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Created Feb 20, 2018
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Soup HTML
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<meta charset="UTF-8">
<title>Soup</title>
<link rel="stylesheet" href="/css/main-00.css">
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<h1 id="soup">Soup</h1>
<p>
Soup is a primarily liquid food, generally served warm or hot (but may be cool or cold), that is made by combining ingredients such as meat and vegetables with <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stock_(food)" title="Stock (food)">stock</a>, juice, water, or another liquid. Hot soups are additionally characterized by boiling solid ingredients in liquids in a pot until the flavors are extracted, forming a <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broth" title="Broth">broth</a>.
</p>
<p>
In traditional French cuisine, soups are classified into two main groups: <i>clear soups</i> and <i>thick soups</i>. The established French classifications of clear soups are <i><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bouillon_(broth)" title="Bouillon (broth)" lang="fr-fr">bouillon</a></i> and <i><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consomm%C3%A9" title="Consommé" lang="fr-fr">consommé</a></i>. Thick soups are classified depending upon the type of thickening agent used: <i>purées</i> are vegetable soups thickened with starch; <i>bisques</i> are made from puréed shellfish or vegetables thickened with <i>cream</i> (as in Polish forest mushroom soup, shown in the figure below); cream soups may be thickened with béchamel sauce; and <i>veloutés</i> are thickened with eggs, butter, and cream. Other ingredients commonly used to thicken soups and broths include egg,<sup id="cite_ref-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-1">[1]</a></sup> rice, lentils, flour, and grains; many popular soups also include pumpkin, carrots, and potatoes.
</p>
<figure class="center-text note figure-container">
<img src="/images/polish-forest-mushroom-soup-wikipedia-640x480.jpg" alt="Polish forest mushroom soup" width="640" height="480">
<figcaption>
A Polish forest mushroom soup <span class="source">(Source: <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Grzybowa.jpg">Wikipedia</a>)</span>
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</figure>
<p>
Soups are similar to <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stew" title="Stew">stews</a>, and in some cases there may not be a clear distinction between the two; however, soups generally have more liquid than stews.<sup id="cite_ref-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-2">[2]</a></sup>
</p>
<div id="toc">
<h2>Contents</h2>
<ol>
<li><a href="#history">History</a></li>
<li><a href="#commercial">Commercial products</a>
<ol>
<li><a href="#canned">Canned</a></li>
<li><a href="#dried">Dried</a></li>
</ol>
</li>
<li><a href="#types">Types</a>
<ol>
<li>Dessert</li>
<li>Fruit</li>
<li>Cold</li>
<li>Asian</li>
<li>Traditional regional varieties</li>
</ol>
</li>
<li><a href="#market">Market</a></li>
<li><a href="#references">References</a></li>
</ol>
</div>
<h2 id="history">History <a href="#toc">^</a></h2>
<p>
Evidence of the existence of soup can be found as far back as about 20,000 BC.<sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-3">[3]</a></sup> Boiling was not a common cooking technique until the invention of waterproof containers (which probably came in the form of clay vessels). Animal hides and watertight baskets of bark or reeds were used before this. To boil the water hot rocks were used. This method was also used to cook acorns and other plants.
</p>
<p>
The word <i>soup</i> comes from French <i>soupe</i> (“soup”, “broth”), which comes through Vulgar Latin <i>suppa</i> (“bread soaked in broth”) from a Germanic source, from which also comes the word “<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sop" title="Sop">sop</a>”, a piece of bread used to soak up soup or a thick <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stew" title="Stew">stew</a>.
</p>
<h2 id="commercial">Commercial products <a href="#toc">^</a></h2>
<p>
Commercial soup became popular with the invention of canning in the 19th century, and today a great variety of canned and dried soups are on the market.
</p>
<h3 id="canned">Canned <a href="#toc">^</a></h3>
<p>
<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Thompson_Dorrance" title="John Thompson Dorrance">Doctor John T. Dorrance</a>, a chemist with the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Campbell_Soup_Company" title="Campbell Soup Company">Campbell Soup Company</a>, invented condensed soup in 1897. Today, Campbell’s Tomato, Cream of Mushroom, and Chicken Noodle Soup are three of the most popular soups in America. Americans consume approximately 2.5 billion bowls of these three soups alone each year.
