagerank = nx.pagerank(D)
sort_pagerank = sorted(pagerank.items(),key=operator.itemgetter(1))
top2 = sort_pagerank[:2]
orderedtop2 = [int(x[0]) for x in top2]
orderedtop2 = sorted(orderedtop2)
return " ".join([ stokens[i] for i in orderedtop2 ])
if __name__ == "__main__":
text = 'Someday I will have a place to put all my collections.\
It will most likely be my basement, or a little corner of my \
basement. But I didn\'t write Star Wars. If I had, I might be \
able to build a museum on the sparkling lakefront of Chicago, \
right next to Soldier Field. George Lucas did write Star Wars, \
and his art and memorabilia collections will be housed in his \
Museum of Narrative Art in the Windy City. Lucas just \
announced that Beijing-based MAD Architects will design the \
museum, while Chicago firm Studio Gang Architects will be \
responsible for the surrounding landscape and a pedestrian \
bridge that links nearby peninsula Northerly Island with the \
city. It should be a stunning addition to the collection of \
shoreline museums, but it has encountered opposition from \
open-space advocates and Bears fans, as the museum will \
occupy part of their tailgating field. In honor of the \
Museum of Narrative Art and its star-studded cast of \
architects, here\'s a roundup of articles from Architizer \
that feature Star Wars-related architecture: Jeff Bennett\'s \
Wars on Kinkade are hilarious paintings that ravage the \
peaceful landscapes of Thomas Kinkade with the brutal \
destruction of Star Wars. It is not unlike a contemporary \
rendering, which combines Sci-fi and Romantic notions, and \
we have examples with ratings. Ra di Martino, a visual artist \
and filmmaker, found the ruins of Star Wars sets, and \
photographed them in her two series, No More Stars (Star Wars) \
and EVERY WORLD\'S A STAGE. These haunting images show a world \
far, far away, now left as ghost towns. These haunting images \
show a world far, far away, now left as ghost towns. We \
explore the designs and the blueprints behind the architecture \
of the Rebel Alliance and the Empire. Artist \u00E9 Delsaux \
photoshops Star Wars characters and ships into everyday \
environments. Stormtroopers roam parking lots, the Millennium \
Falcon visits a Dubai construction site, and the Emperor lurks \
in the suburbs. Aedas appropriates the Sandcrawler for an office \
building, but replaces the weathered, rough brown material \
(COR-TEN?) with shiny glass and the treads with landscaping. \
The story of artist Ralph McQuarrie, the man who helped \
George Lucas realize his visions.'
print summarize(text)

You can list down the dependency packages ?

pip install pattern networkx distance


rodricios commented Jan 1, 2015

Ah you're right. Give me a sec and I'll update. Thanks!

I think they're just called nested for-loops.


rodricios commented Jan 1, 2015

lol, I should have been a little clearer. What I'm wondering is if there's a technical name for the self-nesting bit? Probably not, I'm not guessing...

darkf commented Jan 1, 2015

@rodricios I doubt there is such a name for such an unoriginal concept, we just call those nested foreaches. :P


rodricios commented Jan 1, 2015

@darkf Yeah, totally I agree. I guess for some reason I just thought there was maybe a distinction between a nested foreach where the outer and inner arrays are the same vs. different.

thouis commented Jan 1, 2015

Might be a little clearer as:

for doc, doc_copy in itertools.combinations(docs, 2):

which also removes the need for the test on .name.


rodricios commented Jan 1, 2015

Great suggestion! Someone had mentioned this here on reddit, but you did one further and showed me the code! I unfortunately have only time to respond to comments, but if you'd like to make the necessary changes, I'll merge your fork later 😄

Here is my fork with the itertools.permutations change. combinations won't yield the right result.


rodricios commented Jan 2, 2015

Hey thanks! I'm currently updating another project/repository, but once I finish, I will merge it.

Any ideas why the combinations approach wont work?

If you read @thouis comment, there doesnt need to be a:

if !=

on this line of your code

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