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C# True (almost) Random Number Generator
//The following sample uses the Cryptography class to simulate the roll of a dice.
using System;
using System.IO;
using System.Text;
using System.Security.Cryptography;
class RNGCSP
{
private static RNGCryptoServiceProvider rngCsp = new RNGCryptoServiceProvider();
// Main method.
public static void Main()
{
const int totalRolls = 25000;
int[] results = new int[6];
// Roll the dice 25000 times and display
// the results to the console.
for (int x = 0; x < totalRolls; x++)
{
byte roll = RollDice((byte)results.Length);
results[roll - 1]++;
}
for (int i = 0; i < results.Length; ++i)
{
Console.WriteLine("{0}: {1} ({2:p1})", i + 1, results[i], (double)results[i] / (double)totalRolls);
}
rngCsp.Dispose();
Console.ReadLine();
}
// This method simulates a roll of the dice. The input parameter is the
// number of sides of the dice.
public static byte RollDice(byte numberSides)
{
if (numberSides <= 0)
throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("numberSides");
// Create a byte array to hold the random value.
byte[] randomNumber = new byte[1];
do
{
// Fill the array with a random value.
rngCsp.GetBytes(randomNumber);
}
while (!IsFairRoll(randomNumber[0], numberSides));
// Return the random number mod the number
// of sides. The possible values are zero-
// based, so we add one.
return (byte)((randomNumber[0] % numberSides) + 1);
}
private static bool IsFairRoll(byte roll, byte numSides)
{
// There are MaxValue / numSides full sets of numbers that can come up
// in a single byte. For instance, if we have a 6 sided die, there are
// 42 full sets of 1-6 that come up. The 43rd set is incomplete.
int fullSetsOfValues = Byte.MaxValue / numSides;
// If the roll is within this range of fair values, then we let it continue.
// In the 6 sided die case, a roll between 0 and 251 is allowed. (We use
// < rather than <= since the = portion allows through an extra 0 value).
// 252 through 255 would provide an extra 0, 1, 2, 3 so they are not fair
// to use.
return roll < numSides * fullSetsOfValues;
}
}
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