</p>
<p>
<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tin_can" title="Tin can">Canned</a> soup can be condensed, in which case it is prepared by adding water (or sometimes milk), or it can be “ready-to-eat”, meaning that no additional liquid is needed before eating. Canned soup (condensed with liquid added, or “ready-to-eat”) can be prepared by heating in a pan, on the stovetop or in the microwave. Such soups can be used as a base for homemade soups, with the consumer adding anything from a few vegetables to eggs, meat, cream or pasta.
</p>
<h3 id="dried">Dried <a href="#toc">^</a></h3>
<p>
Dry soup mixes are sold by many manufacturers, and are reconstituted with hot water; other fresh ingredients may then be added.
</p>
<p>
The first dried soup was <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bouillon_cube" title="Bouillon cube" lang="fr-fr">bouillon cubes</a>; the earlier meat extract did not require refrigeration, but was a viscous liquid.
</p>
<h2 id="types">Types <a href="#toc">^</a></h2>
<p>
In French cuisine, soup is often served before other dishes in a meal. In 1970, Richard Olney gave the place of the entrée in a French full menu: “A dinner that begins with a soup and runs through a fish course, an entrée, a sorbet, a roast, salad, cheese and dessert, and that may be accompanied by from three to six wines, presents a special problem of orchestration”.
</p>
<h3 id="dessert">Dessert</h3>
<ol>
<li>
<i><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ch%C3%A8" title="Chè" lang="vi-vn">Chè</a></i>, a Vietnamese cold dessert soup containing sugar and coconut milk, with many different varieties of other ingredients including taro, cassava, adzuki bean, mung bean, jackfruit, and durian
</li>
<li>
<i><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ginataan#Sweet_variants" title="Ginataan" lang="tl-ph">Ginataan</a></i>, Filipino soup made from coconut milk, milk, fruits and tapioca pearls, served hot or cold
</li>
<li>
<i>Sawine</i>, a soup made with milk, spices, parched vermicelli, almonds and dried fruits, served during the Muslim festival of <i><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eid_ul-Fitr" title="Eid ul-Fitr" lang="ar-sa">Eid ul-Fitr</a></i> in Trinidad and Tobago
</li>
</ol>
<h3 id="fruit">Fruit</h3>
<p>
Fruit soups are prepared using fruit as a primary ingredient, and may be served warm or cold depending on the recipe. Many varieties of fruit soups exist, and they may be prepared based upon the availability of seasonal fruit.
</p>
<h3 id="cold">Cold</h3>
<p>
Cold soups are a particular variation on the traditional soup, wherein the temperature when served is kept at or below room temperature. They may be sweet or savory. In summer, sweet cold soups can form part of a dessert tray. An example of a savory chilled soup is <i><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gazpacho" title="Gazpacho" lang="es-es">gazpacho</a></i>, a chilled vegetable-based soup originating from Spain. Another example is <i>mool naeng myun</i> which is a Korean cold beef broth.
</p>
<h3 id="asian">Asian</h3>
<p>
A feature of East Asian soups not normally found in Western cuisine is the use of <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tofu" title="Tofu" lang="ja-jp">tofu</a> in soups. Many traditional East Asian soups are typically broths, “clear soups”, or starch thickened soups.
