On steaming milk
If you go to Italy and order a coffee, they'll serve it with full fat milk that's been steamed to perfection. You'll love it and come back telling everyone how good the coffee is in Italy. But it's not just about the coffee - it's also about the milk. So if you want the velvety texture and natural sweetness that comes from slightly caramelised milk, it's essential to steam properly.
Milk steaming should happen in two distinct stages: stretching and spinning. Stretching means introducing air into the milk via the steam wand to increase its volume, while spinning is whipping the steamed milk into the desired velvety texture.
Start with a clean cold pitcher, a milk thermometer and cold fresh milk. Use only as much milk as you need for the drink.
To begin stretching, sink the tip of the steam wand deep into the milk and open it right up. Bring the tip up to just below the surface so you hear a ch-ch-ch sound. If there's no sound the steam wand is too far down, meaning you aren't introducing