</p>
<h3 id="regional">Traditional regional varieties</h3>
<ol>
<li><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bisque_(food)" title="Bisque (food)" lang="fr-fr">Bisque</a> is a thick, creamy, highly seasoned soup, classically of pureed crustaceans, of French origin.</li>
<li><i><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borscht" title="Borscht" lang="uk-ua">Borscht</a></i> is a beet-vegetable soup originally from Ukraine.</li>
<li><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clam_chowder" title="Clam chowder" lang="en-us">Clam chowder</a> is found in two major types, New England clam chowder, made with potatoes and cream, and Manhattan clam chowder, made with a tomato base.</li>
<li><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miso_soup" title="Miso soup" lang="ja-jp">Miso soup</a> is made from fish broth and fermented soy in Japan.</li>
<li><i><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ph%E1%BB%9F" title="Phở" lang="vi-vn">Phở</a></i> is Vietnamese beef or chicken soup with scallions, welsh onion, charred ginger, wild coriander (<i>Eryngium foetidum</i>), basil, cinnamon, star anise, clove and black cardamom.</li>
<li><i><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Svartsoppa" title="Svartsoppa" lang="sv-se">Svartsoppa</a></i> is a traditional Swedish soup, whose main ingredient is goose and, sometimes, pig’s blood, and is made in Skåne, the southernmost region of Sweden. The other ingredients typically include vinegar, port wine or cognac and spices such as cloves, ginger and allspice. The soup is served warm with boiled pieces of apple and plums, goose liver sausage and the boiled innards of the goose.</li>
<li><i><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tom_yum" title="Tom yum" lang="th-th">Tom yum</a>
</i> is the name for two similar hot and sour soups with fragrant herbs from Laos and Thailand.</li>
</ol>
<figure class="center-text note figure-container">
<img src="/images/tom-yup-soup-wikipedia-884x687.jpg" alt="Tom yum soup" width="640" height="auto">
<figcaption>
Tom Yum Soup in Bangkok, Thailand <span class="source">(Source: <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tom_Yum_Soup.JPG">Wikipedia</a>)</span>
</figcaption>
</figure>
<h2 id="market">Market <a href="#toc">^</a></h2>
<p>
Surprisingly, soup sales seem to be especially super in summer & shockingly slow sometimes in spring. Science says it’s simple — segmented sales spread as seasons shift, so soon single selections soften spending, & safe segmented settling of small supplies seem to sell instead. Search & see the smart separations for strong success somewhere south in Table 1.
</p>
<figure class="figure-container">
<table class="data-table">
<thead>
<tr>
<th>Soup Brand</th>
<th>Sales (in $millions)</th>
</tr>
</thead>
<tbody>
<tr>
<td>Campbell’s Chunky</td>
<td>397.1</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Progresso Traditional</td>
<td>254.9</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Progresso Light</td>
<td>134.3</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Progresso Vegetable Classics</td>
<td>119.8</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Progresso Rich & Hearty</td>
<td>119.5</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Campbell’s Chunky Healthy Request</td>
<td>112.9</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Amy’s</td>
<td>65.9</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Private label</td>
<td>63.2</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Campbell’s Slow Kettle</td>
<td>49.9</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Campbell’s Home Style</td>
<td>48.1</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
<tfoot>
<tr>
<th>Total</th>
<th>1,365.6</th>
</tr>
</tfoot>
</table>
<figcaption>
Table 1. Sales of the leading ready-to-serve soup brands of the U.S. 2017
</figcaption>
</figure>
<h2 id="references">References <a href="#toc">^</a></h2>
<ol>
<li id="cite_note-1">
<b><a href="#cite_ref-1">^</a></b> <a href="http://www.bhg.com/recipes/how-to/cooking-techniques/thickening-soups/">Thickening Soups</a>. Bhg.com. Retrieved on 2 May 2013.
</li>
<li id="cite_note-2">
<b><a href="#cite_ref-2">^</a></b> Goltz, Eileen (9 November 2008). <a href="https://web.archive.org/web/20110811025536/http://www.journalgazette.net/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20081109/FEAT0103/811090311">“Soup vs. stew: Difference in details”</a>. The Journal Gazette (Fort Wayne, Indiana). Archived from <a href="http://www.journalgazette.net/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20081109/FEAT0103/811090311">the original</a> on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 6 March 2010.
</li>
<li id="cite_note-3">
<b><a href="#cite_ref-3">^</a></b> Wu, X.; Zhang, C.; Goldberg, P.; Cohen, D.; Pan, Y.; Arpin, T.; Bar-Yosef, O. (2012). “Early Pottery at 20,000 Years Ago in Xianrendong Cave, China”. <i>Science</i>. <b>336</b> (6089): 1696–1700.
</li>
</ol>
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This page was last edited on 12 February 2018, at 16:08.
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